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Certain offenders can be rehabilitated such as thieves, prostitutes, robber's arsonists, stalkers, cybercriminals, white collar and occupational criminals included. The reason rehabilitation is possible for them is because these criminals do not have biological or neurological factors that predispose them to the crimes they commit. According to the studies during this semester, the first group of criminals noted above, closely resemble the Classical criminology model, which includes elements of free choice. Psychopathic criminals that commit crimes such as sex related crimes and violent crimes; including murder, mutilation, and torture have biological factors involved in the commission of their crimes.
John B. Watson's behaviorism theory begins the discussion for understanding of the mind and consciousness. When criminal behavior is assessed it is necessary to have a starting point; Watson's theory should be noted as the beginning of understanding why criminals commit crimes. Secondly Skinner's theory that: "the primary goal of psychology is the prediction and control of behavior." This is where the environmental factors and external stimulation begin (Bartol, pg. 87). In each instance of studying criminal behavior, there are separate predictable and unpredictable events that take place in the criminal mind. Many crimes are committed based upon the weight of opportunity and (Operant Conditioning (Bartol, pg. 89), consequence; in many instances consequence is immaterial as seen in Bandura's Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement where criminals justify the moral reasoning of committing the criminal act by "cognitive reconstruction"; whereas, the criminal will modify their morals in order to commit the crime they have chosen. Cognitive reconstruction makes it easier to eradicate guilt from the illegal action committed. It is a separation of sorts that enables the criminal to walk away from the damage and destruction feeling as though his/her actions were justifiable.
Psychopaths have a different deficit of respect for social rules, moral and the normally lack empathy in the commission of crimes. It is difficult to rehabilitate people who don't have the basic foundation of moral principles in which to draw from. I read in an article about psychopathic rehabilitation and what has seemed to work in Canada is a cognitive-skill programming (McGuire (2005)), which attempts to improve a person's way of thinking through the situation to evaluate the urge to make the wrong decision by thinking through the situation to the consequential level using various reasoning skills. Learning appropriate behavior is a start to understand learned behavior that degrades moral principles. When there are biological and neurological variables involved, rehabilitation is only achieved through therapy and drug therapy. Close monitoring is necessary to ensure these treatments are proving to be effective.
An example of the initiation of a recidivism program was found in the San Francisco Examiner where the officials in Redwood, California (San Mateo County) have sought federal funds to be a "Federal Second-chance act of 2007". The San Mateo County's rebooking rate for offenders is 42%, within a year of release. They are receiving 3 Million Dollars per year. $677,000 is from the Department of Justice, and $350,000 will come from the county to fund this program. Ex offenders after participating in the program have a rebooking rate of 41% versus 47%; the decrease of 6%. The bonus information in reference to these statistics is the program is only for first time offenders; this is where "second chance offenders" comes from. Additionally, another 57% of inmates are re-arrested for parole and probation violations. In summary, no, violent psychopathic criminals and violent sexual predators are not good candidates for rehabilitative unless they have penile amputation.
1. Curt Bartol, and Bartol, A. Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approach. 9th Ed. Prentice Hall, 2008.
2. Hare, R. D. (1999) Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths among Us. Guiford Press.
Question 2: Considering the economic and public order crimes identified in your readings (i.e. burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, shoplifting, robbery, white-collar and occupational crime, cybercrime, hostage-taking offenses, arson, bombings (includes terrorism), prostitution, and drugs) which one of these crimes, in your professional judgment, poses the greatest threat to American society and why? Can this crime be prevented? If so,how? (60 Points Possible)
Based upon the FBI Crime statistics report, economic crime is 42% in comparison to all other crimes committed being 58%. Commercial establishments suffer the brunt of economic crime at a significantly higher rate than government entities. This may be contributed to a lack of oversight in commercial establishments, their detection controls are more relaxed with auditing of financial records not being conducted often. Government agencies are more dedicated to unannounced audit controls. Government agencies also have specific agencies that have personnel dedicated to this purpose such as the Office of the Inspector General Audit division. Commercial establishments depend on their financial departments to conduct their own audits; if the financial department is the source of embezzlement, or check fraud as example this activity will remain undetected until an outside (uninterested) agency comes to perform and audit because it is suspected.
To install certain controls that reveal white collar illegal activities should be regulated the same as federal agencies. There would be a dramatic drop of economic crimes. In essence Economic crime is devastating to the already volatile economy. Through financial activities, the ability to recover the funds is drastically lower in percentage than the amounts stolen. The economy and tax payers are affected by this trend, the same results as shoplifting. The results of shoplifting affect everyone through higher taxation and increased retail litigation. The legal system does not have stringent laws for shoplifting offenses. Shoplifters have more rights than the retail establishment when it comes down to it. Shoplifters will sue for unlawful detention, unlawful search and seizure, assaultâ€¦to name a few. The legal system must level the playing field in order for businesses to recoup their losses or at least charge shoplifters with stiffer penalties through conviction.
Terrorism is a much tougher crime to evaluate. Terrorist have cognitive defects that would best be treated with intense therapy and consistent monitoring. There is also cultural restructuring needed to assist them in understanding Western values and morals.
1. Barnett, Cynthia. (Undated). The Measurement of White-Collar Crime Using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Data. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information (CJIS) Division.
2. Curt Bartol, and Bartol, A. Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approach. 9th Ed. Prentice Hall, 2008.
Question 3: Throughout the course you have been exposed to a significant number of theories and concepts related to criminal behavior. Select three of these theories and/or concepts that you believe every security manager needs to know and understand.Â Explain why. Be sure to provide a rationale and justification for your selection. Note: Two of your three selections must be a theory. (60 Points Possible)
1. Eysenck's Theory (Bartol, pg. 70)
Eysenck's theory of personality and crime believed every criminal's personality was based upon a biological factor. Using the statistic of factor analysis, Eysenck argued there are four higher order factors of personality. Eysenck's theory believed a person's human traits can be broken down into two categories: Introversion, extroversion and neuroticism. These categories determine how one person will respond to internal and external stimuli, therefore determining the extent of their crimes and the uncontrollable urge to commit them.
Eysenck's theory is important to a security manager to understand the criminals they come in contact with. They may not be the best candidate for incarceration, instead may be better suited for involuntary commitment in a mental institution based upon the behavioral biological factors that may be identified by a security manager.
2. Skinner's Theory of Behavior (Bartol, pg. 87)
Skinner believed the primary goal of psychology is the prediction and control of behavior through scientific measurement of the affects of the environmental stimuli. Skinner conducted studies were conducted to find the observable outcome. Skinner believed psychological studies should be rooted not only to how the mind works, but should be anchored to a tangible outcome. Skinner also believed humans were born neutral and crime is a learned behavior with environmental factors that humans learn to associate and model their behavior from. It is necessary to understand as a security manager many criminals are not born bad, instead have learned bad behavior from their environment and social stimuli. Many criminals are born at a disadvantage due to their family make-up and the environment in which they are reared. Often times neither the family life nor environment are conducive to learning morals, values and family unity. These are only observable factors of their behavior.
3. Expectancy Theory (Bartol, pg. 93)
Julian Rotter focused on the importance of expectations about the consequences of behavior, to include the reinforcement that will be gained by their action. The expectancy theory argues that a person's performance level is based upon that person's expectation that behaving in a certain way will have a certain outcome. Rotter believed when people engage in unlawful conduct, they expect to gain something whether it is social status, financial gain, material items, or an improved living condition. Along with Rotter, Bandura's imitational model of social learning is an important integrative theory. Bandura believed observational learning or modeling to the social learning process. Bandura believes much of our behavior is initially acquired through watching others, who are our models. By adapting their behavior, this is the beginning of adopting their behavior (whether positive or negative). The degree in which a person will model behavior also has to do with the person they are imitating will receive rewards for their bad behavior, such as money. Lastly, if the person see their model as receiving punishment they are more likely they will not imitate their behavior.
Understanding this theory will assist federal, state, and community agencies to invest more dollars in the implementation of social programs such as mentoring, boys and girls clubs where children can observe alternative social choice to the ones they observe daily.
1. Curt Bartol, and Bartol, A. Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approach. 9th Ed. Prentice Hall, 2008.