New Crimes And Demands Of Society Criminology Essay

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The police force must act as a cohesive group; keeping up to date with new crime trends as well as the demands of society. It is important for the police force to undergo certain changes from time to time; changes, which must have the smoothest transition possible in order to keep the police force functioning in all its duties. Hereunder the current scenario will be analyzed and solutions will be proposed in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the police force.

For the sake of this report two distinct analysis tools will be used in order to classify and solve the problems: McKinsey 7S model for the internal analysis, which is directly related with the mechanism of the police force; and PESTEL framework for the external analysis, which will deal with the situations that the police encounter whilst carrying out their duties.

Internal

Strategy

In order to successfully address the problems of crime, the police must come up with a strategy. The strategy must be designed to allow the members of the police force advantage over their criminal counterparts. In this case it seems that the current strategy used by the police is not very effective, as the given data reveals an increase in criminal activity. This increase should not be attributed exclusively to an unsuccessful strategy of crime prevention and apprehension. Other factors which could possibly affect the rate of crime are: lack of manpower; obsolete technologies especially as new crime is introduced and unspecialized personnel - factors which will be dealt with in the following sections.

Structure

The structure reflects the hierarchy of the police force, which is divided into different units, each unit dealing with specific criminal problems. Staff shortage and lack of support from police members will reflect on the operation of these units. In additional, to help in maintaining optimal policing structure and prevent corruption amongst the high-ranking officers, reshuffle can be employed after a particular period.

Systems

The systems constitute the backbone of the organization and they include the procedures that must be carried out; irrelevant of whether the police force has the manpower or the skills available to do so. Court sittings, for example, require trained personnel in order to be carried out successfully by the police force; nevertheless, it is not the duty of the Court of Justice to check upon the level of work the police are carrying out, as long as the police present satisfactory evidence at court sittings. Then again, failure to do so would result in the case getting dismissed and criminal set free.

Shared values

The police force is built upon a set of principal goals - safeguarding the citizens, enforce legislation, reduce criminality, and catch perpetrators - which must be approved and followed by all police officers. The police cannot afford to have a negative atmosphere amongst its members. Therefore, it is important to identify the source of such discontent and encourage all members to work closely together to eliminate such pessimistic feelings. Additionally, the police force must seek to give rewards to those members who promote good work and a positive attitude, in order to encourage other members to follow.

Style

The scenario demonstrates that there are some flaws with the administration of the police force as the officers do not endorse the style of leadership adopted. In order to solve this problem the police force could work on using a bottom-up approach where the opinions of low-rank officers are evaluated, before the high-ranking officers reach a final decision. Moreover, in such a compact group it is important to have efficient communication. Communication should be used as the key to reach all officers irrespective of their rank. One has to remember that low-ranking officers face most problems on a day-to-day basis and thus, they should be able to delegate with their superiors whenever needed.

Staff

The amount of manpower available is one of the essential components of the police force. A constant shortage will undermine the force's ability to deal with criminal activity. The police force is currently understaffed and the recruitment level is not sufficient to cover the shortage of personnel. Due to these factors, the people are making demands which are near impossible for the police force to handle in their current situation. A short term, yet immediate solution for this dilemma would be to employ1 people on a part time basis, especially during this specific period where manpower is so needed (mass manifestations, football events, and street protests). On the other hand, this problem should be addressed over a long period of time by increasing the amount of recruits accepted and not by reducing the 6 month training period at the academy2.

Skills

The skills are the actual competencies of the police officers and thus it is important that these are as optimal as possible. One of the main problems that the police force is facing is that the most qualified officers are being attracted to the private sector. This could be attributed to a better salary or better advancement opportunities in the similar line of work. It is very important that the police force gets to know why experienced officers are seeking alternative employment if it's due to personal reasons or if the police force is at a point where no further career advancement is offered.

External

Political

The political transition in a country can cause disruption in the administration of said country; therefore the police must be prepared to take necessary actions in order to restore back stability. The given details present the police force with a series of obstacles to overcome. Firstly, with the election coming up, the police are to expect pressure from politicians in order to increase efficiency and make the politicians look good. This is especially applicable to the increase in criminality, which seems to be on top of the political agenda. Secondly, the electoral campaigns and mass manifestations are bound to create some clashes between the citizens, who will fervently follow their political leaders at these gatherings. Therefore, strategically placed venues should be selected in order to distance and control the flow of the opposite members in order to avoid direct confrontations. The police must be alert for every possible situation. Moreover, the political aspect seems to be on a national level especially with foreign observers reporting on the situation. This could act as publicity for the police force and thus it is crucial for the police not to include themselves in behavior that is detrimental to their image.

Economical

The economy, which is responsible for the distribution of money and resources of a country, has a direct effect on the level of approval or disapproval of the county's administration. It goes without saying that bad economy and lack of employment will create feelings of contempt among the general public. Countless studies and reports (Cuervo & Herckis, 2009; Edmark, 2005; Raphael & Winter-Ebmer, 2001) all indicate a link between unemployment rates and crime rates. Moreover some of these studies also reveal that with unemployment a particular increase in property crime is noticed; thus in the light of such information the police force must work on prevention techniques such as hardening the targets, implementing neighborhood watches as well as training and informing the people. Preventive measures must be effective, yet at the same time the police force must keep in mind that it lacks personnel making direct intervention by the police - such as foot patrols and hot-spot policing - unavailable.

Social

The social aspects of this report have similar characteristics from the political aspects as well as the economical aspects. The numerous events occurring, ranging from the mass manifestations to the football events, can create situations of conflict between the different members. It is therefore important for the police to avoid such situations through careful planning. Where the opposing supporters will meet in one area only, like in the case of football events, it is advisable to use different entries to avoid confrontations, assign different seating positions and keep a list of prohibited items (glass bottles, alcohol) which is to be followed word for word. The given data indicates that the state is going through a period of stress with ambient temperatures rich-rocketing to the sky with regular street protest. Unless the street protests turn into violent riots, the police should keep their calm and take a preventive stance in dealing with them; yet, as an added extra measure, back-up officers are necessary in the eventuality that the protests get serious.

Resources should be allocated to solve the problems of graffiti and crime on illegal immigrant settlements. In both cases crime analysis should be carried out in order to gain knowledge on the perpetrators (who they are, their modus operandi, reasons for the crime - W6H). The police must employ Clarke's situational crime prevention techniques that opt for target hardening measures, access control, increasing the risk of detection as well as controlling the facilitators that make the act available, to name a few (Goldstein, 1997). On the other hand the reported victimization on illegal immigrant settlements could require more enforcement as they could be attacks of hate crime3. Anderson, Dyson, and Brooks Jr. (2002) affirm that intelligent profiling techniques should be used to gain knowledge of the offenders, however this should be used in conjunction with other methods, such as increasing education on cultural diversity.

Technological

Technological advances in life have brought many advantages and are definitely making our lives easier, but modern technologies are also available to criminals who will use them unscrupulously in order to obtain what they want. Such is the case with the new crime trend of credit card scams at ATM outlets. The importance of resources that must be available to the police is more often than not underrated, expecting the police force to fight-off crime using manpower alone. In order to address this new problem, knowledge must be gained on the modus operandi; it is only after gathering enough intelligence on how to deal and recognize this crime, that direct action can be implemented (Levi, 2000:7). It is much easier for the merchants or card issuers to provide information to their users on how to protect themselves from skimming (Newman, 2003:34), moreover a joint collaboration with the bank can be sought and the police can focus on those particular ATMs that are identified as hotspots in order to increase probability of criminal apprehension.

Environmental

In this report environment is referred to as the surroundings in the country not ecological friendly techniques that should be applied by the police. The scenario gives us the perfect setting where due to closed or controlled access roads the people are getting frustrated. Unfortunately, these situations have not been instigated by the police force and thus the police can only work with what they have available. In this case the traffic flow should be regulated and traffic calming schemes should be employed such as visual warnings to reduce speed, barriers and chicanes (Garrod, Scarpa, & Willis, 2002) in order to avoid traffic build up.

Legal

The police force is an active element of the criminal justice system, thus it must be emphasized that the members are to have a certain level of understand of the legislation. Police officers are expected to keep themselves up-to-date with new laws and legal practices to best deliver their job.

Recommendations given, especially those which deal with the external environment are more preventive in nature rather than reactive. It must be emphasised that in a period of six months it is not humanly possible to implement drastic long term changes; thus, the police force should focus at solving problems not for the sake of an upcoming election or just to satisfy a temporary requirement. Lack of manpower, lack of training and possibly lack of funds still reign as some of the major weaknesses, yet if the police force use education, public relations and preventive tactics many of the situations mentioned above could be improved.

Notes

Ideally these are enrolled as voluntary members however by offering a minimal pay check this would be creating a small fraction of employment thus relieving the state of unemployment rates.

Reducing the period of training would mean frequent recruiting, however the training period is already inadequate; there is no need to reduce it more.

Assuming that the attacks on the settlements are by the locals and not a result of clashes between different immigrant tribes. If such is the case then it would be ideal for the police in conjunction with the government to allocate different settlements to the conflicting tribes.

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