Problems Of Families Of Prisoners And Detainees Criminology Essay

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Maat Foundation for Peace , Development and Human Rights is a civil non-profit organization subject to the law No. 84 of 2002 it registered under the number 3166 of 2008 , the Foundation is an extension and expansion of the activities of Maat Center for Juridical and Constitutional Studies.

As a complement to its efforts in the area of democracy and human rights. Foundation comes from the founders belief that there can be no development, democracy and respect human rights only if the dissemination and application of a culture of peace within the community.

Therefore, the Foundation seeks to merge Rights Based Approach and the exploitation of its mechanisms and its potential in achieving the goals of the institution and its mission of establishing the rules of integrated development and ensure respect for the principles of democracy and human rights.

Objectives of the Foundation:

Disseminate, promote and consolidate a culture of peace, democracy and human rights, renounce violence and fight against crime and corruption.

Activating the international charters and conventions in support of the just and lasting peace, human rights and raise public awareness.

to promote and encourage democratic practices, good governance and the rule of law.

raise the awareness of citizens on the legal and constitutional rights.

to raise the awareness and training of young leaders in the NGOs.

Prepare studies and legal research to contribute to the development of the legislative structure. to provide legal and judicial support for the marginalized and vulnerable groups to the competent authorities.

Activities of the Foundation:

holding seminars, conferences, workshops, training courses and awareness campaigns.

publication of books, pamphlets and periodicals.

preparation of studies and field research for activities.

to promote the harmonization and coordination, cooperation and exchange of experiences among NGOs , local, regional and international organizations.

Maat derives its reference from a lot of legal sources the most important are Egyptian constitution , international humanitarian law , international treaties including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Charter of the United Nations , the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social as the natural base of justice and the rule of law and upholding the values of right and equality.

Conditions of the Families of Prisoners from the Reality of the Database

This is the first quarterly report to be issued by the integrated protection project for the families of prisoners and detainees, "the integration and rehabilitation," which is implemented by Maat Foundation for Peace, Development and Human Rights funded by the Swiss Foundation Drosos since March 2012 and until the end of February 2015.

The project seeks to improve access for families of prisoners and detainees of their economic and social development through, improving the economic status of families of prisoners and detainees in the targeted areas, provide mechanisms to improve the educational situation for the children of the families of prisoners and detainees and to enable them to integrate into the community, and provide mechanisms to resolve family disputes and to provide social counseling and legal assistance to the families of prisoners and detainees.

The project relies on an integrated set of activities which is represented in building a database through needs of the target group, the implementation of training for professional and vocational activities and build the basic skills of the target group, to assist the target group to access to employment opportunities and microfinance and access to pensions and benefits law, mobilizing community resources for educational assistance for the children of the families of prisoners and detainees, to enable young people and children to integrate into the community through the camps and trips, provide assistance and legal and family advice for the target group.

Project of integrated protection for the families of prisoners and detainees "the Integration and Rehabilitation" is implemented in the six centers and administrative districts belonging to the governorates of Giza and Cairo, which, Atfih Center - Maasara District - El Basateen District - Al-Khalifa - Imbaba - Bulaq al-Dakrour.

It is expected that at least (2165) directly from the family members of prisoners and detainees will benefit from the project, as well as the possibility of additional benefit other than specific members of these families of the results and sustainability of project activities. The proposed project will be implemented over 36 months.

The report at hand is one of the (12) reports that will be issued at a quarterly dealing with an analysis of the database that was built and changes, as well as the report addressed some of the issues associated with the families of prisoners and detainees in areas targeted, which arise during the three months covered by the report. This report covers the period from the beginning of March 2012 and until the end of May 2012

Importance of Database of the Families of Prisoners and Detainees

As a result of many psychological, social and legal factors, the complete information is unavailable for these families, and thus the task of identifying them and their problems and their needs is difficult task. It is often that the situation of this category does not show in a defined form in the official statistics and semi-official. Thus there is an urgent need to provide adequate and updated constantly information for all families of prisoners and detainees, including help to improve development interactions that target these families.

Strategy to build the Database

A database of targeted families depends on several mechanisms; first liaison with National Charity Organizations working in the targeted areas, departments of social solidarity in targeted areas, the Prison Department in Ministry of the Interior, popular leaders in targeted areas for the purpose of gathering information on the families of prisoners and detainees in each area and to identify the whereabouts of these families.

In parallel with this, there has been printing and distributing posters calling for the families of prisoners and detainees in each region to communicate with Maat Foundation to benefit from the services of the project. The posters clarified the mechanisms of communicating with the Foundation, the services expected to be submitted through the project and the required data.

Data form has been developed to be filled by family members targeted for discharge in the database. This form has seized the opportunity for them through several outlets to come to the headquarters of Maat Foundation, or going one members of the project team to the family in place of their presence, providing them in the headquarters of the NGO and charity organization collaborating in targeted areas, available forms to the Department of Social Solidarity in the targeted region, as well as provide electronic copies of the form via the Foundation site and the accounts of Maat Foundation and Ishraqa Society on Facebook.

Based on this, an electronic database of needs and economic problems for the family members of prisoners and detainees in targeted areas has been designed on the basis of discharge questionnaires that were collected. This database will be updated regularly and continuously based on what the changes therein. The database will contribute in constant and continuing communication with the class target.

The database itself is not a means to gain access to the families of prisoners and detainees who will be working with them, but it will be a "scan line basis" of the situation of these families helps to know what happen to them of the changes and thus follow up and monitor the results of the project. It will also be an important repository of data and information and useful to areas and organizations interested in working with these families in the future.

To maximize the benefit from the database and made available to a wider segment of stakeholders and interested parties, it has been agreed to issue analytical reports periodically to the database and quarterly publish these reports through the media and the website of Maat Foundation, as well as sending them to the NGOs interested in the issue and the government bodies associated with the project (the Prison Department management and aftercare - Ministry of Solidarity and Social Justice - Ministry of Education - Ministry of Manpower and Immigration).

General Background on the Families of Prisoners and Detainees

Families of prisoners and detainees are important class in society, and in spite of the lack of official statistics concerning the number of prisoners in Egypt and a number of family members of this class, but there are many reports speak for between 50 to 70 thousand prisoners currently in Egypt, deployed in 45 prison in various Republic governorates, and if we add to them those who have served the sentence in recent years ( served the sentence and came out) as well as those previously detained or arrested, we will have nearly twice that of any number in the range of 180 thousand people.

As is well known demography in Egypt, the average family size in Egypt up to 4.2 per capita, the expected number of family members of prisoners and detainees, former and current in accordance with this rate of nearly 700 thousand people, and this means that there is one person approximately in every 100 citizens affected by this social problem .

The families of prisoners and detainees as well as prisoners and former prisoners themselves, are most marginalized groups in society and least in terms of directing the activities and programs of social, economic and legal assistance for them despite the fact that these families are most in need of such assistance, where the family of the prisoner as a result prison breadwinner or a its members faces a number of social and psychological problems in addition to the economic problems that seem most prominent and influential.

The aids aid provided for these families play a key role in the application of the philosophy of social defense, where it can achieve integration of these families into society and deepen the acceptance of members of the community to the families of prisoners and detainees, as contribute to aid in improving opportunity and access for family members of prisoners and detainees to their economic and social, civil and political rights and thus improve their quality of life significantly, and lead all these results together to round up the crime and violence in society and strengthen the rule of law and resorting to methods of legitimacy in the claim of rights.

There   is   an   important   "right   principle"   calling   to   work   with   this   group,   as   there   is   a  set of rights included in the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights of General Assembly resolution 2200A (d - 21) of December 16, 1966, which came into effect in January 1976 should improve the degree of met for these families and in particular the right to work, education and social security.

Most important Problems of the Families of Prisoners and Detainees in the

Through the "Quick research that carried out by Maat Team in mid-2011 as well as what is available through theoretical frameworks related to the families of prisoners and detainees, we can define the main features of the problems of families of prisoners and detainees as follows: -

1. Lack of information on this category

As a result of many psychological, social and legal factors, the complete information is unavailable for these families, and thus the task of identifying them and their problems and needs are very difficult. The situation of this category does not often show in the official statistics and semi-official, and thus there is an urgent need to provide adequate and information which is updated constantly for all families of prisoners and detainees, including help to improve development interaction that target these families.

2. The low level of education to the families of prisoners and detainees

The families of prisoners and detainees in the target areas are suffering from low educational level, either because of lack of school or the result of dropping out of school after enrollment, because of their inability to pay the expenses, the inability to buy books and school supplies and equipment, lack of capacity of a good understanding in the classroom and the need for tuition, ill-treatment of colleagues.

Poor Economic Conditions and Low Income of the Families of Prisoners and Detainees

The families of prisoners and detainees are the victim of bad economic circumstances, due to a decline in income levels and the prevalence of unemployment among its members. This is due to the fact that business owners do not agree to run one of the families of prisoners, many of the members of these families do not have vocational works, most of the members of this class do not know nothing about job vacancies and how to access them, lack of knowledge of how to get a loan for the work of the project, lack of knowledge of how to work and manage a small project, loan providers require many documents that members of this class cannot be provided for.

Suffering of these Families in dealing with State Agencies and Official Bodies

As a result the case of social marginalization and ostracism by the community, and economic problems, low incomes and low levels of awareness and education, those families of prisoners and detainees are facing many problems in dealing with state agencies and official bodies.

The most prominent problems are the problem of lack of ability to pay for lawyers, lack the ability to complete the required documents, lack the ability to visit their relatives in prison, not being able to get a social security pension or monthly subsidies from the Ministry of Social Solidarity, despite her entitlement.

Social Marginalization and Family Problems

Due to the wrong social perception, the families of prisoners and detainees suffer of the marginalization and exclusion at the level of small communities in which they live. The most prominent features of this problem is that neighbors and relatives do not like to establish normal relations with the families of prisoners and detainees, failure to provide social assistance to them and ill look of their relatives and neighbors.

On the other hand, the families of prisoners and detainees experienced by a number of internal family problems that may lead to the disintegration and collapse of the system of family, especially in the absence of help from outside parties to overcome the internal family problems

Results of the analysis reveal that the largest percentage of prisoners in the families registered in the database were accused in drug cases (28.8%) or failure to meet financial commitment (28%) (issue of trust receipts - issue checks), while there is more than the 1/8 of the proportion of cases (12.7%) were imprisoned or charged in cases of bullying and resistance to the powers and attempted murder. We can see from these results that the deteriorating economic situation was more or less influential in the nature of the crimes committed

Distribution of families according to the current status of the prisoner or detainee

Most of the prisoners of the families recorded in database (72.6%) is serving the penalty now, while nearly quarter (23.1%) out of prison.

Distribution of registered by Educational Status

Illiterate, reads and writes without qualified certificate, Holds a primary School Certificate, holds a Preparatory School Certificate, Diploma or intermediate qualification

University Degree, Elementary School Students, Prep School Students, Secondary School Student, Secondary Technical Student, University Student

The data recorded in the database shows the prevalence of illiteracy and low educational levels in the targeted families. Most of the majority of users (52.7%) was illiterate while more than one tenth does not have a qualified degree.

Distribution registered by Employment Status

The data recorded in the database reveal that rates of unemployment and irregular employment is high among users. The findings revealed that almost a quarter of users (24.2%) out of work, while nearly one-sixth (16.4%) workers per day, and if we know that nearly a quarter of registered of full-time students (23%) we will discover to what extent the employment conditions are low to the families of prisoners and detainees.

Distribution of users according to their access to loans or not

Results reveal that the vast majority of the families registered in the database (84.3%) have not previously received a loan while a small percentage of them (15.7%) have already so.

Distribution of families by type of registered housing

The type of housing in terms of the style of property represents an important indicator of the financial situation of the family. The recorded results have in the database revealed that nearly two-thirds of families registered in the database do not their own home, where their living standard ranged from the pattern of old or new lease.

The families of prisoners and detainees worth social security or pension benefits offered to them monthly by the Ministry of Social Affairs in the case of whether they meet certain conditions. The results have revealed that more than three-quarters of the registered families do not get this pension

http://www.maatpeace.org

http://www.drosos.org/en/home

http://portal.moe.gov.eg/Pages/default.aspx

http://www.mss.gov.eg

http://www.manpower.gov.eg

http://www.moiegypt.gov.eg

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