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In this paper I would like to show the current situation with drug trafficking in the US. In this work I'd like to show my own view on the drug trafficking problem.
First of all I'd like to say that USA drug market - one of the most lucrative in the world. More than 13 million Americans (a population of approximately 292 million people) are constantly acquire drugs. Black market drugs turnover exceeds $ 60 billion. Drug addicts commit about half of all street crimes - robberies and burglaries.
According to UN statistics, the world's most popular drug addicts use hemp, it employs 147 million people, 33 million use stimulants, 13 million people - cocaine and opium, 9 million people use heroin, and 7 million - ecstasy.
In addition to this, the official number of drug addicts around the world in 2002 was about 185 million people. However, Interpol estimated in 1999 that this number had reached 200 million. The percentage of people which use certain types of drugs, is 3,1% of the total population of the planet.
As for sex addicts, most of them - men, despite the fact that in some countries there has been a growing drug addiction among women.
World's leading producer of cocaine is Colombia. Previously, the first place of growing opium poppies and heroin production hold Afghanistan. But after the destruction of the global acreage of opium poppy championship it belong to Myanmar.
The turnover of the global drug industry is estimated by UN experts, some 400 billion dollars per year, representing about 8% of the all international trade turnover .
In the late 90's the total national budget of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru amounted $ 9 billion. Only the Colombian cartels, submitted by more than 500 companies in the late 90's of XX century were recovered from the drug trade $ 20 billion.
What is more, the problem of illicit drug production is closely intertwined with other global problems of humanity, such as the problem of AIDS.
Public opinion polls show that roughly three-quarters of Americans believe the US losing war on drugs. Two out of every ten Americans, told Gallup, that the drugs have caused problems in their families, more than 40% fear that their family members can become addicted.
It seems to me that solving of these problems in the following concepts of drug addiction. These concepts were provided by US government and I propose to argue them in my work.
The first concept involves enhancing the traditional model: the full and extremely tough fight drug traffickers and drug producers, including fight outside the USA, and the tightening of drug laws. Critics of this approach argue that it is impossible to completely eradicate drug abuse, because drug use has always been a "shadow" of civilization. Stricting anti-drug laws will lead to the fact that prisons are full of prisoners, whose only fault - small amounts of drugs which was found at them. Enhancing the role of law enforcement will inevitably lead to conflict of interest on the part of police and security services, the manipulation of laws and limit the civil rights of ordinary mortals. In addition, the U.S. intervention in the internal affairs of other states, can have negative consequences.
The second concept involves an emphasis on reducing drug use. In particular, the emphasis is supposed to do strengthen advocacy. Drug traffickers should be punished most severely, but people convicted of drug possession or use should not be subjected to serious penalties. Critics of this strategy argue that health promotion is not capable reducing the level of drug use significantly. In addition, the de facto impunity drug traffickers will do drugs widely available, increasing the number of people who can not resist the temptation to try them.
The third concept proposes to change the approach to drug addicts - they should not be regarded as criminals but as patients who should not be punished and treated. The state should decriminalize drugs - to make them legal, that allows you to control their sale and will not allow contact with drugs young people. In addition, this strategy can reduce the power of criminal gangs. Opponents believe that the availability of drugs would only facilitate their wider dissemination, and methodologies that could guarantee to deliver for drug addicts, does not exist yet.
Drugs have appeared in the USA in XIX century, but they are not considered a problem. Doctors commonly prescribed drugs such as morphine and opium to patients as sleeping pills, painkillers and means to improve overall body tone. However, already in 1906, drugs in the USA were included to the list of drugs prohibited for use in medical applications. In 1930 the USA was first set up a special administration for drug control under the supervision of the Department of Treasure. As a result, a series of reorganizations and mergers, was created US Drug Enforcement Administration, a division of the Department of Justice. In the US Drug Enforcement Administration has about 20 thousand people. Beside US Drug Enforcement Administration, the fight drug function was assigned to all USA special services. This kind of activity engaged in CIA, FBI, State Department, Customs, Coast Guard, tax services, police, etc.
In 2002, USA secret service involved in combating drug trafficking, spent more than 27.6 thousand arrests (it's twice as much as in 1985). They confiscated 61.5 tons of cocaine, 705 kilograms of heroin, over 195 tons of marijuana, 118 million doses of ecstasy and 11.5 million doses of various hallucinogens. Year by year the number of drug seizures increased, but this shows not only the success of the DEA, but also an increase in the supply of drugs in the U.S.. In 1960 only 4 million Americans have narcotic experience - by 1980 the number had risen to 70 million
Approximately 80% of all drugs sold in the U.S. come to America from abroad. In 2002, the budget anti-drug services in the U.S. totaled about $ 18.2 billion, from which 12% was spent on border control, and 6% - to assist other States in the fight against drug trafficking. According to US Customs Service, the US border cross 60 million people, 116 million cars every year. 90 thousand passenger and cargo vessels, and 157 thousand small boats, yachts, enter the territorial waters of the United States. To watch all the boats and cars impossible - these facts enjoy the carriers of drugs. South America (primarily Colombia), and Mexican criminal groups have taken to the US cocaine and heroin. Criminals from the former Soviet Union and Israel virtually monopolized the US market "ecstasy", delivered from Western Europe. Local criminal groups specialize in the manufacture of LSD and marijuana cultivation.
Official US policy in the fight against drug trafficking is based on two main principles: first, makes every effort to reduce drug consumption in the US, and secondly, in every possible way to limit the supply of foreign drugs. Over the years, US Drug Enforcement Administration has opened dozens of offices around the world, whose employees are obliged in cooperation with local law enforcement agencies to identify ways of transporting drugs into the United States. In addition, the US is actively implementing the "substitution" program , whose aim is to convince farmers cultivating narcotic plants, to abandon this business. So as growing opium poppies or coca much more profitable than potatoes or corn, farmers are given financial compensation. For example, only the last five years the US has provided Colombia about $ 5 billion to implement such programs. In addition, the US trained and armed anti-drug services of countries from which the US is the main flow of drugs.
It is a burning question whether we should pay, because recently, President Obama unveiled a national strategy to reduce drug use and its consequences. The new-balanced and integrated approach focuses on prevention, treatment, prosecution and international cooperation.
I should stress that, Obama unveiled for the first time the host administration National Strategy for Combating Drugs, which puts the five-year goal of reducing drug use and its consequences through a balanced policy of prevention, treatment, prosecution and international cooperation. The strategy was developed by the state of U.S. policy in the control of illicit drugs (ONDCP), with the participation of various partners at the federal level, at the states and lat the locality.
"This strategy provides a balanced approach to solving the complex problem of drug abuse and its aftermath - said Obama - Strengthening local prevention, expanding treatment, strengthening the work of law enforcement and working together with our partners around the world, we would reduce the consumption of drugs and the enormous damage that it causes to our society. I'm sure when we will take steps outlined in this strategy, we will make our country stronger and our people - more healthy and secure."
Furthermore strategy of 2010 emphasizes the cooperative and balanced approach with an emphasis on preventive work in the field, the integration of evidence-based treatment in general health care system, innovations in the criminal justice system to break the vicious circle of addiction and crime, and creating international partnerships to combat transnational organizations involved in illegal drug trafficking.
In addition to this during the nationwide auditions when the public are invited to contribute to the formulation of strategy, public policy director of the United States Office for the drug trafficking control Gil Kerlikovske met with police and doctors, representatives of organizations involved in the treatment of drug addicts, people recovering after treatment, the elected officials officials, correctional officers, scholars, groups of parents, religious leaders and others. The consultation process identified a number of significant fact, linking the drug problem with the main political priorities of the administration, including the economy, health care reform, youth development, public safety, military and veterans' issues and international relations.
I'd like to quote the phrase of director Kerlikovske, whose attention is focused on the following: "In carrying out instructions of President Obama to seek broad public input into this strategy, I realized anew how deeply Americans concerned about the drug problem - said the director Kerlikovske. - It affects virtually every one of us who have a relative, friend or colleague who suffers from drug addiction or recovering from it, police officers, working to protect the public, or parents seeking the protection of their children from drugs. "
Strategy of 2010 sets the reducing drug use five-year goal and its consequences, including:
â€¢ reduce drug use among youth by 15 percent;
â€¢ reduce drug use among young adults by 10 percent;
â€¢ reduce the number of chronic addicts by 15 percent;
â€¢ reduce deaths from drugs at 15 percent, and
â€¢ reduce the incidence of driving under the influence of drugs at 10 percent.
Moreover, the strategy outlined three significant problems with drug addiction, which the administration will focus this year: the abuse of prescription drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and drug abuse prevention. Abuse of prescription drugs in the US is the fastest-growing narcotics problem, which in recent years has resulted significant drug overdose. Driving under the influence of drugs poses a threat to public safety, as evidenced by a recent survey on the roads, which showed that one in six drivers in the evenings at the weekend gave a positive test result for drugs in the body. Prevention of drug abuse before it occurs - the best way to protect America's youth from drugs. Under solving each of these issues the strategy provides a scientifically based, evidence-and collaborative approach.
The problem is far from solving yet, but elements of the new strategy will also include a concerted effort, making it possible the restoring for every American, suffering from drug addiction, through an expanding network of community fight drug addiction centers and develop new drugs and treatments, confirmed this dependence. Further law enforcement support, criminal justice system, combating drug trafficking and drug production in the country, working with partners to reduce the global drug trade, and innovative public programs, such as the courts, play a critical role in reducing drug use in America and its consequences.