Review of Current and Past Research on College Rapes

2079 words (8 pages) Essay in Criminology

08/02/20 Criminology Reference this

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Annotated Bibliography

Carey, K. B., Durney, S. E., Shepardson, R. L., & Carey, M. P. (2015). Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: Prevalence across the first year. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(6), 678–680. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.02.018

 

This study centers around the facts that encompass the theory that women in their first year at college are at a higher danger of becoming victims of rape when they are under the influence of drugs and or/ alcohol.  The study observes more than 400 first-year undergrads matured 18-21, which was generally 25% of the total class. All ethnic and races were incorporated into this examination. The students in the study reported twice during their semester through the first year of college to give feedback in regard to any attempted sexual assault or rape. The outcomes all through the study, as revealed by the students demonstrated that 11% announced having reported in the first semester and 8.5% in the spring semester. This demonstrates that at the beginning of the school year when new undergrads are attempting to make social contacts and fit in the school lifestyle, they may participate in activities that focus around the utilization of liquor or drugs to allow them to fit in, which could allow for the spiking of beverages leaving them out of it or in an amnesic state. There is not a considerable amount of data here regarding the reason for the use of date rape drugs, but there are insights of reports at one specific college.

Giraldi, A., & Monk-Turner, E. (2017). Perception of rape culture on a college campus: A look at social media posts. Women’s Studies International Forum, 116. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.wsif.2017.05.001

 

In this article, there is a study that looks at the outlooks concerning rape, rapists, and gender-specific violence.  The study researches the different ways of reporting sexual assaults including the newspaper and on social media platforms like Facebook.  The information from the study focuses on a specific sexual assault news story and how it is represented on Facebook compared to the written publications.  The study uses the observational method and uses the comments from the Facebook post for information about the topic.  The conclusion of the study talks about the different ways individuals react to the news they read.  Some of the comments blame the victim and some support the victim and want to change the laws to protect the victim.  This is a great example of how one post can have many opinions to it which can support both sides of the issue.  The research in this article gave an understanding of why a victim of sexual assault chooses to report the attack or not.  The study tries to explain how today’s society views males as having dominance over women; this is basically justifying their behavior.  In college, the issue of rape is encouraged by peers and males think it is alright to degrade females.  Males think it is popular to flaunt about their sexual experiences to their friends.  The study goes in depth about how fraternities throw parties, so they can control the dress code, theme and who can attend.  This article has a great deal of information that can be used for the final report including both sides of this issue.

McCaughey, M., & Cermele, J. (n.d.). Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women’s Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention. TRAUMA VIOLENCE & ABUSE, 18(3), 287–302. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1177/1524838015611674

 

This study focuses on the White House.  There is a White House Task Force for rape prevention and education.  The focus of this study are two ideas that can make a huge difference: one making sure you are always with other people, and to limit the amount of alcohol consumption because it can be a risk factor for rape.  This report continues to explain that giving women a voice to be able to say “NO” and fellow classmates and friends stepping in to help with the situation can halt rape and sexual assaults altogether.  This report talks about allowing women to take charge of their own space and make their own choices.  It seems when women take self-defense classes, they learn how to defend themselves or their friends in a bad situation.  Some colleges have programs available to talk about rape and how to defend and protect yourself against a potential attack. 

Moylan, C. A. (n.d.). “I Fear I’m a Checkbox”: College and University Victim Advocates’ Perspectives of Campus Rape Reforms. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, 23(9), 1122–1139. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1177/1077801216655623

 

This article pertains to the judicial aspect colleges use based on the victim advocates perspective.  It explains many strategies that are in place in which reporting the sexual assault is the first step.  In this study, 10 out of 14 people in the study felt worried that their college campus does little to help protect victims of rape and sexual assault.  These 10 participants believe the college is more concerned with if the proper procedures to report the sexual assault were followed through and did not include the victim’s privacy.  If the proper procedures are not followed, the school will face consequences including fines and unwanted attention; this would make the media go crazy and write negatively about the college which in turn would affect the students and parents.  Colleges need more help on how to handle situations involving sexual assault. 

Zaleski, K. L., Gundersen, K. K., Baes, J., Estupinian, E., & Vergara, A. (2016). Exploring rape culture in social media forums. Computers in Human Behavior, 922. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.036

 

This study follows a social media forum that deals with a post about a local television station talking about rape.  The comments ranged from blaming the victim, to having support groups, to counseling for the victim and how perpetrators should be handled.  This report is a fantastic tool for the final project because it shows that rape culture opens a big ‘Can of Worms’ per se about the opinions of either side of the situation.  Regardless of what side is talking about rape, there will always be discussions about it.

Refined Position

Rape can be preventable if we educate and provide safe places for those women at risk.  When we work together in high schools or colleges, we can to educate and be dedicated to preventing the situations where rape is higher (like college parties, bars etc.…).

Stereotypes

 There are several stereotypes that follow rapes and sexual assaults.  Some of those include: “Rapists are only strangers”.  This is a myth.  Only around 10% of rapes occur when victims do not know their rapist.  On the college scene, this could be someone that lives in the same dorm or it could be a classmate.  Another stereotype is that rape is linked to the way a victim dressed.  This is untrue.  The way a woman dresses has no significance on her asking to be sexually assaulted.  Another stereotype is that women say no but mean yes.  No means No. It does not matter if the woman was drinking if she says no she does not want anything to happen. 

Social Changes

 Prevention programs founded by the department of defense such as the Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network works with sexual assault service providers across the united states to set up tip lines for victims.  These prevention programs are always expanding, but they are not in every college across the country.  The small portion that they are a part of there has been a decrease in assaults and an increase in awareness of rape and sexual assault.

Historical Interpretations

 “Way back in 1957, sociologist Eugene Kanin posited a model where men used secrecy and stigma to pressure and exploit women” (Kamenetz, 2014).  During this time, women were seen as the stay-at-home mom, and along with making dinner and keeping the house clean, they were mandated to please their husband whenever the husband wanted.  This discouraged women, but they did not have a voice when it came to sex.  Especially when it came to marriage.  In the 1950s, there were many marital rapes that went unnoticed because the idea is that is what woman were for.  In the 1980s, the term “date rape” came into play.  It was not seen to be a criminal act to force your date into having sex, but rapes were occurring by victims being assaulted by a stranger (at least that is what the public thought).  As time went by, women became more entitled and it evolved the stereotype that rape is not only committed by strangers.  This brought about the phrase “No means No”, which is still used in our society today.  When one party says no, the other person must back off.

Modern Interpretations

 Modern interpretation lines are not well-defined and never have been.  There used to be a line which establishes the difference between date rape, sexual harassment, and sexual assault, but it is becoming questionable again.  The sad thing is that even asking somebody to go out on a date could be considered sexual harassment.  We need to educate our population with the correct information for instance: what is and what is not acceptable social behavior.  This will prevent future victims of sexual harassment and assault on campus’ and this will allow for situations to be clear and not misconstrued which will ultimately alter someone’s life completely.  There needs to be a clear way to identify true sexual assault victims and have resources they can turn to for guidance after the assault.  There also must be a way for college students to be able to connect with each other without being scared of negative consequences.

References

  • Carey, K. B., Durney, S. E., Shepardson, R. L., & Carey, M. P. (2015). Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: Prevalence across the first year. Journal of Adolescent Health56(6), 678–680. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.02.018
  • Giraldi, A., & Monk-Turner, E. (2017). Perception of rape culture on a college campus: A look at social media posts. Women’s Studies International Forum, 116. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.wsif.2017.05.001
  • Kamentz, A. (2014, November 30). The History of Campus Sexual Assault. Retrieved from NPR: https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2014/11/30/366348383/the-history-of-campus-sexual-assault
  • McCaughey, M., & Cermele, J. (n.d.). Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women’s Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention. TRAUMA VIOLENCE & ABUSE18(3), 287–302. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1177/1524838015611674
  • Moylan, C. A. (n.d.). “I Fear I’m a Checkbox”: College and University Victim Advocates’ Perspectives of Campus Rape Reforms. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN23(9), 1122–1139. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1177/1077801216655623
  • Zaleski, K. L., Gundersen, K. K., Baes, J., Estupinian, E., & Vergara, A. (2016). Exploring rape culture in social media forums. Computers in Human Behavior, 922. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.036

 

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