Security And Terrorism And The Uk Criminology Essay

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Security has been one of the main issues for most of the countries in the world; UK however is on the front foot with this danger through its unique and strict policies. However, even after such strong and positive attitude we learned that UK was under terrorist attacks in the year 2005. Which directly or indirectly forces one to think that more needs to be done in order to avoid such accidents as of happening and such dangers from occurring taking so many precious lives? A lot it has been said and done in the field of security and intelligence in the past. Though, there is always room for improvement and better ideas. That is why choosing this topic was one of the may reason as wanted to apply my skills in order to research the vast and mainly important fields in the modern world that is security and intelligence, and what are its effect on UK? What are the safety measures taken as of time to time by the government? What is the role of youth in the intelligence sector and fight against security issues? (Carter, D. (November 2006))

Threats from Al Qaeda:

Prior to July 2005 UK interests had been targeted successfully by Islamist terrorists, mainly notably in November 2003 in the Al Qaida-associated car bomb attack on the British Consulate and HSBC in Istanbul. British citizens had in addition been the victims of Islamist terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001, Bali on 12 October 2002 and Madrid on 11 March 2004. The bombings on 7 July 2005 were the primary successful Islamist terrorist attacks in the UK. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

Since 9/11 the administration plus the intelligence and security Agencies have continued to warn of the high level of danger to the UK as of Islamist terrorism. In a speech in his Sedgefield constituency on 5 March 2004, the Prime Minister warned of the progressing global danger as of violence. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

It is monstrously premature to think the danger has passed. The risk remains in the balance here and abroad. These day decisions regarding it come thick and fast, and while they are not always of the similar magnitude, they are hardly insignificant. For instance a little while ago, during the war, we received specific aptitude caution of a chief attack on Heathrow. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

On 6 August 2004 the Home Secretary issued a declaration on the terrorist danger to the UK. It has been made obvious repeatedly that there is a continuing danger to the UK, which has remained high for some time. We are maintaining a state of readiness and taking every feasible precautionary measure to protect British citizens, together here and abroad, consistent by the level of danger. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

The Prevention of Terrorism Bill was published in February 2005 as part of the

Government's continuing efforts against the danger. It received Royal Assent in

March 2005.11

At around the same time the Security Service website warned:

The mainly significant danger to the UK and to UK interests overseas comes as of Al Qaida and associated networks. The danger to the UK remains real and serious. We know that both British and foreign nationals belonging to Al Qaida cells and associated networks are currently present throughout the UK, that they are supporting the activities of terrorist groups, and that in some cases they are engaged in planning, or attempting to carry out, terrorist attacks. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

The UK danger picture is not currently dominated by one particular network or danger.

The danger as of Al Qaida (AQ) leadership directed plots has not gone away and events in Iraq are continuing to act as motivation and a focus of a range of terrorist's related activity in the UK. However, many of our current concerns focus on the wide range and large number of extremist networks and individuals in the UK plus individuals and groups that are inspired by but only loosely affiliated to AQ or are entirely autonomous. Some of these have the potential to plan UK attacks, and it is also probable that lone extremists or small groups could attempt lower-level attacks. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

Whilst there remain many areas of concern, we judge that at present there is not a group by both the current intent AND the capability to attack the UK. We are consequently, reducing the overall danger level for the UK to SUBSTANTIAL (Level 3). Readers are reminded that SUBSTANTIAL indicates a continued high level of danger and that an attack might well be mounted devoid of warning. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

Targeting transport networks

The possibility of attacks against the transport network had also been recognized prior to July. Our examination of JIC and JTAC assessments showed that the London Underground was specifically recognized by the JIC as a potential target as far back as April 2003. 'Soft' targets (including transport networks and shopping centres) became identified as the mainly likely targets for Islamist terrorist groups in the UK as of about April 2004, following the Madrid attacks and sustained investigation of terrorist activity in the UK. This represented a shift in focus as of 'hard' (i.e. well protected) targets such as Government and iconic buildings. The intelligence community had originally focused on these after the 9/11 attacks because of Al Qaida's identified aspirations to commit 'spectacular' attacks against high-profile or representative targets. (Carter, D. (November 2006))

The danger from Al Qaida and other networks

The degree of Al Qaida involvement in, or prior knowledge of, the 7 July attacks remain imperceptible. Current thinking in the intelligence community (though investigations persist) is that there was some contact by Al Qaida members, perhaps while Siddeque Khan plus Shazad Tanweer were in Pakistan. Contacts by Pakistan in the run-up to the attacks propose advice or direction might have been provided as of individuals there.

Literature review:

Terrorism is one of the mainly prominent - plus controversial - topics on the global security schedule today. Terrorism causes considerable damage, but it is difficult to say what terrorism really is and what its causes and consequences are. To better understand terrorism, it is obliging to look at it as a security risk. According to the simplest definition, risk can be understood as consisting of two factors: damage occurring in the future and the probability that the damage might occur. However, a third element is imperative: (Carter, D. (November 2006)) the aptitude of humans to influence both future damage and the probability of damage. Natural catastrophes that humans cannot influence are therefore, not considered a risk. I speak of risks when damage will occur by a certain probability and when our actions might influence the occurrence and/or the scale of the damage.

To know the impact of terrorism on security, it is useful to distinguish flanked by different security sectors: military security, political security, societal security, and economic security. Here are a number of illustrations how terrorism can impact on these security sectors:

Military security

Terrorism causes a loss of lives and damage to property. It affects military security in the intelligence that it threatens the ability of governments to guarantee the security of their citizens. The fact that terrorists are non-state actors who challenge military security poses a particular problem, which became evident on 11 September 2001, when a relatively petite organization attacked the United States. The strategy of deterrence by which the US prevents conventional attacks as of states did not work against Al-Qaeda. Militarily burly states thus turn out to be highly vulnerable, especially when the terrorists are committed to suicide bombings.

Political security

Terrorists undermine the monopoly of the state over the legitimate use of force. They try to build a climate of fear and thereby potentially undermine the stability and legitimacy of states. Furthermore, when they murder members of the state, be they politicians, soldiers, or citizens, the state loses its credibility. Democracies are particularly vulnerable to terrorism, as freedom and the absence of fear are important perquisites for the functioning of the independent process.

Societal security

Terrorism plus counter-terrorism policies can influence communal security. Violence can be seen as an infringement of basic human rights. To avoid terrorists as of attacking a state, governments frequently limit civil rights. Maintaining an open civilization despite terrorist attacks is like walking a tightrope amid rising security as well as preserving freedom plus fundamental rights.

Economic security

The connection flanked by financial security as well as terrorism becomes obvious when we look at the direct plus circuitous costs of terrorism. People think that violence destabilizes the biased circumstances, important to diminish financial activity. Terrorists frequently attempt to cause economic harm by attacking sensitive sectors such as the tourism business. (Dempsey, J. (2003))

d) Methodology

In order to complete the study of the project different ways and methods will be adopted. These methods and approaches will be used to the maximum of capability to make the project more informative and full of related data. The different types methodological approach to be adopted are the reading of different journals on the related topics, articles, critical essays, interviews and questionnaires that will enable me to complete this project. In doing so this it should be kept in mind that sources involved in the study will all be authentic and reliable. The reliability of the matter found in the journals will be of top priority. I will try to make the questionnaires more related and to the point. It will also be my kept in mind that the questionnaires will be filled by both the people related to the field as well as the common lay man. These are the tools which will help enable the study more fruitful for the readers and will make it more statistics based and result oriented.

This approach and aim will also enable the reader to understand and admit the validity and reliability as well as the general stability of the texts, facts as well as figures provided in this regard. (Branson, R. (1998))

The survey will provide an over all view of the statistics available for the online polling and voting. In order to make sure the survey is successful and reliable data as of different other sources like articles and journals will be considered too. Help as of case studies and other works like new papers will also be taken into account in order to make a combination of both the former and latest facts and figures to get a better view of what has been happening throughout the times in this field security, intelligence and the role of youth in intelligence. (Edmonston, G. Jr. (June 7, 2002))

The best thing that my project will hold is its detailed methodological approach of research in the market, which like mentioned earlier will be based on the above mentioned methodologies along by carrying out meetings personally by the higher authorities of a number of concerned bodies in order to carry out a rich information study that fulfils the reader's requirements. Questionnaire in order to complete all the mentioned targets is designed to make the scale of achievement more obvious and understandable for security groups so that they can capitalize on it and make the mainly of the day to day operations. ( Steganography (2004))

e) Reflections

So far, whatever references, text, journals, articles, books and online text in addition to a couple of interviews have been carried out all turned out to be very useful and rich in the knowledge perspective.

This study and research work will mainly focus on the topic and the key areas that float around the topic in order to reflect on all the weaknesses and strengths so that they can be brought to the reader's attention and come up by latest findings.. (Branson, R. (1998)).

The core reflections of the study as mentioned earlier will be on the security, intelligence in the UK which will enable the reader regarding the way security and intelligence operations are performed in the country.

F) Time Scale & Resources

Action plan is the very important asset as they are the one who will help in outlining the feasibility of my proposal. After a detailed study work is carried out, surveys are completed, research is finished and meeting all the criteria a successful project will always mention propose action plans like what should be done or needs doing in order to lessen the chances going down in performance of security departments or improving the standards. (Steganography (2004))

This will be the feature of this study too. Recommendations and conclusion will be offered after the research is complete in order to bring more and more information regarding the topic. The overall focus as far as the time scale is concerned will be kept in mind so all the deadlines given are met by working on time with efficient and professional approach so that the project requirements are all met and submitted on time. Despite the short time and tight schedule, the main focus will be on the relevancy of the data with quality of the work that will be carried out so that the reader can see logical and true information and arguments on the proposed topic that has been selected for research.


Recommendations for further improvements will be made after the detailed surveys and feedbacks are collected. Keeping in mind the plans that the contemporary world posses as well as the required strategies that country would need in order to push back security dangers and make its operations more successful and efficient matching the high standards.


A lot can be said regarding the current situation of the security and the dangers that are faced by it; there were people who are no longer on the list of living people as they totally lost it due to lack of awareness in front of these novel dangers. The reasons could be poor information or no information and contingency planning and the lack of competent approach towards these dangers as of the security departments making people's life at risk. However, things are changing dramatically more and more people are becoming aware of these dangers, especially the interest of youth and the impact of their interest as a result have brought the graph for terrorism down to a fair extent. Which obviously states that if we are aware and vigilant and keep an eye on what's happening around us things will be very much difficult for terrorist activities to take place.