Research Into Correctional Methods For Female Offenders Criminology Essay

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The female gender in the United States is being jailed in large numbers. This is besides the fact that they are considered the least violent and most of the offenders are mainly nonviolent ones who had just turned into drugs and other substance abuse related crimes as a means to manage with the different life mechanisms after being victimized. Relational theory is here used as the basis for the study. The study tries to look into the ways in which a correctional program can be made to try and correct the female offenders. Relational theory in a wide berth tends to show in this case how the female gender in their psychological analysis, could have some connection of some sort with each other. When this connection is somehow broken, the female gender goes towards a downward trend of despair and emotional damage that leads her into getting involved with petty crimes and substance abuse.

This more so happens when the connection that gets damaged, occurs due to trauma or abuse, which are the two of the most evident forms of disconnect in the female offenders. This was done using a quantitative analysis of data which was used to gauge the outcomes of some of the women who had previously been in jail. The analysis further showed that, the age of some of the women who were studied and their criminal history and also the completion of the program they were undergoing were major dynamics when it came to whether they had their lives back up and running successfully. The qualitative data that was collected through the prison staff and other groups of inmates showed that the proposition that women in transition is as thin-skinned as can be to the needs of its contributors and might in essence act as an additive factor to be considered to minimize female offenders.

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There are a number of areas of research that the author narrows on. The most significant one is the act of recidivism in the female offenders. This is whereby one gets to find out how possible is an offender most likely to repeat the offence that he/she had already committed in the past. How frequent the offender did the offence is also a vital point to consider when evaluating the same. Another aspect that the author based much of the stipulated time was in the criminal history of the offender. This could be in relation to the family in general or rather when the accused was still a young person and had some history of doing some petty crimes while he/she was still in that generational outfit. Most scholars are in agreement that crimes that are committed are mainly done by the men and has therefore been considered a man affair. The rates at which men commit crime as compared to the women folk has always been miles apart. Women continually get sentenced for minor crimes. There was a 57% increase in the number of imprisoned male offenders between 1995 and 2005 while the female offenders had a 34% increase in the number of them that were imprisoned during the same period of time. Interestingly, the number of offenders in the male category was almost fifteen times more than the women offenders that had been imprisoned.

At the same time, the graveness of the crimes committed was more with the men than with the women. This was data as established by the bureau of justice statistics. Data continues to show that the women offenders are increasingly being punished for crimes or offences that are of less magnitude as compared to men. It is not uncommon to see female juvenile delinquents being more likely to be arrested for small time crimes as compared to their male counterparts who would most of the time escape the hatchet. On the basis of recidivism, it was more likely to find the males to be more likely to commit the crimes they had previously committed as compared to the female folk whose ratio on the same issue isn't as direct as most of them would have corrected themselves.

There were particular questions in the study that were continually being asked. Enough of the questions were worthy of the research and their inclusion heavily directed the way the final outlook was perceived both by other researchers and the general public. One of the study's questions was whether the Women in Transit (WIT) program was having its goal realized. The goal for the program was to have the intention of minimizing the participants' rate of repeating their offences. This was one question that formed a basis for the paper which was primarily supposed to look at the women in the correctional centers and what they were supposed to do once they were out of the prisons. Having done the minor offences and having a higher capability of getting jailed for the same as compared to the men folk, it was paramount to have the women offenders advised on how they could avoid similar instances of getting involved in the petty crimes. This was because for similar crimes that were committed by the men, it was evident that they would easily be punished for the offences.

Another question that was raised by the researcher was whether the program helped meet the relational wants of those who were participating. This could be judged by the response while they were doing the group sessions. This question was also important in establishing whether the program was beneficial to the participants and to the researcher or not. This research tool in form of a question was vital in the post release analysis where the participants that had undergone the program were judged on whether they had gained by gauging how they would respond to the outside world once they were released. This was also supposed to gauge whether the participant was now able to relate with the rest of the group and other outsiders amicably or they still had problems in some of their undertakings.

Another vital question that was evident was whether healthy relationships would ultimately reduce recidivism. This was important in gauging whether it was possible to have pure concentration on building and encouraging healthy relationships as they would in turn greatly and indefinitely minimize the recidivism factor. Healthy relationships to some foreseen extent help reduce recidivism as more friends and better relationships with family would bring the urge and the need to prevent oneself from getting to repeat an offence that would out the relationship in jeopardy. The study model uses quantitative and qualitative techniques to provide a more comprehensive picture that outlines the objectives in totality.

The literature reviewing of this study went into details and greatly informed the research of what was to come. Its theoretical underpinnings especially were especially vital in their giving of information to the research which in great extent helped in giving a direct focus for the group. The literature review in its totality gave a wholesome direction in how the research was to be conducted in gauging the number of prisoners in the correctional authorities who by gender showed that the research that had been done was up to standard. In its report, there was a clear indication on the primary objective of the research paper in the way the collected data was presented in the literature review. The data for the rate of imprisonment of women as compared to men in the same period of time showed a clear dimension on how the research and its findings were to benefit the public and the participants as a whole. This is because the research was based on the responses for some participants who were part of the people who had been put in the correctional facilities.

The design used in the research for this particular cause, that is the Women in Transit program, was impact evaluation research. Impact evaluations to a large extent give direction to the policymakers in their intention of designing and implementing the programs that had been put in action. The study in totality just drives to answer the question of whether the program that has been used in creating change, in this case the women folk in the prisons, was successful or not. A vital part in the design for the research was its application in the relational theory in the direction of the explanation of how the program delivers its services and also how it achieves its objectives.

The main findings for the study was that the imminent growth of the female offenders has greatly affected a variety of things including prison construction that has had enormous population and increased attention on the need to understand and appreciate the female criminal. The findings greatly suggest that the women offenders are punished regardless of their psychological, social and political inclinations. The women offenders are punished n terms and ways not proportional to their offences.


The research established a number of facts and in essence made findings that if taken would greatly benefit the women folk and the society in general. The aspect of having offenders repeating their offences immediately or some time after being released from correctional centers wasn't good and was supposed to be studied on the causes and the measures that could be taken to avert this great crisis. There was also the aspect of trying to find better means of punishing minor female offenders who often got punishment that wasn't proportional to the indecent acts committed. There was a great finding in that the criminals were supposed to be punished smarter and not harder.