Point A Person Lost His Self Respect Criminology Essay

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Worrall finds that morals and reasoning training favorably alters the behavior of low-level offenders. Also, according to Worrall treatment programs focusing on anger management and life skills training are promising, whereas programs focused on improving victim awareness do not. Finally, Worrall (2008) concludes that treatment aimed at rehabilitation is more effective than prison or other harsh sanctions, particularly when it is combined with cognitive-behavioral therapies.

The Kampala declaration section 7 makes provision that prisoners should be given access to education and skills training in order to make it easier for them to reintegrate into society after their release. The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1977) makes provision in section 59 for the remedial, educational, moral and other forms of assistance which are appropriate and available to the individual treatment needs of prisoners. The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1977) section 65 and 66 (1) makes provision that a prisoner receive appropriate treatment so far as the length of the sentence permits and given programmes that will encourage their self respect and develop their sense of responsibility.

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According to Shea (2012) a criminal rehabilitation expert, J. Diaz, who supervises the Criminon program within the prison, has worked regularly with the inmates and personally observed the changes, which others have termed miraculous.

2.1 Finding the point a person lost his self-respect

The mission of Criminon (meaning "no crime") is simple if formidable-to wipe out crime by eradicating the factors that create criminal behaviour. Criminon, whose international headquarters are in Los Angeles, is a revolutionary and effective program whose actions speak in terms of results. Shea stated that "Success story after success story from criminals rehabilitated by Criminon who do not return to crime substantiate these beliefs."

Mr. Hubbard launched a criminal rehabilitation program with juvenile delinquents in London, England as early as 1952 Growing out of the worldwide Narconon drug rehabilitation program, Criminon operates within the corrections systems throughout the United States to rehabilitate criminals by reinstate their sense of self-worth for them to become productive members of society.

2.2 "They now feel remorse for what they have done"

According to Shea Criminon volunteers conduct on-site programs for inmates in prisons, while others administer courses to prisoners by correspondence.

On-site Criminon courses begin with practical instruction in how to communicate. That is followed with a course in learning how to learn, and continues with a course based on The Way to Happiness. Shea states that a person on the Criminon program soon discovers he is the one in charge.

2.3 Addressing the Problems Which Led to Criminal Behaviour

An individual's problems are addresses by Criminon which led to criminal behavior and which can send a person back to prison again and again. For each problem area, the Criminon program has a separate section of instruction.

Other courses in the Criminon programme include:

Learning Improvement, Conditions of Life. Criminon replaces unworkable methods that have only exacerbated the crime problem. In any given week, more than 1,700 inmates in over 550 prisons across the United States are enrolled on Criminon correspondence courses. More than 220 volunteers assist the inmates through their courses.

2.4 Changing Lives for the Better

Shea quoted Joan Lonstein who stated that "The Criminon program has moved the entire field of criminal justice into a realm where actual rehabilitation is possible,"

That same hope has dawned for women, juveniles and others wherever the Criminon program is delivered.

2.5 From sentence to release: Offender management

With exceptions, most offenders serving a sentence in an institution will return to life in the community, and it is important to prepare them for that return if we want to avoid the risks of recidivism. That is why the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has designed a whole series of measures and programs for the safe return of offenders to the community. Once the sentence is imposed, a thorough intake assessment determines the offender's risk level and needs, and ensures that the offender's initial placement is at the appropriate security level. This assessment is used to identify the factors that drove the offender to commit the offence, the risk he poses and his needs in terms of correctional services. The CSC uses information from police officers, courts, victims, the offender's family members, his employers, and psychologists.

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For example, if an offender has a substance abuse problem, his correctional plan will be designed to break the cycle of substance abuse. The decision may be to transfer an offender to an institution with a lower security level if he has made notable progress in his current institution. As a result, most offenders will finish serving their sentence in minimum-security institutions, which offer them more freedom, facilitating the transition from custody to the community.

2.6 A day in the life of an inmate

The aspects of offender management as described above intended to give an understanding of the administrative process surrounding the life of an incarcerated inmate, from intake to release. But what happens on a typical day inside a correctional institution?

Sometimes, that is the only idea about life in a correctional institution. For most inmates, life instead tends to follow a set schedule that dictates the times for meals and for participation in various programs and activities. But, as one may imagine, the security level of the penitentiary will have a major impact on the everyday life of the inmates there. Therefore, it is important to know the characteristics that define the various institutions and their impact on inmate routine.

Maximum-security institutions are obviously the most restrictive. In medium-security institutions, while the site is fenced as well, the rules are less restrictive. Daily life is much like that in maximum-security penitentiaries: inmates participate in programs, work or study. Finally, the minimum-security institutions play a very important role in the process for returning offenders to the community. These penitentiaries are often like little villages where inmates live in living units (houses) in groups of seven or eight. In minimum-security institutions, inmates enjoy considerable freedom in their daily lives. When inmates meet certain criteria, they can have access to special units in the compound of a correctional facility where they can spend time with their family. In short, inmate life is not always like what we see on the big screen.

2.7 SELECT COMMITTEE ON HOME AFFAIRS FIRST REPORT

The Halliday report (2001) argues that there is currently no prison rehabilitation regime specifically designed to meet the needs of short-term prisoners.

Short-term prisoners are defined as prisoners sentenced to less than 12 months in prison. Short-term prisoners have higher reconviction rates than other offenders. The Halliday Report acknowledged that many short-term prisoners are persistent offenders and commit the majority of crimes that impinge upon the community.

Short-term prisoners constitute one of the biggest challenges to a prison rehabilitation strategy. The Social Exclusion Unit report in 2002 found that the "majority of prisoners, particularly those serving short-term sentences, receive little practical support, before release or afterwards".

The Halliday Report gives an example of good practice in relation to the rehabilitation of short-term prisoners which is provided by the Kent and Medway Short-term Prisoner Project. We hope these measures will have a significant impact on reducing the number of prisoners who serve a short prison term with no supervision post-release.

However, the report is critical of the failure to include in the Government's National Action Plan strategies for the short to medium term to improve the prison rehabilitation regime for short-term prisoners. In addition, it is not yet clear how many prisoners even after the introduction of Custody Plus will continue to serve relatively short-term sentences.

The Kent and Medway Short-Term Prisoner Project provides evidence that a tailored rehabilitative regime for short term prisoners which directly challenges their re-offending motivators and addresses the particular risks and needs of this prolific and persistent group of re-offenders can positively impact on re-offending rates. We need to stop looking at short-term prison sentences as individual episodes of an offender going to prison and being released and start seeing the majority of short term offenders as prisoners who come back time and again and are, as it were, serving a long sentence episodically.

The authors recommend that the Prison Service should introduce a properly structured approach to the treatment of short-term offenders and that special intensive courses in basic education and drug treatment be designed which can be completed by short-term prisoners whilst in custody. Building on these, short-term prisoners should have the opportunity to commence longer-term education, vocational and treatment programmes in prison which are directly linked with programmes available in the local community. A substantial body of research supports the Kent and Medway Short Term Prison Project evaluation's finding that supervision of ex-prisoners after release makes their adjusting back into society easier.

2.8 'Warehouse' prisons falling short of Kenneth Clarke's rehabilitation pledge

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According to Travis (2012) prisons and probation chief inspectors argues that jails still failing to tackle entrenched attitudes of sex offenders and other criminals. Chief inspector of prisons Nick Hardwick says management of offenders within jails is 'too poor in too many places'

According to a joint report by the chief inspectors of prisons and probation tens of thousands of prisoners in England and Wales are being "warehoused" without any meaningful work being done to challenge their criminal behaviour.

Hardwick, further stated taht it was "particularly disturbing" and a significant failure that a third of imprisoned sex offenders could not get on sex offender treatment courses, and that many who did, failed to complete them.

It was found that sex offenders are being released without adequate interventions to reduce the risk they will reoffend. One recent prison inspection report on Maidstone jail, in Kent, which is a regional hub for the treatment of convicted sex offenders and holds 480, revealed that there were only 36 places available on one course, with a waiting list of 92 prisoners at the time of the inspection.

The joint inspection report was based on examining the records of 220 prisoners in 11 jails across England and Wales that hold long-term prisoners, and interviews with 178 "offender managers" - prison staff charged with drawing up a sentence plan in the case of each inmate.

Liz Calderbank, chief inspector of probation states that "a period of incarceration offers an opportunity to tackle a prisoner's entrenched behaviour and attitudes, and moreover to observe and capture on a day-to-day basis whether the necessary changes are taking place prior to release". The report showed that in 148 of 220 cases, the prisoners had been assessed as needing to go on an accredited offender management programme, but there was no plan for this in a quarter of the cases. Reviews of sentence plans were undertaken in fewer than half the cases.

In addition the report found that too often, sentence plans were based on the interventions available in the prison, rather than what was required in the individual prisoner's case. It may be a decent warehouse, but it is a warehouse nonetheless." Michael Spurr, chief executive officer for the national offender management service, said: "Despite a challenging operating environment reoffending has been reduced by five percentage points since 2000. This reflects much better case management both in prison and the community. We are targeting resources to reduce risk to the public. More than 1,000 sex offenders completed programmes in custody last year and we will continue to priorities work on the basis of risk.

3. ACTUAL "PROGRAMMES" FOR SHORT TERM OFFENDERS AT WALVISBAY PRISON.

The programmes available at Walvis Bay Prison are Literacy Programmes, bible studies, Secondary education, daily allocation of work to external stake holders, HIV/AIDS-, violence prevention -, anger management -, substance prevention - and life skills programmes (Platt, 2013).

Description of programmes

The literacy programmes are offered by the education officer at Walvis Bay Prison and are aimed at prisoners who are illiterate. This programme is based on the National literacy programme of the Ministry of education. Not all illiterate inmates are willing to attend as some stated they are ashamed for their literacy level. The education officer will advise inmates who are released to continue with the programme and provide them with addresses of literacy officer at their Constituencies (Jahanika, 2013).

Bible studies are conducted by non Governmental Organisation and churches inside the Prison to all inmates on a scheduled time. The Prison Regulation section 234 makes provision for an inmate to receive bibles, religious literature and be visit by a minister of his denomination.

Secondary education is provided by the Ministry of education whereby offenders register for Grade's 10 and 12 on distance. The examinations are written in Prison and supervise by members of the NCS who is registered with the Ministry of Education as vacillators.

HIV/Aids programmes are provided by the Ministry of Health and delivered by the nurses of the State and Prison hospital as well as aids councilors. In this programme basic information of HIV/Aids are provided to all inmates.

Prisoners are allocated to different Ministries to perform ordinary work. This is to teach them job skills and responsibility.

In the violence prevention programme officer teach inmates what is domestic violence, the different forms of domestic violence different steps men can do to stop violence against women,

In the anger management programme inmates are given tips on how to handle an aggressive person, the warning signs before a violent outburst occurs, the different types of anger, what cause anger and the consequences of anger.

The substance prevention programme focus on drugs and alcohol, distinguish between a social drinker and an alcoholic, the causes of alcohol and how to prevent alcohol abuse.

The life skills programmes are divided into thirteen sessions and includes self concept, how to improve your self concept, stress management, prevention of stress, God's plan for parents, based on the teaching principles of proverb 22:5, problem solving, the POWER model, develop better relationships, life at the cross roads, plan your life, importance of education and employment, a programme about crime which includes the origin of crime and does crime pays?

Accessibility

All programmes are supportive programmes and the sessions are dived on a schedule and groups are maximum thirteen. This programmes are attended on a voluntarily basis by all sentenced inmates. Attendance of inmates are good as it is a requirement by the National Release board that inmates attend a programme at least six months before release.

Name of the programme

Objective

Criteria for offenders

Minimum Time required

Literacy programmes

Aimed at prisoners who are illiterate

Inmates who are illiterate

One month and above

Bible studies

To teach inmates about the word of God

All offenders

One month and above

Secondary education

Prisoners to receive secondary education

Inmates who are not in possession of secondary education

One year and more

HIV/Aids programmes

To provided basic information of HIV/Aids to all inmates.

All inmates

One month and above

Violence prevention programme

To teach inmates what is domestic violence, the different forms of domestic violence different steps men can do to stop violence against women

All inmates

One month and above

Anger management programme

How to handle an aggressive person, the warning signs before a violent outburst occurs, the different types of anger, what cause anger and the consequences of anger.

All Inmates

One month and above

Substance prevention programme

Distinguish between a social drinker and an alcoholic, the causes of alcohol and how to prevent alcohol abuse

All inmates

One month and above

Life skills programmes

To teach inmates different concepts of life divided in 13 sessions

Al inmates

3-4 weeks per session

Figure 3.2.1

4. "PROGRAMMES" AVAILABLE FOR SHORT TERM INMATES INTERNATIONALLY

The programmes available Internationally and presented by Criminon are drug education, Personal Integrity Course, The Way to Happiness Course, Literacy Programs , Life skills course, anger management, Parenting Skills and Communication Skills Course. (Criminon, 2012).

Criminon (which means "no crime") is an international non-profit public benefit corporation dedicated to addressing the causes of criminality and restoring the criminal's self-respect through effective drug treatment, education and life skills programs. By making them responsible for their actions, people under the Criminal Justice system can become ethical and productive citizens.

Criminon make use of the research discoveries made by American author and humanitarian L. Ron Hubbard. Mr. Hubbard discovered that every criminal career began with a loss of self-respect. When man could no longer trust himself, only then did he become a real threat to society. (Criminon, 2012).

As early as 1952, Mr. Hubbard began a criminal rehabilitation program with juvenile delinquents in London, England. After two decades of research developments, the Criminon program was born.

4.1 Description of programmes

Drug education

In the United States, well over half of all crimes are related to drug use or are committed while the person is under the influence of drugs. The handling of drug addiction and education which serves to keep someone from using drugs both goes a long way in handling the problems of crime.

The drug education course teaches the student exactly what drugs are and the effects they have on the body and mind. It also explains how and why one becomes addicted to drugs in the first place and then details an exact treatment - which involves the use of vitamins and exercise - for freeing a person from the hold of addiction, and all without medical substitutes.

Personal Integrity Course

Ethics, Honesty & How One Can Correct Past Harmful Actions

The loss of integrity and self-respect are very real factors when considering an individual's descent into crime and unethical behavior. The recovery of both is the main concern of this course.

The courses starts with basic principles and conclude with exact steps how the student can help him or another recover personal integrity through the inspection of past damaging actions and then taking responsibility for them. The inmate must discover for himself what he did wrong and what should have been done as an alternative.

The course also shows the inmate why maintaining honesty in the future is a central factor in one's own strength and happiness, and exactly how this can be done on a practical level. Eventually, it is the recovery of his own self-trust which makes his rehabilitation practical, and that is exactly what this course conveys.

The Way to Happiness Course

Restoring the Individual's Self-Respect

The Way to Happiness course is perhaps the greatest tool in reforming criminals and in preventing criminal activity from beginning in the first place.

The Way to Happiness is a non-religious, common-sense moral code consisting of 21 principles. Each principal deals with a specific area or activity of life, and explains why following such a code of conduct will actually lead to a better life. It is in fact this understanding which helps the individual understand why ethical behavior is the way to lead a happier and more productive life. If this is understand, they change their behavior themselves.

Each principal on the course is studied to a full understanding, and is followed by lessons and practical exercises and assignments which actively demonstrate how these are used and apply in life. Inmates on the course also put the principle to use in their own lives as a major final practical assignment, and actually get to see their workability for themselves.

In effect, this course displaces the "criminal code of conduct" by teaching a common-sense moral code that anyone can use to live a life of stability and productivity, where they can be safe and happy, and most importantly get back and maintain their self-respect.

Literacy Programs

It is no secrecy that the level of literacy has a lot to do with crime and there are several reasons for it, the most obvious being that a person who can't read well will have trouble finding and holding a job. A less obvious reason is that people who can't read are cut off from a lot of information that would give them a viewpoint on life and tools to understand and tackle the somewhat complex business of life.

Illiteracy is also a factor in an individual's sense of pride and self-respect. The material has been developed by educators, based on the discoveries L. Ron Hubbard has made about learning and study. The training is done one on one by trained tutors.

Within a few weeks, a person can be brought up from illiteracy to an 8th grade reading level, at which point he would then be able to study the rest of the Criminon courses.

Through Criminon's literacy and learning programs, not only is an individual increased in his reading and literacy level, he is also taught the techniques of how to study. He is then equipped to study any subject and fully apply the data for the rest of his life.

Life skills course

How to evaluate & Improve One's Performance in Life

Inmates often lack the ability to know just how far they have wandered from acceptable conduct, much less legal behaviour, and even then do not possess the knowledge or know-how to correct the problem and regain good standing.

This course deals directly with the various states, or conditions, one can be in, in any area of his life. This course also gives the student the skills necessary to correctly evaluate how well or how poorly he is doing in that area of his life, and teaches the exact steps one must do in order to improve his condition, whether it's high on the scale or low.

Successes often show how the course has helped offenders see their way out of their poor condition in regards to society, and those they may have harmed, and also how this knowledge can be put to use in a friendship, on the job, in a family, or just with oneself.

Anger Management

How to Handle the Negative Influences in Life

There is some truth in judging someone by the company they keep. It can easily be seen that those around us do influence our attitudes and behaviour, for better or worse. And it does not surprise many to learn that criminals often ensemble with criminals and they promote anti-social activities and influence others to continue such unethical and illegal conduct.

This section of the Program deals with establishing the skill to plan one's own course in life, with honesty and integrity, and to spot and disassociate from those elements which would tend to lead one off course.

The course teaches the students the characteristics of both anti-social personalities and social personalities, so that they may recognize both and know the differences between the two. That way, they can better choose their friends and associates, and become more aware of their own attitudes and be made less susceptible to those who would have them revert to crime.

Parenting Skills & the Raising & Care of Children

Our parents learned from their parents and most likely taught us those same lessons. Unfortunately, lessons which seem to promote bad behavior or even illegal behavior are also learned in the same manner.

This course offers some real help on how to raise children so that they can learn the value of honesty, what it is to be a productive and valued member of society, as well as how to live a life with happiness and love. The exercises and drills also help the student with how to speak with children, and even how to teach and impart the principles of The Way to Happiness, so the child may use them on his or her own.

Communication Skills Course

How often has a failure in communication hasty a breakdown in relations or been the cause of violence? This course answers the question, is it possible for someone to handle any situation in life with communication alone? Happily, the answer is a resounding yes.

This section of the Program breaks down the subject of communication into all of its constituent parts, and thoroughly trains the student on each element before going on to the next, through a series of drills which increase the student's ability to confront people and communicate clearly and competently.

The student is also taught to recognize where communication has broken down in the past and why, so that he can correct it in the present. And more importantly, he learns how to remain calm in the face of hostility or adversity, maintaining self-control and handling the situation with communication alone - and without violence.

Students of the course report not only feeling more calm, more able to tolerate others, they also say how much they simply enjoy actually speaking with people now, as opposed to talking to them before

4.2 Accessibility

The duration of each course is dependant upon a couple of factors: a) The type of course delivery, correspondence or onsite. Correspondence can be completed in 3 months.

Onsite can be completed in 50 hours. (Except the way to happiness course which has an

exercise that is mandatory and minimally 21 days)

Name of the programme

Objective

Criteria for offenders

Minimum Time required

Drug education

This course teaches the student exactly what drugs are and the effects they have on the body and mind

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Personal Integrity Course

To teach the inmate self-respect and integrity.

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

The way to happiness

This course displaces the "criminal code of conduct" by teaching a common-sense moral code that anyone can use to live a life of stability and productivity, where they can be safe and happy, and most importantly get back and maintain their self-respect

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Literacy Programs

Inmates increased his reading and literacy level, and taught the techniques of how to study

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Life skills course

This course deals directly with the various states, or conditions, one can be in, in any area of his life and gives the inmate the skills necessary to correctly evaluate how well or how poorly he is doing in that area of his life, and teaches the exact steps one must do in order to improve his condition, whether it's high on the scale or low.

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Anger Management

The course teaches the students the characteristics of both anti-social personalities and social personalities, so that they may recognize both and know the differences between the two

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Parenting skills

This course offers some real help on how to raise children so that they can learn the value of honesty, what it is to be a productive and valued member of society, as well as how to live a life with happiness and love.

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Communication skills

breaks down the subject of communication into all of its constituent parts, and thoroughly trains the student on each element before going on to the next, through a series of drills which increase the student's ability to confront people and communicate clearly and competently.

Inmates with a sentences of less than 12 months

Correspondence- 3months

Or onsite- 50 hours

Figure 4.2.1

5. Conclusion

A radical rethink about the treatment of short-term prisoners is urgently required. The complacent thinking that nothing effective can be done to rehabilitate short-term prisoners has crippled the response to regime provision for short-term prisoners. In action towards and neglect of this majority group of prisoners can no longer be justified.

Therefore, special intensive courses in basic education and drug treatment have to be designed which can be completed by short-term prisoners whilst in custody. Building on these, short-term prisoners should have the opportunity to commence longer-term education, vocational and treatment programmes in prison which are directly linked with programmes available in the local community. This will allow them to continue the programmes after release.