CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION:
- Background of the study
Security is a basic need of every individual living in any country, as being safe is the right of every individual. For the purpose of security there are organizations made, form the ancient times the people who take care and makes sure that every person is safe. The concept came in with the rulers having their guards who used to carry any type of weapon in every other era and after that for the people’s security this concept of security evolved. As the need for a savior was seen when there were increase in crimes as for there wasn’t any public entity who worked on it to make sure that the people of that particular area are safe. This lead to an organization whose sole purpose was to make the public secure and help them in any case of issues that they have from security. So police came into being and every other country has a police department that works for the safety of people. There are also other agencies that work on this but not on a big level like the police are working for the people.
Police is made to regulate and enforce law in the country; it is such organizations who work for the safety as well as their activities make the country’s economic condition stable. It is considered as an important organ to the country, but if there is corruption in such a state organ then how the country can be stable and do it’s working. The influence of external forces on country’s security organizations leads to problems and difficulties and that too is not good for the economic situation of the country.
When Pakistan’s police forces are taken into consideration, it is divided according to the provinces. The police force of Punjab is considered the most active and also large force as Punjab is a large province. But the politics with in such an organization is not beneficial for any country as the research is based on such politics and the issues that are preventing the police to work efficiently and to make the country stable. The police force of Pakistan force of Pakistan was established on the Colonial Act of Police 1861, which was made against the British Rule that to achieve some specific objectives of its own. After the independence efforts were made on the police force and there was this complete package for the police that is Police Order that came in 2002. It was thoroughly implemented and people did work on it and also police worked according to it but it vanished by the rulers at that time as for they didn’t want the country to flourish or maybe there were external forces that suppressed the forces ability to work better. This leaving behind a big force but that cannot work efficiently for the security of the country and day by day the situation is becoming worse for the citizens of Pakistan to live. A secure country is becoming a myth for the Pakistani people. This research is done to understand and reveal what are the actual problems that are leading the police force to work in such a manner.
- Aims and Objectives of the Research
This research was conducted in order to find the issues and the problems that are not seen by the general public as for what are the basic reasons of inefficient working of Pakistani police force and in depth study to reveal out the problems that they are facing and what else is causing such lack of efficient performance by them. The below are the aims and objectives of my research:
- To examine the police force’s working
- To study and reveal the problems with in the force
- To search why the performance is so low
- To study and examine what are the reforms that can be placed
To see how can the reforms be implemented
- Research Questions
The following are the research questions that were examined and studied in this research:
The major question was:
Q.1: Reasons for the Pakistan Police to be ineffective and how to revamp it to make it an efficient force?
The secondary questions that were examined as in to support and enhance the major question of this research, these are:
Q.1: what are the police reforms that are needed?
Q.2: Did law and order improve to deteriorate after implementing the Police Order 2002?
Q.3: Is police order of 2002 dead or is still in vogue?
Q.4: Do we have any successful model of policing in country and how to bring the police at par?
All the above mentioned questions were examined in this research as for making it easier to understand and examine the major question was broken down in the other above mentioned questions.
- Problem Statement
The Police is always been in action for the country and the civilians as to safe guard them and make them feel free while they take care of the crimes in the country. The police is the major force that effects on the activities like theft, street crimes and other criminal activities to be prevented. Their efforts are a must for the sake of the country and for the public, they are such a force that works just to make the people feel safe in the country. The police force staility and effective performance actually leads towards a stable economy, peaceful and healthy environment. There may be external forces that has a wide impact on the working of police these can include foreign forces, corruptions in the government or the unemployemnet that is forcing people towards crime is another scene of the law enforcement but these can always be suppressed if the government gives support to the Police and other agencies. There is a worldwide network of the police agencies that are all working for their own country’s peace and prosperity there are agencies working together to maintain world peace these are international police forces working from a long time ago.
As it is mentioned above that the police has been working for the safety, security of the citizens and for the peace and prosperity of the country but the research shows where there are these problems that are arising in these activities and the research is narrowed down basically to the problems being faced in the Pakistani Police system.
Pakistan is a nation of diverse group of people, having different characteristics, they are from different religions, casts and therefore their culture also differs and this is what creates some times a tension in between the people but here is where the police forces have to work and to take over the differences and to maintain peace among these diverse groups. Pakistan is an un developed country and is still no stable after spending 60+ years after its independence there are still many issues regarding to the security and the safety of all the people in the country and there are still issues arising that are being faced mostly by the general public. Pakistani government has always been involved in activities and is an active member of different conferences but these issues never resolve, it can be said that there is this lack of attention from the government that has been leading to such a haphazard and full of tension situations in the country.
As for the police’s structure is also divided for the provinces, police forces for activities obviously needs equipments and that too should be new and modern with the better handling by the police but in Pakistan the most well equipped police force is that of Punjab as it is considered the largest police force among the other three forces. This act doesn’t make any balance of equality and results in more hazards. As there are crimes and terrorism in every province and this favor to the Punjab police makes the first step towards national politics in the police forces. It is likely to be understood that the major issues are to be considered during the research the foremost includes the politics, the suppression from the external forces and the lack of interests also due to the less wages to the police forces. There are some reforms that are there and that should be implemented in the police force and that too should be by force cause as seen in the past the Police act of 2002 was removed and demolished as the reform would have changed more of the situations of the country as the reform said that it is one law for the whole of the country and that it makes the officers obliged towards their duties and the foremost condition was that they must be professional, service oriented and also be accountable to the people of the country. The reform was to be enforced all at one time and was to be followed in order to enhance the performance of the police. But this wasn’t implied or implemented by the government of that time and it was hid behind as to the nation was being used for their own benefits and the rights of the civilians were being neglected and this wasn’t an issue till that time but continued to remain in the country till now it is the same. We see the government working on the orders of external forces the terrorists with in the country and those are trying to work according to their own rules and leaving behind the police and other law enforcement agencies in misery. This is what is actually leading the forces towards an ineffective police force.
- Rationale of study
The actual rationale of the research that was the first thought that I had before conducting the research is that to make my country a place where the civilians can live in a easy and peaceful condition. That to make Pakistan such a place that no issues or problems will arrive and that it becomes a peaceful as well as a secure place to live, there are certain issues for the security and that should be resolved. My study and research is just a small apart of effort that I’ll be making to achieve bigger goals in settling those issues, as we have been seeing for years that people around the globe think that Pakistan is such an not peaceful as well as unsecure state that is leading toward less tourists and also people are moving out from the country considering it as an unsecured area for their families to live. Also there are these international agencies that are working against the peace reforms in Pakistan and that are what I want to reveal through my study and this was the actual reason that to show what are the reasons and the issues that were behind the implementation of the order of 2002.
- Significance of the research
The research will help more in the political and the reforms that are a part of making the police of Pakistan to prosper and also make the peace and security of the country better, to reveal and to search about the effects that will happen after reforms are implemented and that to make Pakistan a better and secure country for everyone to live in as Pakistan is now being considered as a third world country and also it is being considered that there are many terrorist organizations that are becoming a part of our nation and that is misleading our country’s image in the eyes of other countries. This research is being done to actually change the image of Pakistan and to make it secure for people to live and this research has its reason to become effective and divert the attention of the higher officials towards more of the security in the country. There is a lot work done on this area but all the work has to be reviewed in order to make it in such a way to be implemented in to the county by the government. The police should actually be so self assured and also self aware of the capabilities and they must be self motivated to understand and act as per the situation to handle it in a more effective way. We can’t blame it to only the police as there are many external influences on the police itself that leading towards inefficient behavior. The government should always keep a check and balance on the police this research includes those key points that should be a part of the country’s behavior and the constitutions as well.
Chapter -2 Literature Review
Reforming Pakistan’s Police and Law Enforcement Infrastructures
2.1 Summary of the research
- An efficient well-functioning police services is critical to counterinsurgency as well as counterterrorism efforts in Pakistan, now and in the future. At the same time the police force must also address rising crime rates and a deteriorating law- and- order situation, among many other tasks.
- The capacity of the Pakistan Police service to deliver on all these forensic severely diminished by political manipulation, the lack of forensic services, inadequate training and equipment, corruption and weaknesses in the judicial sphere. Disconnected and lack of coordination between numerous kinds of policing and intelligence organizations are a major hurdle on the path of leading to collective strategizing
- Upgrading the current police system as the central law enforcement institution in the country cannot occur in isolation, however instead it must be a part of an overarching
Chapter-3 Research Methodology
This chapter will cover most of the part that will clear any doubts that are there about the research methodology, as it should be cleared out that what were the methods that were followed to achieve the results of this research. This chapter will cover the phases such as the data collection, analysis and methods of all these workings. This research is done on a country’s perspective that needs an in depth study of all the reforms and issues that are still being faced.
3.2 Research Methodology
For every work there is suppose to be a plan or a step by step systematic structure that helps the work to be ran smoothly and so when it comes to the research methodology it is a plan that is a systematic plan given to the actions that will be taking place in this research regarding to the topic the research methodologies change and this is obvious as the nature of the questions are never the same and so isn’t the methodology. Research methodologies are followed as a standard in the world for any type of research
When we consider the issue of Police department in Pakistan there are many issues that are exposed but there are also some issues that the public is unaware of and this research is conducted to actually show these issues and also to see what are the actions that can be taken in order to change the problems and issues that are involved in the research, so considering such a nature of descriptions and in depth analysis the methodology that I chose for this research is qualitative as the nature of a qualitative research methodology is that when in depth surveys are done and questions and interviews are used as tools to collect information from the different group of people to actually understand what are the actual issues and what measures can be taken in this topic.
1.3 Research Philosophy
Where there are two types of research philosophies and the selection here also depends on the nature of the topic. These two types are positivist and interpretivist, when the work is done on observable social changes and lawmaking this is the type of philosophy used in such researches that leads to a clear understanding, it gives a more scientific practice to the research. If working with the concepts that are much more composite and there are multiple equation with variables, this is also on the societies events but differs from the other philosophy, this is known as interpretivist philosophy.
The topic of this research as discussed above is more to make changes in the society and the behavior of the police officials and so to implement the reforms that were made and are to be made and so this will be changing the society so the positivist philosophy in this research in accordance with its nature.
When it comes to the research approach as it is becoming more specific from a general approach it is the deductive approach that is being used as from the police agencies all over the world the research only comes down to the police of Pakistan and particularly their issues. As the nature of deductive approach is to cut down from a general perspective to a specific topic, this approach is being used.
The samples within the research were those specified people who were a part of the police force, or are still a part of it, other than that the judges and other people who are directly or indirectly related to the police force of Pakistan as their opinions and their experiences will help e more to get to my results.