Society is guilty if anyone suffers unjustly": Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer
Rehabilitation of Acid Attack Victims
India is a society where the male is greatly revered. Therefore women who always counts as a marginalized section of the society gets a very little respect and standing in this country. To suppress or to oppress the weaker section (i.e women) of the society crime against women is normal.
Women are the easiest for an individual which can be easily targeted. In my research I have focused on one of the violent crime which comes under the hate crime and can be easily Acid violence is a particularly vicious and damaging form of violent crime in India where acid is thrown in people’s faces. The overwhelming majority of the victims are women. The victims are attacked for many reasons. In some cases it is because a young girl or women has spurned the sexual advances of a male or either she or her parents have rejected a proposal of marriage. Recently, however, there have been acid attacks on children, older women and also men. These attacks are often the result of family and land dispute, dowry demands or a desire for revenge. This hate crime has become heinous in nature and because of this crime against women in India has come up to a greater extent.
Acid throwing on the face and body of another person to cause or produce grievous injuries is a barbaric act of vengeance. Form the past few years; it has been observed that there is rise in both urban and rural areas of India. The perpetrators are mostly men and adolescent boys. The victims are females and mostly young girls.
Acid throwing is a very brutal form of violence. Acid is a corrosive substance that can corrode metal. Once in contact with skin, acid causes skin tissue to melt, exposing the bones underneath or leading to the loss of eye(s), ear, nose and or irreparable damage to hands or joints. Permanent physical disfigurement is unavoidable and serious disability is frequent. The legal use of acid is mostly industrial but it is easily available in the market. Although there are strict boundations in selling of the acid and there is a proper control over it even though acid is easily available in the market. Acid burns differ from flame burns in its velocity and its effect on bones. Acid injuries are usually much deeper and acid effects the skin tissues faster than flame. Furthermore, flame burns are affecting the tissues and soft bones, not the hard bones, while acid is aggressive enough to cause permanent damage even to hard bones.
For the last few years, it has been on the rise in both urban and rural areas of India. Cheap and easy availability of acids makes it the most effective weapon for man to use against girls' or young women for revenge and is one of the extreme forms of repression and violation of women's right. The objective of this study was to analyze some case studies to find out the reasons for attacks, and the rehabilitation of the victims of the acid attack and to estimate which age groups are more vulnerable for acid attacks.
- Statement of the problem
Acid is a dangerous weapon as a gun is and it is freely available to anyone in form of a toilet cleaner or as a disinfectant. It is observed that the Victims of the acid attack are not getting enough facilities by which they can rehabilitate or reform themselves. This is what makes a acid attack victim to go through the secondary victimization. The loopholes of the state and the criminal justice system which is encouraging factor to the accused and to heel up these loopholes Indian Penal Code with the passing of the criminal law(amendment) act, 2013, was amended on the 2nd of April, 2013 which has included sections 326A and 326B in the Indian Penal Code. Government has introduced Victim Compensation Scheme mainly related to the Victims of the acid attack. Government has also initiated to minimize this heinous crime by curbing the dealers of acid by making strict boundations over the selling of the acids. But despite all of this there are no specific facilities for the victims of the acid attack and there are no state responsibilities over the rehabilitation of the victims of acid attacks. It has been attempted to find out how the provisions of laws mainly 326A and 326B has been able to promote and facilitate the Victims of acid attack in National Capital Region. It has been also examined the various dynamics at the rehabilitation factors while identifying the hindering factors. In connection with Victims of acid attack the study has found out whether criminal justice system plays any role in promotion or facilitation of acid attack victims. The rehabilitation of the acid attack victim needs three common aspects which are physical, psychological and economical support.
- Objective of the study
First objective of my study is to find out that, is there any policy or legal remedies for Victims of acid attack in India mainly in National Capital Region? If yes, then in what form, up to what extent and what are the different channels through which it influences the social welfare of acid attack victims.
Second objective is to study the socio-economic profile of the respondents i.e. Victims of the acid attack.
Third objective of my study is to find out that, is acid attack a part of “hate crime” done by the ruling gender? If yes, how does it accomplish this task?
Fourth objective of my study is to understand the role of different social groups in rehabilitation of the victims of the acid attack in National Capital Region of India.
- Scope of Study
The phenomenon of rehabilitation has become an essential instrument for victims of the acid attack. It has acquired special significance in the Rehabilitation of the acid attack victims. There are various dimensions used by the state and NGOs for rehabilitation process of the victims. Being of this the intention is not to cover all these dimensions. The present study is planned from the perspective of social science perspective in which criminology and psychological perspective will play a vital role to understand the problems related to the their rehabilitation.
- Basic Assumptions
The study is exploratory in nature. The study is concerned with understanding the interrelationships between people and their physical and social environment. The study has both the historical as well as empirical perspective. It will be conducted in the National Capital Region of India. The National Capital Region has been selected precisely because it has experienced various acid attacks and crime against violence.
It also looks for the types of social challenges the Victims of acid attack face from the other communities in the society. The study will document the consequences that Victims of acid attack have been facing after the attack and the secondary victimization faced by them during the trails and procedure made under the criminal justice system of the state.
Theoretically and methodologically there is a great potential in the study. The study will contribute to develop new insights on crime against women issues relating to gender discrimination and inequality within the society. Findings about the social factors will enrich the academic debate on the issue of crime against women. It will also guide criminological practice with the disadvantaged group of victims of acid attack.
- Research Questions
To achieve the above objectives the following questions were addressed in the study.
1. What is the profile of Victims of acid attack?
2. How they become victims of this crime?
3. What was the judgment and participation of the criminal justice system in their rehabilitation?
4. What is the present condition of the Victims of the acid attack?
5. Is there any variation in nature of rehabilitation of acid attack victims of the people with other victims of crime against women?
6. What are the cause factors that promote Acid attacks?
7. What is the perception of Criminal justice system about Victims of the Acid attack?
8. What is the perception of Social groups about Victims of the Acid attack?
9. Are there any factors within the Victims of acid attack themselves, which provoke accused or cause acid attack?
11. Has the feminist movement or Social group’s role in promotion or facilitation of new laws for acid attacks?
12. What are the challenges the Victims of the acid attacks are facing in society?