Reviewing A Bibliography On Human Rights And Ethics Criminology Essay

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Conducting research on human rights is a complex affair especially given the large number of sources from different organisations and nationalities. This annotated bibliography gives preference to current materials; most of these readings are available online and are continually updated. The Australian Capital Territory and Victoria have existing human rights Act and a Charter respectively. Human Rights Act in the UK, has been termed as the 'Villian's Charter', since it is perceived to be an obstacle to efficient policing. This annotated bibliography looks at policing and human rights scholar articles, journals and books both in a national and international context with a specific focus on the challenges of dealing with mental ill members of the society.

Human rights

Edwards, C. 'The triangle of tension', Changing Policing Theories for the 21st Century Societies, Federation Press, Sydney, Sydney, 2005, pp.6-18.

This book is a comprehensive revision of the 1999 edition, integrating the various changes that have taken place in policing in the past five years of the 21st century. Edward examines the philosophical history and practice of policing in Australia, the US and Great Britain, clearly showing how and why the different policing structures in the three countries are a result of differing constitutional structure of the three countries. The author also digs deep in crime and how it affects society and media. In addition, various forms of community policing are examined together with accountability and organisation of the police force. The final part of the book examines the changes in the management of police organisations with regard to political imperatives such as the war on terror, and their impact on community policing.

Neyroud, P. and A. Beckley 'From ethics to rights', Policing, Ethics and Human Rights, Willan Publishing, Portland Oregon, 2001.

The authors examine community policing with an aim of recommending the creation of an organzation that can critically scrutinize policy making and operational decision making with regard to human rights and ethics in policing. The authors emphasize on the revision of rules of conduct expected of the police. The rules must be designed so as to serve the dual purpose of protecting human rights and improving the status of police officers.

Beckett, K. and S. Herbert 'Dealing with disorder: Social control in the post-industrial city', Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2008, pp.5-30.

Beckett and Herbert argue that constitutive powers can be used to examine the origin of social order and disorder. The authors examine various controls used by municipal governments in the US and recommend that new tools are being used to marginalize individuals from accessing public utilities. This article explains such legal innovations; their theoretical implications and origin.

Stephens, M. 'Risk, security and surveillance: The care and control of people with serious mental health problems', Security Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007, pp.211-21.

Steven analyses media reports on murders caused by patients suffering from serious mental health complications and the moral panic caused by such cases in the U.K. The author asserts that compulsory detention and treatment for individuals with mental problems is necessary to enhance security-minded surveillance of these groups. The drift to surveillance must be predicated on exclusionary and enforced terms. This article is resourceful as it specializes on the risk caused by the patients with mental complications at the same time looking at the application of the bill of rights to the mentally ill.

McGlone, D. 'Investigating a bill of rights for Victoria', Criminal Law Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2005, pp.169-81.

In this article, undertakes the task of scrutinizing the passage of the Victorian bill of rights by the Parliament. The Charter took legal effect from 1 January 2007. It is imperative to note that the state of Victoria is the first to enact a Bill of Rights in Australia. McGlone inquires whether Victoria needs a Bill of Rights or not.

Wells, W. and J. Schafer 'Officer perceptions of police responses to persons with a mental illness', Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol.29, No. 4, 2006, pp.578-601.

The purpose of this article is to investigate police officer perceptions of their interaction with the mentally ill. The paper also examines impacts of innovation in police training programs that improve police officers handling of such cases. The research shows that police interactions with the mentally ill are complex and specialized training can help improve police capacity and capability in handling of these cases.

Bratholm, A. 'Police violence in the City of Bergen: A marathon case concerning the rule of law and human rights', Policing and Society, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2005.

This paper describes Bratholm's participation in a legal case that had been going on for a long time. Hence it is a piece of original research conducted on the Bergen Police, Norway analyzing police violence-its nature and extent. The case lasted 21 years and was concluded in 2002. The author concludes by documenting the significance of research on policing and its general function in society.

Crawshaw, R, Stuart, C & Williamson, T, Human rights and policing, 2nd edn, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Netherlands, 2007.

The document analyses international human rights with regards to humanitarian laws that are pertinent to policing. The authors explain the application of human rights standards in criminal investigations; they posit that, criminal investigations are notorious for human rights violations. The document concludes by giving recommendations on the required police reforms.

Sheptycki, J. 'Policing and human rights: An introduction', Policing and Society, Vol. 10, 2000, pp.1-10.

This is a systematic survey of the policing field with an aim of highlighting the difficulties in designing a framework for accountability in policing. The author argues that policing is far from being a set of practices entrenched in the constitution of a state. Instead, policing has of late been globalised and become greatly differentiated. In view of the postmodernism, the field of policing has become a fragmented terrain. This poses serious accountability challenges that conventional models of policing cannot handle.

Neyroud, P. and A. Beckley 'From ethics to rights', in Policing, Ethics and Human Rights, Willan, Cullompton, 2001, pp.54-70.

Neyroud and Beckley argue that the protection of human rights is "a major, if not the major", aspect for community policing. Neyroud and Beckley (2001) carefully advocate for radical changes in police ethics, arguing that conventional approaches have failed to break the vicious cycle of corruption and power abuse.

Ethics

Chan, J. 'Re-examining police culture', Changing police culture, CUP, 1997, pp.65-93.

Chan's article is written in a multicultural setting and explores issues of attitudes of minorities and discrimination in New South Wales police force. The author proceeds to give strategies for change, changing police culture and tightening of rules. Chan concludes by giving various recommendations in line with the lessons from New South Wales experience.

Huberts, L., T. Lamboo, and M. Punch 'Police integrity in the Netherlands and the United States: Awareness and alertness', Journal of Police Practice and Research, Vol. 4, No.3, 2003, pp.217-32.

This is a presentation of a survey research conducted on the perceptions of police officers on two aspects of integrity, awareness and alertness. The survey was conducted in the Netherlands and the USA. This paper led to creation of a provisional model that will be tested in future research.

Prenzler, T. and C. Ronken 'A survey of innovations in the development and maintenance of ethical standards by Australian police departments', Journal of Police Practice and Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2003, pp.149-61.

This is a research on the responses to the perennial problem of police misconduct by the Australian government with regard to three models of integrity: "minimalist, intermediate and advanced". The paper authors conclude by recommending on the significance of integrating various strategies in an "advanced model of integrity management".

Rowe, M. 'Notes on a scandal: The official enquiry into deviance and corruption in New Zealand police', The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2009, pp.123-38.

The paper compares the report by the Commission in the New Zealand police force to other parallel investigations in other countries. The author uses a methodological and conceptual approach, documenting the limitations of the Commission's report. Rowe also considers prospects of the Commission's recommendations.

Alain, M. and M. Gregoire 'Can ethics survive the shock of the job? Quebec's police recruits confront reality', Policing and Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2008, pp.169-89.

Alain and Gregoire are very systematic in their research; they conduct a meta-analysis on the development of ethics in the police force. They include pieces of work from McNamara (1967) to Chan (2003). This paper focuses on two important aspects, ethics and professional skills in its presentation of results obtained from a follow-up study of 316 recruits after three years of work since their swearing in as officers across Quebec's police forces.

Goldschmidt, J. and Anonymous 'The necessity for dishonesty: Police deviance, "making the case", and the public good', Policing and Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2008, pp.113-35.

This is a study on urban police officers conducted by a fellow police officer on their attitudes towards dishonesty and use of extra-legal means in their duties. The authors use an ethnographic approach to examine the rationalisation of police deviance and its impact on the public.

Westmarland, L. 'Police ethics and integrity: Breaking the blue code of silence', Policing and Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp.145-65.

This is an analysis of evidence acquired from a survey of police officers regarding their attitudes towards corruption, unethical behaviour and minor neglects of police rules. The author is thorough in his presentation and anyone reading this article will find it easy to associate cause and effect.

Weiss, W. et al, 'Problematic police performance and the personality assessment inventory', Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp.16-21.

These authors use various personality assessment tools ranging from newcomers such as the Personality Assessment Inventory, or PAI to earlier assessments such as MMPI which s focuses on antisocial behaviour, aggression, and the L scale to assess police personality. This is an advanced criminal psychology article that uses primary research methods.

Trofymowych, D. 'Police education past and present: Perceptions of Australian police managers and academics', Flinders Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 10, 2007/08, pp.419-33.

This article is about modernising and professionalising community policing, with an emphasis on university qualification for police officers. Trofymowych writes in an Australian context, by looking at the National Police Professionalism Implementation Advisory Committee (NPPIAC) recommendations in 1990 on the pursuance of police professionalism as to be reflected in national education standards. From a national perspective, Trofymowych presents key stakeholders' perceptions on police university qualification. Trofymowych paper is part of a study into Australian university education for police officers and managers; it is a presentation of introductory results of one phase of the research.

Referencing list

Alain, M. and M. Gregoire 'Can ethics survive the shock of the job? Quebec's police recruits confront reality', Policing and Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2008, pp.169-89.

Beckett, K. and S. Herbert 'Dealing with disorder: Social control in the post-industrial city', Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2008, pp.5-30.

Bratholm, A. 'Police violence in the City of Bergen: A marathon case concerning the rule of law and human rights', Policing and Society, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2005.

Chan, J. 'Re-examining police culture', Changing police culture, CUP, 1997, pp.65-93.

Crawshaw, R, Stuart, C & Williamson, T, Human rights and policing, 2nd edn, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Netherlands, 2007.

Edwards, C. 'The triangle of tension', Changing Policing Theories for the 21st Century Societies, Federation Press, Sydney, Sydney, 2005, pp.6-18.

Goldschmidt, J. and Anonymous 'The necessity for dishonesty: Police deviance, "making the case", and the public good', Policing and Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2008, pp.113-35.

Huberts, L., T. Lamboo, and M. Punch 'Police integrity in the Netherlands and the United States: Awareness and alertness', Journal of Police Practice and Research, Vol. 4, No.3, 2003, pp.217-32.

McGlone, D. 'Investigating a bill of rights for Victoria', Criminal Law Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2005, pp.169-81.

Neyroud, P. and A. Beckley 'From ethics to rights', in Policing, Ethics and Human Rights, Willan, Cullompton, 2001, pp.54-70.

Neyroud, P. and A. Beckley 'From ethics to rights', Policing, Ethics and Human Rights, Willan Publishing, Portland Oregon, 2001

Prenzler, T. and C. Ronken 'A survey of innovations in the development and maintenance of ethical standards by Australian police departments', Journal of Police Practice and Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2003, pp.149-61.

Rowe, M. 'Notes on a scandal: The official enquiry into deviance and corruption in New Zealand police', The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2009, pp.123-38.

Sheptycki, J. 'Policing and human rights: An introduction', Policing and Society, Vol. 10, 2000, pp.1-10.

Stephens, M. 'Risk, security and surveillance: The care and control of people with serious mental health problems', Security Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007, pp.211-21.

Trofymowych, D. 'Police education past and present: Perceptions of Australian police managers and academics', Flinders Journal of Law Reform, Vol. 10, 2007/08, pp.419-33.

Weiss, W. et al, 'Problematic police performance and the personality assessment inventory', Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp.16-21.

Wells, W. and J. Schafer 'Officer perceptions of police responses to persons with a mental illness', Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol.29, No. 4, 2006, pp.578-601.

Westmarland, L. 'Police ethics and integrity: Breaking the blue code of silence', Policing and Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp.145-65.

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