Reviewing The Case And Study Of Risk Management Criminology Essay

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Three books that you think would be useful when studying the Foundation Degree in Security and Risk Management.

Two articles taken from one or more academic journals which you think would useful in completing assignment 3.

Two pages from two different websites that you think provide up to date and reliable information which would be useful when studying for this and future modules on the degree program.

Please prepare a plan for the essay question in assignment 3.

Assignment 3:

Using your own essay plan (above) as the basis for the essay, please answer the following question:

'Industrialization and the development of modern organizations have made the pre occupation with managing security and risk inevitable.' Discuss.

Assignment 1:

Three texts being useful when studying the Foundation Degree in Security and Risk Management are:-

Nemeth, Charles P. Security and Law, third.Elsiver Butterworth-Heinemann.(2005)

Roper, Carl A. Risk management for security professionals. Elsevier Butteworh-Heineman: 1999. Print

Sennewald, Charles A. Effective security management. 4th. Elsevier Science, USA: 2003. Print.

B) Two articles used in completing assignment three.

Grabosky, Peter. "Security in the 21st Century." security journal no. 20 (2007): 9-11.

Jiao,Allan Y.and Rhea Harry M.(2007)Integration of Police in the United States, change and development after 9/11 .Policing and Society 17:4,388-408.

C) Two websites that may be useful for this Foundation Degree.

Assignment: 2

Essay Plan.


Give an overview of what will be covered in the essay.

Define security and the difficulties in arriving at a common definition, for security.

Define risk and also looking at the difficulties in defining risk.

Evolution of security and risk as it existed in ancient times and compare it to the present.

How industrialization gave rise to modern organization increasing awareness to manage security and risk

Give reasons why the preoccupation was no longer a choice for organizations but a necessary component of development in the 21st century.


Conclude by recapping the main points covered in the essay with identifying how emerging technology makes it invertible to manage security and risk.

Word count: 2,146

This academic piece requires a debate which reflects how security and risk management before industrialization, during and after has become a preoccupation. This will be approached firstly by defining security, management, risk and industrialization. Finding a definition of security and risk can be problematic since it is commonly used in various ways. The essay will then proceed to discuss that because of the existence of risk, the need for security has always been a necessary component of development during pre-industrialization and post-industrialization. It will further by debating how private security survived through both eras with little or no management, while the public security forces were managed in order to deal with the increasing need arising out of industrialization. The essay will conclude by recapping the main points debated and illustrating how the rapid growths in public and private security organizations, as well as the need for management of security and risk have now become inevitable.

From the earliest eras, evidence shows that security became a necessary part of human existence. This was partly due to the direct relationship between population growth and the decreased availability of resources needed for survival. Therefore, as populations increased in early societies, pressures for self sustenance often led to exploration, domination of vulnerable populations and eventually exploitation (Robert D. Mc Crie, 2006). It is problematic to deduce a particular definition of the word 'security' as it is commonly used in a number of different ways. To draw on an example, the New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary states that security is "the condition of being protected from or not being exposed to danger. It also states that it is the condition of being protected from espionage, attack or theft. The condition of being kept in safe custody and the provision or exercise of measure to ensure such safety. It is also referred to as a government department or other organization responsible for ensuring security or a freedom from care, anxiety or apprehension. Security is freedom from danger. It is used to describe something that is securely fixed or attached; stability (George& Button 2000). Another way in which the term 'security' is used is for instance in the financial sector. It is a guarantee that an obligation will be met such as a security deposit which is the amount the customer deposits with a broker when borrowing from the broker to buy securities or it can be in the form of property that your creditor can claim in case you default on your obligation

The Pocket Oxford Dictionary revised 8th Edition defines risk as chance or possibility of danger, loss or injury. An academic definition of risk demonstrates that from the time of primitive 'oracles' to present day which is a contemporary world of science, risk continues to perplex mankind. All societies, both traditional and modern face choices about how to confront risk and security. Where action can deem to have consequences, then its degree of uncertainty with respect to those consequences can be considered to be the risk. However, every time a choice is purposely made, risks are played off against each other on a particular social understanding of the world. For many traditional and historic societies this choice can represent survivals strategies, from methods of farming and a choice of crops or hunting to early systems of kinship and social ordering. These types of choices and their associated risks at least among traditional societies are fundamental to survival against the elements (Edward P Borodzicz 2005).

The development of early communities, the accumulation of wealth and the improvement of local agricultural lands made existence precarious from outside attack by those who coveted resources. The fear of attack led to the evolution of defense means to protect the community. (Robert D McCrie2006). The defense of communities saw the emergence of different strategic approaches and one such approach was that of provision of forces of men for the protection of life and property. This period represents pre-industrialization; when protection of life and property was fragmented and confined to smaller communities, civil forces were entrusted with the maintenance of public order, enforcing regulations, punishing breaches of the law, and detecting crimes (Robert D. Mc Crie, 2006). During this time the emergence of the more distinct security roles, and occupation began to emerge that can be more easily linked to and identified with the modern private security industry. Alongside these developments, the system of policing and punishment which began to evolve was often private or voluntary or both (George & Button, 2000). The origins of policing can be traced back more than a thousand years ago in Britain. By the 11th century we saw the introduction of the constable. While police was still almost exclusively a local responsibility, local forces could be raised for wider military and policing purposes, but in normal circumstances it was the constable, watchmen, Sheriff, 'hue and cry' and posse comitatus that was relied upon (George & Button, 2000). While risk existed and continued to evolve with development, management was not preoccupied with managing security and risk. It was not until an early stage in the slow and gradual centralization of the maintenance of order [the Statute of Winchester] was the only general public measure of any consequence enacted to regulate the policing of the country between the Norman Conquest and the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 so for nearly 600 hundred years it laid down the principle (George & Button, 2000).

Robert Peel (1788-1850) a pivotal figure in modern policing served as chief secretary for Ireland from 1810 to 1812. While there he formed the Irish peace preservation police chiefly to patrol rural areas where a variety of baronial police and oath-bound secret societies used terror as a weapon. The force grew to become the Royal Irish Constabulary. In London in 1822 as home secretary, Peel sought to respond to disorder by creating a select committee to evaluate the possible merging of the regular constables, the parish constables, the Bow street patrols, the River Police and the night watchman into a new coherent whole. Peel left office before committee's influence was fully achieved but returned in 1828 an renewed the growing interest in establishing a dedicated quasi military police force, but not one like the French in which espionage was part of the job description. This innovation culminated in passage of the Metropolitan Police Bill of 1829, which established a police force for London under a unified command (Robert D. Mc Crie, 2006). Though this bill meet with resistance it clearly demonstrates all the tenants of contemporary management for which the driving force behind the evolution of management theory in search of better ways to utilize organizational resources for. George & Jones Contemporary Management European Edition defines management as the planning, organizing, leading and controlling of social capital and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively and also enshrined is Henry Fayol's objectives of the general principles of management in three main areas, unity in command, unity of direction and discipline.

By the 18th century urban disorder reportedly grew reflecting urban growth due to growing industrialization. Industrialization can be described as the transition of the economy of local or national area from dependence on agriculture and the labour of humans and animals to a dependence on manufacturing activity and machinery. This transition is usually accompanied by economic growth (Department of Criminology: University of Leicester). Industrialization, urbanization and economics change reshaped Western society. Advances in communication and transportation drew workers from farms and other nation into cities for employment opportunities. Along with these changes, violent and property crimes increased markedly. Though police statistics were not accurate at that time, the consensus was that urban society was imperiled from waves of disorder, which had no adequate countervailing response from government (Robert D. Mc Crie, 2006).

The growth of the factory system in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw growing anxiety on the part of owners and the state to manage security and the risk associated with the rapid growth of urbanization. Private organizations were now becoming more preoccupied with managing risks by employing varying approaches to secure their assets and workers. The state on the other hand was active in passing laws on theft and other offences in different sectors in the industry. Not only did factories have their own formal and informal methods of security and discipline, but it was the exponential pace of technological that facilitated the rise of firms such as Chubb, manufacturing such security hardware as locks. The growth of large enterprises with hundreds or even thousands of employees engaged in mining, shipbuilding, the railway and engineering in urban centers, meant that the old night watchmen and social control gave way to new models of private policing. This saw the growth of estate security and in house private security. In some traditional industries notably iron, steel and coals, the local constables had their duties extended to patrolling private premises (George & Button, 2000).

During this era the growth in the private security industry began emerging as a commercial enterprise in direct response to the growing needs of the growing industries. The manufacture of security hardware became an enterprise of magnitude in the nineteenth century. The foundations were laid for those modern companies which are integral to the present architecture of the private security industry. The growth continued at a rapid pace that by the end of the century many of the building blocks of the modern private security were in place. With commercial, industrial and governmental departments, in-house security had become firmly embedded. By the end of the Second World War many of the roles and activities that were previously undertaken by 'ordinary employees' became increasingly the preserve of specialist in-house or contracted security personnel. In other areas, the changing risk faced by individuals or organizations led to the purchase of security products and services (George & Button, 2000).

Security services in the twentieth century grew resolutely. The Pinkertons were the first and the largest, but numerous other competitors emerged. By the 1950's security business had expanded from the United States to other nations, and by the twenty first century the United States alone had over 8000 private security guard firms operated around the nation. Elsewhere, the industry grew serving the security needs of an expanding industrial base. Examples in England and Wales are firms such as Group 4 Securitas and Securicor which are now merged into Group 4 Securicor (Robert D. Mc Crie, 2006). In spite of the rapid growth in the industry, it was self regulated from the earliest development until the Private Security Industry Act 2001 which saw a comprehensive regulation of the private security industry in England and Wales.

In the latter half of the twentieth century the management of security and risk were being viewed as inevitable because protection from loss always mattered to profit making organizations. Guards, regular patrols and watchmen were tasked to protect private property from fire theft and vandalism based on early payroll records. Development produced first a few, then more, finally thousand of managers and executives directing ways to reduce losses in organizations and having the recourses to meet those programs objectives (Robert D Mc Crie, 2006). The need for security managers to be professional was becoming more of a trend for the security and risk industry, as a consequence of regulations and governance in many parts of the industrialized world. In the United States, the American Society for Industrial security, now ASIS International, began in 1954 when five men holding responsibilities for security at high technology production facilities meet to discuss the need for a professional association .ASIS International in 2005 had over 30,000 members throughout the world. Beyond this example most other industrialized companies created their own professional and trade association for enterprises that provided security services. These groups started to improve the trade craft of security managers through education, training, legislation standards and mutual assistance.

Modern organizations are left with little or no choice but to be preoccupied with managing security and risk because of the growing trend in technology has not only provided unimagined opportunities for non-law abiding citizens and criminals, it has also provided the state with surveillance capability, for in the United Kingdom close circuit are ubiquitous. After 'September 11th' we have seen unprecedented state surveillance of financial transactions and telecommunications. One has no reason to doubt that technology will continue to advance and managing risk will always be a challenge for organizations (Security Journal, 2007).

In concluding, the debate focused on the how security and risk was managed before and after industrialization and also demonstrating how Fayol's management theories were applied during the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Bill of 1829. Along with the development of organizations, emerging technologies has presented other challenges which show the urgent need for modern organizations to be proactive with their security and risk programs.