Reviewing The Problems Of Human Trafficking Human Trafficking Criminology Essay

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Is human trafficking a small problem? Is it something that is not yet significant enough for the whole world to start doing something about it? Just last year, 12.3 million Adults rounding to about 33,699 people per day, were taken from their homes to what they are told to be a better life. (Mattar 197) A number of people equaling almost thirteen times Troy High School's student body are transported all over the world in the US$5 Billion to US$9 Billion industry. (Kotrla 181) While governments of several countries are finding ways to prevent human trafficking through laws and funding, human trafficking in developing countries is still able to traffic humans without being punished (Derluyn 170). People with nowhere else to go have to accept the treatment of being sold into prostitution at the benefit of their kidnappers, hoping to funding and cooperation between countries and governments are needed to finding a life better than where they are now. The need for funding and for the cooperation of the ruling governments is needed to keep this to a minimum if not completely eliminate the act.

How does a person enter the trafficking ring? According to Article 3, paragraph (a) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons as "the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation." (Farrell 201) Human trafficking does not take place overnight, but over a period of time. When the task is complete, the results are devastating and life-changing. (Bales 1) Human trafficking is not a company of one person, but rather a net of internationally linked people all trying to make money off people's insecurities and poor surroundings. Traffickers do not just pick random people. There are many factors that are considered before they find a group or a population of people that they can easily smuggle through without interference by the government. (Rasmussen 1) Traffickers will account many factors before securing their decision as to where they will be selecting their "stock." (Bernat 1) Their surroundings, background, age, gender, and what their forced occupation will be is considered (use another phrase now) before the actual kidnapping takes place in order to prevent anything from going from or lowering the chance of getting caught. (Rasmussen 2) "Where people are taken also plays a large part in where they may be able to cross the border of leave the country." (Winterdyck 6) Where there is risk of human trafficking, there are officers that are put there to make sure that it doesn't happen, and the consideration and necessity to dodge them is also put into consideration. (Lin 89) "While human trafficking does not require travel or transport from one location to another, one form of sex trafficking involves international agents and brokers who arrange travel and job placements for women from one country." (Buckley 201) Most of the time, women are led from their homes and taken away to a point where it is very difficult--if not --impossible to escape. (Tyldum 1) "The global agenda to fight trafficking has from its beginning been driven by activists. These activists have captured the attention of media and politicians with stories of thousands if not millions of innocent women and girls who are suffering from captivity, exploited and abused." (Wheaton, Schauer, and Galli 200) "With such a perception of reality dominating the public understanding of what trafficking is, researchers and data producers have been barely catching up. There are places with government to prevent abused "child or forced labor." (Yokoyama 28)

After they are dragged away from their home, some may be sold as labor to farms, some may be sold as a servant to a wealthy family, and some may be sold as a child to others. However, one currently growing problem is prostitution from human trafficking (Winterdyck 10). When women are taken away from their homes or tricked by people that are close to them in hopes to find a better life than where they are now, they have to result to human trafficking. Little did they know that they would have to "pay their debt" through prostitution. (Yakushko 170) Prostitution is the "act or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for payment." (Dearnley and Chalke 3) Today, while there are many people that go into prostitution in hopes to gain money for themselves. (Dearnley 1) However, human trafficking victims, especially the women, are forced to enter an industry where making money for their captors and being threatened or killed if they failed to make enough money for them (Winterdyck 7). It was reported that a human trafficking victim was required to have sex or "service" at least 50 men per day or be punished for her insubordination. (Buckley 1) Prostitution is a US$100 billion industry and the large number of people fueling the crime is keeping the risk alive and growing. (Pollock 127) In 2006, research shows that 800,000 people are trafficked across the national borders of the United States, and this does not include those who are trafficked in other countries. Approximately 80% are women and girls and 50% of them are minors reported by the US Department of State in a 2008 study. (Choo 180) However, the leaks inside the enforcement of these laws prevent the exact number of victims. (Good lead-in!))

While the government seems to have been making a valiant effort in trying to protect victims from ever becoming victims of the human trafficking circle with laws like Trafficking Protections Act of 2000 and setting up checkpoints in and out of the country, there are still many flaws to the system that are preventing them from being able to completely get rid of the problem. One such flaw is society's reluctant to learn about human trafficking. They do not try to understand how many people are actually trapped inside the circle of buying and selling human bodies and lives. "The number of people trafficked will vary over time. It depends on the research boundaries in terms of when and where." (Fong 6) It is not only based on the ignorance of the United States government of something happening in not only their country, but countries that are connected to it. "Human trafficking is also referred to as modern day slavery. Many people in the United States do not realize that modern slaves exist and yet the number of trafficking victims can be in the hundred of thousands. Some people think that trafficking is a foreign problem or that human slaves do not exist within the United States. Not only are the governments at fault for not ensuring the security at the points where the traffickers are able to escape through, but it is also the entire population at fault. Humans, due to their tendency to worry only about one, do not see the problem of human trafficking as a problem as it is not happening to them. Therefore, until there is a reason well enough for them to worry about it, people today just go one with their lives with the occasional condolences towards news articles of parents looking for their kidnapped children. (Stolz 190)

While trafficking is still widespread and prevalent in the world, countries such as the United States have introduced laws and Acts in hope to prevent or lower human trafficking and to administer help to those that have been trafficked to be able to have a normal life. The United States has created laws at both the Federal and the state level. (Denton 20) Although, the state penalties are not as tough as the federal laws, half the states now criminalize human trafficking (Denton 20). There have been stricter regulations imposed on tourism to prevent "the facilitation of sex tourism and regulate international marriage brokers to ensure criminal background checks and information on how to get help are given to the potential bride." (Denton 16) Under Title 18 of the United States Code, Section 1584 makes it a crime to force someone to work against one's will no matter how the force is whether it be threat or force. (Denton 11) Section 1581 also makes it a crime forcing someone to work to pay of debt by actions or jobs. The introduction of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 gave hope to those that had been trafficked into the United States and the ability to have stricter sentences for those who are trafficking. (Denton 10) This act also further strengthened a network of groups to be able to combat human trafficking. (Crimnol 187)

The T-1 Visa, created for human trafficking victims to receive aid and a resident status, in ways act as if the government are doing it for their own gain. (Awkward) (Pollock 127) The T-1 Visa is a visa that becomes permanent resident status in the period of 3 years. There are 5000 available per year for people who are eligible for it. They are available to people who were illegally brought into the United States for commercial sex work, involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. They are also available for those who have committed commercial sex acts, or they have agreed to go to this United States due to fraud, force, or coercion. The United States made this visa to help those who cannot support themselves. Therefore, if being deported would cause them to suffer extreme hardship in trying to rebuild what they lost, the victims would be able to apply. Lastly, the T-1 Visa is also given to those who help the authorities in investigations and prosecutions. Before the introduction of this document, trafficked victims were treated with the same right, and welcomed with the same disgust as an illegal immigrant, or a criminal. (Pollock 128) The Section of the Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons, any "commercial sex act" committed by a person that was threatened to do so, under 18 years of age, as a minor, is considered as prostitution due to human trafficking regardless of their citizenship or they've been trafficked from another country or not. (Pollock 141) One main part of this law was creation of a wall of separation between people that were forced into a truck and shipped across the world, and people that jump a fence and into a new country. The act also pushed forward to encourage efforts to prevent human trafficking all over the world by creating reports and finding "financial non-humanitarian assistance" for foreign countries to tell the world about human trafficking. (Pollock 140) While there is this much defense and support for those that are trafficked, there need to be mutual trust between the trafficked and the government that is trying to protect them. The law is dependent on the survivor's cooperation with the agencies with "prosecuting the perpetrators." (Segrave 260) However, it is complicated as most survivors are threatened by death if they ever tried to escape. (Pollock 128) The United States, unfortunately unlike many other countries, have revised their laws 3 times since 2000 to close any loopholes and clarify any misconceptions that traffickers may take as the right to commit human trafficking with the most recent addition being the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008. (Dearnley 1) Prior to October of 2000, there were no laws that were made for either the protection of the trafficked victims or the prosecution of those that were trafficking. (Crimnol 187) There needs to be laws that are made prevent this from happening, and not only created, but enforced by many the world together for no single country can do it. One main problem is every country making their laws, not to be enforced or in cooperation with other countries, but rather they are forced by people such as the UN or the EU. Today, many people think that the EU and the UN have a presence in every part of the world. When in fact, the area that they cover and the little power that they have to enforce their laws is usually spent for what they think as a bigger cause, restating that to major governments and others that human trafficking is apparently not important enough to be concerned about compared to places where the UN are assigned. One major example being the Genocide and the Blood Diamond trade, revealing a political bias to how much time and money is spent on it.

Human trafficking is a major problem in the world that provides a gain for the people transporting and selling the victims (Who are them?) and affecting the people being traded through exploitation for money. Too short.

What's your call to action? Why did you write about this? You give a lot of information about the problem, but you do not write a thesis on what you think should be done about human trafficking. At the very beginning you mention that people are ignorant, maybe your call to action will be to educate people on the matter. Write a thesis for that and incorporate that idea into your paper. I didn't read all of the things you quoted to be sure you quoted them correctly. This is very informative, but you're quote heavy. I spaced out while correcting the last paragraph. I feel like you should put more of your ideas and thoughts and use your research to back you up. Careful to not make it sound like you've plagiarized.

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