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There are either physical or mental may changes in body functioning due to the causes of drugs. Cocaine, semi-synthetic, such as heroin and ecstasy, or totally synthetic, such as methadone, these chemical may be natural which can be found in the world. In this article, all of the drugs dealt with may change the way that brain function; they are maybe psychoactive or psychotropic agents. Our perception, action and feeling also may change by mood-altering drugs. People who depressed, unhappy, etcetera and usually get intense pleasure and enjoyment out of the drugs they consume will become negative reason why the people use drugs from the perception of the author.
Ricks involved while people consume drugs because of the pleasure and enjoyment. There is, however, a price to be paid for risks instead of the pleasure and enjoyment. There is no such thing or never was or never will be a safe drug in the world, when the moment you consume the drugs, the pleasure and enjoyment may influence you to be addicted. According to Corrigan (1995), he stated that "most of the drug users take their drug for its mental effects, the drug is also affecting other parts of the body, and thus physical effects are also part of the equation" (p.11).
Research found that they are few types of drugs; "while these psychoactive drugs have the brain as their common target they actually affect the brain and the body in different ways" (Corrigan, 1995, p.12). Depressant drugs such as alcohol decrease the functioning of the brain to become slower, whereas stimulant drugs like cocaine and amphetamine literally increase the speed of the body. Furthermore, there are two types of powerful painkillers which can cause sleep are Narcotics of the Heroin. However, Hallucinogens also classify as another type of drugs which give rise to complex mental experiences. According to Corrigan (1995), he also illustrated that "there are drugs which do not fit neatly into a single category" (p.12). illegal drugs like Cannabis is the most widely used in the world; it is also one of the most complex among the other drugs and it was given that it is a mixture of over 400 different chemicals, some of which have contradictory effects on the body. This drug can cause euphoria, depression and it could cause hallucinations if enough is used.
Sometimes there is an inclination to view the risks of drug-taking in narrow terms. There is an emphasis on addiction/overdoses and more recently on H1V and AIDS. Corrigan (1995) has been illustrated that harmfulness of drugs should be emphasis and attempt to respond constructively to problem drug taking:
Emphasis could be misleading, or both in terms of evaluating the harmfulness of a particular drug and also in relation to attempts to respond constructively to problem drug taking. It is necessary, therefore, to take a very broad view of what constitutes a drug related problem and to include under this heading, not just the obvious addiction etcetera, but also the concepts of drug-related disease, and the effect of drugs on learning; on accident and also on behaviour. (p.12)
This research approach which has been undertaken is explanatory and research physical impact is literature survey. Papers as well as supporting materials were collected over a few-weeks period and International journals as well as proceedings are dug up through international well-recognized databases like Shapiro, science direct, Proquest as well as Ebsco. The arrangement of the result was planned to be started with reviewing the types of drugs and then the physical impact of drugs.
"Addiction, or to give its jargon term, drug dependence, is the compulsive use of a drug on a regular basis in order to experience its psychoactive effects or to avoid the discomfort of its absence" (Corrigan, 1995, p.12). There are different types of dependence such as dependence on the alcohol type, dependence on the opiate type and so on. After repeated exposure to them, many drugs result in compulsive use. There are drugs such as heroin and other opiates, alcohol, tranquillisers, nicotine, cocaine that may result in compulsive use. Sometimes the dependence is either physical or psychological. The latter is the most difficult to deal with. A drug user with addictive use of drugs has become the most serious problem because it often daily exposure to the drug. However, some drugs such as LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) are not particularly addictive, but that does not mean that LSD a 'safe' drug. Equally, "it is possible to use an addictive drug on a regular basis but not be addicted to it" (Corrigan, 1995, p.12). Alcohol is a good example which similar as LSD where most alcohol users are not addicts but still are at risk from a host of medical, legal, social and other problems.
Overdoses and Sudden Death
However, there is another classical way of assessing a drug, which is to ask does it result in death if you overdose on it. Corrigan (2009) also illustrated that some drugs can cause sudden death when anyone in overdose:
Some drugs like heroin, cocaine, alcohol, are fatal in overdose. Others can cause sudden death, for example, solvents in glues/aerosols and gas canisters, and above all MDMA or 'Ecstasy'. On the other hand there are drugs such as cannabis and LSD which have never killed anyone in overdose.
There is a well-recognised relationship between drug abuse and HIV transmission is just one field of drugs and disease, hence they name it as Technique-Specific Disease. For example, "disease related to the way the drug is used rather than a particular drug" (Corrigan, 1995, p.13). Using shared contaminated needles, syringes, mixing bowls during the injection of drugs. According to Corrigan (1195), "as long as there is sharing of equipment, it does not matter what drug is injected - it could be heroin, it could be amphetamines, it could even be anabolic steroids by body-builders - there is the risk of sharing not just HIV but also all the Hepatitis viruses (B, C and D), blood poisoning, abscesses, gangrene and so on" (p.13).
Besides that, a second aspect of drug-related disease is one that is often obliterating, it knows as Substance-Specific Disease. Disease will cause on different parts of the body by the direct toxic effect of the chemicals which are harmful to humankind's body. Corrigan (1995) has stated that the few examples of direct toxic effect chemicals which include:-
Brain and liver damage - Alcohol
Lung and heart disease - Tobacco and Cannabis
Strokes and heart disease - Cocaine
Heatstroke and liver damage - Ecstasy
Acute psychoses and depression- Cannabis
Drugs and Learning
The use of any of the cannabis group of drugs is one of the most consistently reported effects, "herbal marijuana, resinous hash or the distilled hash oil, is a damaging effect on short-term memory and learning ability" (Corrigan, 1995, p.14). Evidence has accumulated from laboratory which shown that where cannabis damage all test of learning ability, whether is "from surveys of young cannabis users who are still impaired six weeks after becoming drug-free and from surveys of adult daily users who overwhelmingly report memory and concentration difficulties" (Corrigan, 1995, p.14).
Drugs and Accidents
The major culprit in this category has to be alcohol. Besides alcohol, other drugs also can cause accidents, including tranquillisers and in particular cannabis. Cannabis use is now recognised as a major cause of injuries and deaths in car, truck and rail crashes in many countries. According to Corrigan (1995), he claimed that "younger drivers tended to have detectable levels of cannabis in their blood while alcohol was predominant in older drivers" in one U.S. study of fatal truck crashes (p.14). Perhaps, cannabis and alcohol are surprising appear at the same percentage frequency in such accident victims.
Drugs and Behaviour
There are many drug use may change in behaviour under the effects of the drugs which can be the most damaging aspect of their drug use. A good example of this is the violence associated with alcohol. Corrigan (1995) stated that "the confused drunken behaviour associated with solvents is often the major risk for most youngsters involved in solvent abuse" (p.14). The delusional behaviour resulting from LSD use given the increased popularity of this drug in 'Rave' setting is particularly worrying in the society. The development of an apathetic negative outlook and attitude can be particularly destructive for many young people with cannabis.
In this paper, not just the obvious addiction etcetera, but also the concepts of drug-related disease, and the effect of drugs on learning; on accident and also on behaviour may influence or harm to human. Too much on dependence on drugs will lead to overdose and sudden death and also drug-related disease like HIV or disease that will cause on different parts of the body by the direct toxic effect of the chemicals which are harmful to humankind's body. Besides that, drugs also may damage the ability of learning; changes in behaviour and also lead to accidents. We should stay further with drugs, and do not accept any drugs from friends, strangers also clients. Do not consume drugs because of the pleasure and enjoyment, we should try to maintain a healthy lifestyle like exercise regularly, balance diet, avoid drugs and so on.
Drug abuse is a problem that is causing serious concern to both individuals and government all over the world. We should continue to educate young people and all study about the science on the harmful health effects of marijuana use .Sustained investment in effective programs along the entire spectrum of prevention, early intervention, treatment, recovery, criminal justice, domestic law enforcement, and international cooperation will remain essential if we seek to reduce the enormous costs that illegal drug use in the world. Therefore, Drug abusers who exhibit symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, behaviour changes, fatigue and loss or increase in appetite should be treated by medical experts and counsellors but not too dependence on drugs in order to save them from deadly diseases.
DRUG ABUSE AMONG NIGERIAN ADOLESCENTS STRATEGIES FOR COUNSELLING
During the early century, herbs, leaves and plants have been use to heal and control diseases. Sambo (2008) as cited by Fareo (2012) viewed that "chronic use of substances can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to adolescent's physical and psychological development" (p.341). The use of drugs in itself does not constitute any danger, because drugs correctly administered have been a blessing. The use of drugs could be either beneficial or harmful depending on the mode that people use.
A drug refers to a substance that could bring about a change in the biological function through its chemical actions (Okoye as cited by Fareo, 2012). Drugs can be considered as a chemical that modifies mood, learning, behaviour and general body functions. "Thus, they could be considered as chemical modifiers of the living tissues that could bring about physiological and behavioural changes" (Nnachi as cited by Fareo, 2012, p.342).
Drug abuse became a major public health problem all over the world. "The use and abuse of drugs by adolescents have become one of the most disturbing health related phenomena in Nigeria and other parts of the world" (NDLEA as cited by Fareo, 2012, p.342). Recently, several school going adolescents experienced mental health programme, either temporarily or for a long period of time. Some adolescents even became insane, maladjusted to school situations and eventually drop out of school.
According to Fawa as cited by Fareo (2012), "Drug is defined as any substance, which is used for treatment or prevention of a disease in man and animals" (p.342). Drug modify the body functions either positively or otherwise depending on the body composition of the user, either the type of drug used, the amount used and whether used singly or with other drugs at the same time".
Haladu (2003) as cited by Fareo (2012) "explained the term drug abuse as excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns" (p.342). It could also be viewed as the use of a drug to the extent that it interferes with the health and social function of an individual. Drug abuse is known as the non-medical use of a drug that alters the body health and productive life. Manbe as cited by Fareo (2012) has claimed that "drug abuse as the excessive, maladaptive or addictive use of drugs for non-medical purpose" (p.342).
According to Abdulahi as cited by Fareo (2012), he had viewed that "drug abuse as the use of drugs to the extent that interferes with the health and social function of an individual" (p.342). But according to Fareo (2012), he concluded that "in essence, drug abuse may be defined as the arbitrary overdependence or mis-use of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners and it can also be viewed as the unlawful overdose in the use of drugs" (p.342).
Drug abusers who exhibit symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, behaviour changes, fatigue and loss or increase in appetite should be treated by medical experts and counsellors but not too dependence on drugs in order to save them from deadly diseases.
The paper will undertake at the first of describing the threaten of drug abuse has eaten deep into the fabrics of the society; and however, with effective counselling programmes, the problems can be tackled through campaign against drug abuse by government and other relevant authorities Drug control counselling centres should be established in every community and qualified health counsellors should be employed in helping drug addicts by giving them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system. In addition, Drug awareness units also developed in this paper in order to be set up in all states by the federal, state and local government not to try people who use drugs as criminals, but to help solve their sociopsychological problem. This paper discusses theories of causes and then the strategies for counselling
Causes of Drug Abuse
Haladu as cited by Fareo (2012) has illustrated the following as the main causes, which include experimental curiosity, peer group influence, lack of parental supervision, personality problems due to social-Economic conditions, the need for energy to work for long hours, availability of the drugs, and the need to prevent the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms:
Curiosity is one of the major problems that adolescents explore to the drugs. In order to experiment the unknown facts about drugs, it has motivated adolescents into drug use. The first experience in drug abuse produces a state of arousal such as enjoyment and pleasure which in turn motivate them to continue and become overdose of it.
Peer Group Influence
The other major role in influencing many adolescents into drug abuse is the peer pressure. This is because peer pressure is a fact of teenage and youth life. As they try to depend on their friends rather than depend less on parents. In Nigeria as well as the other parts of the world, one may not enjoy the company of others unless he conforms to their norms.
Lack of parental supervision
There could be parents have no time to supervise their sons and daughters. Some parents have either little or no interaction with family members, while other parents might pressure on their children in study or perform better in their studies. These phenomena initialize and also increase the population of adolescent in drug abuse.
Personality Problems due to socio-Economic Conditions
According to Fareo (2012), Besides the lacking of parental supervision, "adolescents with personality problems arising from social conditions have been found to abuse drugs" (p.344). It is because of the social and economic status of most Nigerians is below average compare to other country. "Poverty is widespread, broken homes and unemployment rate is on the increase, therefore our youths roam the streets looking for employment or resort to begging" (Fareo, 2012, p.344). According to Fareo (2012), he state that "these situations have been aggravated by lack of skills, opportunities for training and re-training and lack of committed action to promote job creation by private and community entrepreneurs" (p.344). Frustration arising from these problems lead to recourse in drug abuse for temporarily removing the tension and problems arising from it.
The Need for Energy to Work for Long Hours
Fareo (2012) also illustrated that there is a need for energy to work for long hours and hence the adolescent will engage in drug use:
The increasing economic deterioration that leads to poverty and disempowerment of the people has driven many parents to send their children out in search of a means of earning something for contribution to family income. These children engage in hawking, bus conducting, head loading, scavenging, serving in food canteens and so on. They are prone to drug taking so as to gain more energy to work for long hours. (p.344)
Availability of the Drugs
In many countries, when the supplier is more than demand, there will be a decreasing in price of drugs in order to get more buyers. Hence, the drugs have dropped in prices will influence adolescent engage on drug use.
The Need to prevent the Occurrence of Withdrawal symptoms
If a drug is stopped, the user experiences what is termed "withdrawal symptoms". Pain, anxiety, excessive sweating and shaking characterize such symptoms. The inability of the drug users to tolerate the symptoms motivates them to continue.
Strategies for Counselling
To reduce drug abuse among adolescents, the following counselling strategies are suggested, which include:
Establishment of Family Education on Drugs
The family play an important role in the social organization. They should give their children adequate education on drug use. Health authorities should encourage people in organizing and offering family education on drug abuse to their children. They should inform them by illustrating the dangers of drug abuse and dependence on their health. Parents and adults should avoid from using drugs in discriminately in the presence of youngsters and discourage their children from associating with strangers or suspicious neighbourhood peer groups.
Establishment of Counselling Centres for Drug Control
Fareo (2012) state that "counselling centres should be established in every community by the government or private individuals" (p.346). Qualified health counsellor should be employed more in a society, they can help drug addicts or people who dependent on drugs by giving them special advice and how on how to go about the withdrawal system
Establishment of Drug Awareness Units
According to Fareo (2012), he claimed that "drug awareness units to be set up in all states and moderated by the federal state and local governments" (p.346). And the most important is it should not be a faceplate established to try people who use drugs as criminals, but to help solve their socio-psychological problem.
In this paper, it discusses theories of causes and then the strategies for counselling. Main causes like experimental curiosity, peer group influence, lack of parental supervision, personality problems due to social-Economic conditions, the need for energy to work for long hours, availability of the drugs, and the need to prevent the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms should be consider in the society in order to reduce the adolescent who engage in drug use. Besides that, drug awareness units, counselling centres should also developed in this paper in order to be set up in all states by the federal, state and local government. And not to try people who use drugs as criminals, but to help solve their sociopsychological problem.
Nowadays, drug abuse is a major problem that causing serious concern to both individuals and government all over the world. The problem is widespread among adolescents who in most cases are ignorant about the dangers intrinsic in drug abuse. Many of them engaged in drug abuse because of frustration, poverty, lack of parental supervision, peer influence, enjoyment and pleasure. However, the more the effective counselling programme or drug awareness units or parental supervision developed in the world, the more the problems can be tackled to stop adolescent engage in drug use.