Relationships That Exist Between Drugs And Alcohol Criminology Essay

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The aim of this essay is to look into the relationship that exists between drug, alcohol and crime. To achieve this various meaning of the term drugs, alcohol and crime would be explained. The relationship between drugs, alcohol and crime would be looked into It went further to look into the relationship that exists between alcohol, drugs and crime.

Alcohol

According to the Medical dictionary ( 2002) alcohol is define as "an organic substance which one or more group called hydroxyl (OH) are put together with carbon (C) atom in the place of hydrogen (H) atom". It is also known as ethanol and can easily be found in wine, beer and liquor. High rate of usage can cause change in behaviour according to the Medical dictionary (2002). Alcohol has been know and argued to be associated with a wide range of criminal offences (WHO, 2008).

Drugs

The Misuse of drugs Act 1971 objective is to avoid the abuse of controlled drugs. This is classified in to class A, B, C groups. Class A consists of heroin, ecstasy, Cocaine. Class B consist of amphetamines and codeine and class C consist of temazepam and cannabis. According to Adint (1997) stated that are two ways that drugs are been sold namely through the streets and licensed pharmacies. The medicines that sold for the treatment and preventions of diseases are sold by licence pharmacies. Medicine has two part - prescribe and over -the counter drugs. (Adint, 1997.pp 8) "Prescription drugs are medicines that only pharmacists can legally sell. They can be sold only to people who have had a doctor prescribe the proper dosage and strength. Over-the-counter drugs can be bought without a doctor's prescription. These drugs include aspirin, cough syrup and vitamins, prescription and over-the-counter drugs are legal". (Allen, 2007) gives some example of street drug which are heroin, cocaine and marijuana, this drugs are illegal in the UK. He went further explain that these drugs does not meet safety standard and they are been produce in laboratories, of which the people run these are called chemists and those that make it are called cooks.

Crime

The legal dictionary defines "crime as an act or omission which is prohibited by criminal law and punished, usually by fine and imprisonment". (Morrison, 2011) stated that crime is also that state of error or act that causes harm and which the party that are involve in it will be held responsible and accountable, and will face punishment no matter what the law book of that state say. Morrison went further to explain that crime being the act or omission has been identified by the legality of the state or nation passed laws, in which when such crime is committed or occurred there should be punishment resulting from that behaviour. When social activities are not being police or the authorities in charge are not capable of doing there duty then there is nothing like crime. The existence of crimes and criminals can only surface when the authorise body in charge of such act has judge the party involved according to the accepted procedure that has been put in place (Morrison 2011).

Alcohol and Crime Relationship

According to the British Medical Association website 2011, stated that Alcohol is immensely related with crime. The found out that 60 to 70 per cent of homicide, stabbings has 70 per cent and home assaults or fighting has 50 per cent in Britain is influence by alcohol. In additional to this they found out that the non-violent offences is actual strong as well: 88 per cent, 83 per cent, 41 per cent and 26 per cent are arrested for criminal damage, breach of peace, theft and burglary respectively, had drunk five hours earlier to their apprehension.

The usage of alcohol and drug can easily be evident in many ways with respect to criminology (Flower, 1999). The usage of drugs that has been proven to be harmful to human as well as its possession (illicit drugs) is forbidden by law (WHO, 2008). Alcohol usage by adult is proven legal by law and illegal by minors, it is also illegal for adult to sell or give alcohol to minors. (Flower, 1999 p.32) "Stated that the excess usage of this substance has shown that it has a direct correlation to the commission of other crime such as violet crime, economic crime, sex crime and drug crime".

There as been a correlation between the usage of alcohol and other related crime in almost all part of the world, and this has been documented and has also been a great deal of concern ( Flower, 1999).

(The World Health Organisation (WHO) the European Charter base on alcohol, sited in an online article from the Institute of Alcoholic Studies, 2009) "Stated that all individual have the right to a family, community and working life protected from accidents, violence and other negative consequences of alcohol consumption". The (IAS 2009) argued that alcohol have been link to a wide range of criminal offences, it is also argued that in addition to the offences there are other offences like that of drunkenness and drinking while driving, of which the major offences committed there is that of excessive drinking. Crimes that are committed through the influence of alcohol have been a major concern for the public for years now. (IAS 2009) stated that in England and Wales alone have about 70% issues of alcohol in the year 1998 and 1999, p predominantly in connection to public chaos. Crimes that are associated with alcohol have always been a concern for the public, because it always related to an offence - like those that are involved in a mixture of criminal harm offences (drunkenness, disorderly and other offences that are related to public disorder). The mixture of this offence has been argued by the IAS involving males from the age range of 18 - 30, female are also increasingly involved in this, where they are seen in and around entertainment areas around most city centre and pubs.(Bennett and Holloway, 2005) stated also that in town and most city centre there has been an deep concern about community drunkenness mostly on young folks. This has made the former "Shadow Home Secretary" Jack Straw in 1997 under the new Labour Government to admit the fact that this crime that are been caused by alcohol are life threaten - "he said that every year, there are almost 1.5million victim of violet attacks committed by people under the influence of drink (excluding domestic violence). Every weekend people avoid there town and city centres for fear that they would be attacked or intimidated by drunken youths" (IAS FACTSHEET, 2011, pp. 3). However, due to this the government initiated a strategic programme to deal with this act of related crime, nuisance and disorder.

Drugs and Crime Relationship

Drugs are associated to crime in numerous ways. Most openly, it is a crime that is use, possess, making or allocate drugs categorized as having a possible action for abuse such as amphetamines, cocaine and marijuana." Drugs are also related to crime through the effects they have on the user's behaviour and by generating violence and other illegal activity in connection with drug trafficking "(ONDPC, 2000). According to research by ONDCP (2000) shows that 42. 5 per cent and 78.7 per cent of male and female arrestee in two cities namely Alaska and Pennsylvania respectively where accused and arrested for drug custody. It shows further that female arrestees were charged with prostitution and possession of drugs were tested drug positive; people that were arrested for burglary, stolen vehicles and robbery were highly tested positive to drugs.

The next aspect of drug -related crime is committing an crime to acquire money to sustenance drug use. According to investigation by the Federal and State prison inmates as cited in BBC NEW- online (2002) stated that 17 per cent and 10 per cent of State and Federal prisoners respectively committed the offences with view to get money to purchase drugs .However, the amount of drug-related murders has decreased in current years. Though drugs is still the central issues leading to the complete number of every homicides.

Bibliography and Reference

Morrison, W. (2011) what is crime? Contrasting definition and perspectives. Available Online at http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199227297/hale2e_ch01.pdf. Accessed on 10th February 2011.

Missue of Drugs Act (1971) law enforcement and punishment of offences, Online at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/section/23. Assessed on 12th February 2011.

Adint,V.,( 1997) Drugs and crime, Rosen, New York.

Bennett, T., Holloway K. (2005) Understanding drugs ,alcohol and crime, McGraw, England.

Allen,C.,(2007)Crime ,Drugs and Social theory, A.Phenomenological Approach,Ashgate. England.

BMA (2011) Standing up for doctors. Online at: http://www.bma.org.uk./

Accesses on 12th February 2011.

Institute of Alcohol and Studies ( 2011) Alcohol and Crime- IAS Factsheets. Available Online at http://www.ias.org.uk/resources/factsheets/crime.pdf. Accessed on 10th February 2011.

ONDCP(2000) Drug policy information clearing house. Drug related crime. Online at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html. Assessed on 12th February 2011.

BBC NEW (2000) Tracking drugs related crime. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1846910.stm. Assessed 12th February 2011

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