Overview Human Rights And Amnesty International Criminology Essay

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A man does not birth as a criminal. For any reason a person makes a crime. We should kill the crime not the criminal. We should bring him/her back in our normal life. People are born with some natural rights which called human rights. These rights are belonging to all human beings, whatever our national or ethnic origin, religion, colour, language, nationality, sex, place of residence or any other status. Without any discrimination this rights equally belongs to all human. Some time human rights violated by the people individually, group or Government. There have lot of reason of violation of human rights, like poverty, illiteracy, bad politics, corruptions etc. Some time Government of any country may take any wrong decision which may face on violation of human rights. That's why for the fair justification in London in 1961 found a non-government organisation (NGO) which called Amnesty International (AI). It acts against violation of human rights in worldwide.

a. What do you understand by Human Rights? Give at least 5 examples of Human Rights violation that have happened recently.

The freedom and the basic rights which are belonging to human are called human rights. It is a Universalist concept of ethics and legal rights. Universal human rights are generated and expressed by law. The ideas of human rights are involved many centuries ago, but after Holocaust and 2nd World War it becomes very strong. In 1948 the United Nation (UN) adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Human rights violated in Guantanamo Bay:

There have lots of complain against Guantanamo Bay Jail in USA against violation of human rights. On 1st march 2010 Binyam Mohamed, who is a British citizen caught as a suspected criminal and sent to Guantanamo Bay custody. Binyam Mohamed and other five men are suing that they are torture by the security service. If they win the case, they could be awarded between £200,000 and £500,000 each but increasing legal bills will dwarf any damages awards, as the joint achievement by the men is currently accepted to take seven years to work its way through the courts.

Human rights violation in Nepal:

A major important topic of concern for local and international human rights advocates, the caste system in Nepal is a big problem. The women who married the other caste or below caste member they have to go through a big problem. As human rights rules we have to reconstructed the system of the Nepalese.

On April 3,2009 the court ordered to investigate the matter about the 100 people missing case. The problem happed with Maoist insurgency. The Nepal government sent the missing report to the family. But the Nepal human right commission that 1000 people missing for Maoist problem. The all have the problem only for the caste matter. Some are raped or killed for brutal attack by moist issue with the Nepal government. Now a day's moist become the most powerful party to control the Nepal government.

Human right violation in Nandigram, west Bengal, India: Government of West Bengal declare a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) which will be held in Nandigram. They need 10,000 acres land for this project. The poor villagers do not agree to give their land. It makes a political issue. The opposition party support the villagers. The communist government does not agree with the villagers and they sent a big company of police in Nandigram. On 14 march 2007 villagers are attacked the police and CPIM supporters. Police fired the crowed, as a result 14 people died and more than 70 people wended. A US report said it is a latest violation of Human rights in India.

Human right violated in Africa: The current occurrence in the Guinea is a clear sign of the impunity that many dictators have enjoyed in Africa. The innocent protesters have been killed as a violation of human rights. On 29th September 2009 a BBC report said 157 people were killed when Guinea troops openly fired on the protesters. It has also reported that women are raped by the soldiers. Even the junta leader Moussa Dadis Camara said that he does not know about that. But the authority of the country denied the reports. But it is a BBC Online report. The United Nations commission came to investigate the mass execution to find the truth of what happened. After investigation the International Criminal Court announced that it was a serious human rights violation.

Human right violated in Gaza: On 20th January 2009 thousand people meet in rallies held across the Gaza Strip to listen to Hamas commanders declare about their victory in Operation Cast Lead, Israel's December 27-January 18 military nasty in the Gaza Strip. At a rally in Gaza City, Hamas official Ismail Radwan announced, "Hamas today is more powerful", which was established by an expression of popular support for the militant faction across the territory. Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip, which left an estimated 1,126 dead and $1.9 billion in damages, has overshadowed Hamas' own history of aggression against the Palestinian people. It is a human rights violation in recent time.

b. What is the role of Amnesty International in relation to Human Rights? Examine in detail the role and functions performed by Amnesty International.

In London in 1961 Peter Benenson, one English labour lawyer has founded Amnesty International (AI). It works in worldwide where people are affected by violation of human rights. It mission is to undertake research and action to prevent abuse of mentally and physically torturing. It also acts for ending of freedom from discrimination, conscience and promote all human rights. Basically AI has seven key areas to work and those are as follows:

Women's rights

Ending of torturing

Children's rights

Refugees' rights

Stop to abuse of death penalty

Protection of human dignity

Rights of prisoners of conscience

AI has some specific aims like abolishing of death penalty, extra judicial executions and disappearances, observe person conditions. It ensures a fair trail according international human rights laws. It looks after women rights equal with men. It has a mission education for all. It works to give free education to all children all around the world. It's another roll to prevent child marriage. And it also works to ending of all child labours and solders. It looks after to give fair judgement for all political prisoners. It acts to free all prisoners who are in conscience. It promotes to healthy economic, social, cultural and religious rights for the defenders. It works for ending of ill treatment and torture. It works to ending to unlawful killing in armed conflicts. AI gives support for the migrants, refugees and asylum seekers with protect human dignity. It works with local human rights activity with monitoring the media. Amnesty International takes money from its members only; it never takes money from any government.

c. There are many success stories about release of Prisoners after international pressure. Give some 3 examples of such success stories.

There has lot of example about release of prisoners after international presser. In below it briefly explain about three stories.

Political persons realised in Burma: On February 2009, in Burma 23 political personalities realised with other 6313 prisoners by Burma's' ruling junta. The situation monitoring by the Thailand-based AAPP-B. They said junta has realised 6313 prisoners including 23 political prisoners, some monks, member of opposition party and other people. Burma's ruling military junta said that they grant amnesty to the prisoners on behalf of good conduct. They consider them as a second chance to establish their lives and participating the next election. Where as the critics and the opposite party said it has done by the international presser. The United Nation Human rights people were visit the country for a term of six days, during that time. Tomas Ojea Quintana had suggested realising the political prisoners to Burma military Authority. After the visit they announce the realise of 6313 prisoners. Before living Burma, Quintana said in a brief press conference the junta officials told him that they consider their suggestion. There has a critic that junta did not realise all the political prisoners for the next election but it has proved Burma's military authority has realised over 6000 prisoners by the International presser.

Garman Citizen realised from Guantanamo Bay: Mural Kurnaz is a Garman citizen who was in Guantanamo Bay for four years eight months without any charge and trail. He write letter to his family on 2002. His only dream was returning home. Finally he was realised on 24th August 2006. He got realised for interfering by his family, his lawyer and also Amnesty International interference.

Indonesian President realised Prisoners: In December 2004, near about 200 public join in a nonviolent peacefully hoisting a flag ceremonial outside Abepura in Papua, Indonesia. Police fired on the crowd and Karma was crushed on the way to the police station. Yusak Pakage and Filep Karma were sentenced for to 10 and 15 years. Amnesty International members work to realise them. At last Indonesian President has realised them.

d. Do you feel human rights violation are higher in developing countries like India, Pakistan, Africa compared to developed countries like UK. If yes, state 5 reasons in relation to such violation

It is true that human rights are violated all around the world. And it's also true that human rights violation are higher in the developing countries like India, Pakistan (Asia), Africa compared to developed countries like UK. In the 19th century, after a long struggle those countries got freedom. But still those countries have lot of problems like poverty, illiteracy, corruptions, bad politics, weak administration, untouchibility etc. In below it briefly discuss five reasons in relation to violation of human rights.


In developing countries the biggest problem is poverty. For a little money people kill each other. There has lot of slam of those countries. People make different type of crime for poverty. For poverty another problem is child labour. Parents send their children (under 15years, no age limit, may start from 5 years) to work to make money. And the same reason those countries face in child marriage before puberty. Where as Government makes act but often people do not follow the law for poverty. Some time administration does not take any stapes for implication of those laws. In Africa another big problem is child soldiers for the poverty. United Nation is trying to save them.


A big problem for the developing country is illiteracy. In democratic country people can't choose proper leader for the country. Proper education builds a person a well established man. Poor people do not get proper education from their childhood. They do not get a quality job. They do hard works with little money. It is one of the causes of violation of human rights.


In the developing countries most officials (Govt.) are corrupted. For getting any lawful demand people need to pay money unofficially.

Weak Administration:

Another big problem of these developing countries is weak administration. Some time people loos their democracy (Except India). Military comes in administration. People loos their democratic power. Judiciary system breaks down. People do not get proper judgements.

Women rights:

In south Asia (basically Indian sub-continent) women are locked in their home. By the presser of conservative people they have to stay in veil. Some where they do not get permission to go out side the home boundary. In some cases they do not get equal judgement or status compared with men. Men are physically and mentally torture them. They do not get proper education and job. Where as in India women can get the same status (not all the religion and cast) by law but often the society or their family does not give them proper freedom by threaten physically or mentally.

Now AI and UN working worldwide, that's hope of those countries who are affected by, violate human rights.

e. Examine any 5 aspects of Poverty and Human Rights

Poverty connects with make smaller chance for human being and societal development that its abolition has turn into the primary object of many international development institutions. The United Nation's Millennium Development Goals call for a 50 percent reduction in the number of people living in extreme poverty-less than $1 per day-by 2015 (UNDESA 2006). World leaders repeatedly repeat their promise to removing poverty and promoting constant economic expansion, sustainable growth, and global prosperity (UN 2004). They advise action, including more international maintain and more ambitious national progress strategies. In bellow examine 5 aspects of poverty and human rights.

Lack of education:

Proper education builds a person a well established man. Poor people do not get proper education from their childhood. They do not get a quality job. They do hard works with little money. It is one of the causes of violation of human rights and poverty.


Corruption is one of the big problems of poverty. Most of the countries are corrupted. Poor countries are more corrupted than the other developed countries. Basically the administration and other government official are corrupted. People do not get proper service from government official; they are harassed and mentally tortured by them.

Women rights:

Around the world lot of women are locked in their home. By the presser of conservative people they are living in veil. Some where they do not get permission to go outside the home boundary. They do not get right to job. They have no income right which can help their family from poverty.

Lack of foods:

Many countries have no sufficient food growth. There have many reasons like no proper planning or nature calamities. They are depending on other countries. They need to buy foods which are expensive. People have right to get sufficient food but they can't get for poverty.

Lack of treatment:

Every person has a right to get well treatment. Poor people do not get well treatment. Basically government gives people free treatment but sometime this is not good. They need to go privet hospital or health centre which is very expensive. Poor people cannot able to go there. They can't go to their job with bad health.

f. Examine any 5 aspects of Terrorism and security aspects of Human Rights

There has a lot of reason of terrorism regarding human rights and also in security aspects. For the feeling of lack of freedom or religious rights or cause of poverty or by the motivation of some selfish people, some innocent civilians are motivated to be a terrorist. Of course it is the aspect of human rights. For the reason of security some time government caught some innocent civilians and harass them and also torture them which are also violation of human rights. In bellow discuss 5 aspects of it:

Terrorism aspect freedom of land:

Freedom is basic human rights for every people. Some countries administered in different countries. The people of the independent country fight for their independence. Some time both parties torture and killed innocent people. This is a violation of human rights.

Terrorism aspect religious rights:

From the ancient age there has lot of religions in the world. There has some conservative people don't want to stay together with different religious people. They don't believe in secularism. They heart and killed different religious people who are innocent and also want to make a religious country, they don't care about others believe. Those are violation of human rights.

Terrorism aspect poverty:

More than 50% people are in poverty in worldwide. Their income is under $1 in a day. They can't get proper food or medicine. They do not get proper wages from their job. It is their right to get proper money and for more money to survive their life and family they take wrong way and start terrorism.

Terrorism aspect lack of education:

Proper education builds a person an honest man. Poor people do not get proper education from their childhood. The evil persons take this chance and motivate them by wrong teaching and also giving money. The innocent poor people forget their civil life and enjoy as a terrorist.

Aspect of unfair administration and judgement:

For the security reason government caught suspected people as a terrorist. Police and army persons torture them in their custody. There has lot of stories about the violation of human rights. The defence people submit some wrong evidence in the court of justice, not only that they make to bound the innocent people to give wrong evidence by their torturing him/her or their family. The innocent people get unfair and wrong judgement. People lose their human rights.


Still around the world human rights violated in different places for many causes basically for poverty and illiteracy. Amnesty Inerter national works for ordinary people from across the world standing up for humanity and human rights. Its purpose is to protect individuals wherever justice, fairness, freedom and truth are denied. Human rights education gives about the learning and developing of Knowledge and understanding about human rights, attitudes and behaviour respectful of human rights, skills to uphold and protect human rights.