Meaning Nature Kinds And Magnitude Criminology Essay

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According to Oxford dictionary definition of crime: - "An action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law: shoplifting was a serious crime, illegal activities: the victims of crime, an action or activity considered to be evil, shameful, or wrong: they condemned apartheid as a crime against humanity it's a crime to keep a creature like Willy in a tank"

A crime can be defined as any act or omission of duty that results in harm or injury to society that which is punishable by the state. The impact that crimes have on particular victims, crimes are prosecuted by the state, i.e. it is not the role of the victim to prosecute the person(s) committing the crime.

The meaning of 'crime against women' is direct or indirect physical or mental cruelty to women. Various kinds of violence against women are eve-teasing, molestation, bigamy, fraudulent marriage, adultery and enticement of married women abduction and kidnapping, rape, harassment to women at working place, wife beating, dowry death, female child abuse, abuse of elderly female, acid throwing and honour killing etc. The alarming rate in the crimes against women can to a large extent be attributed to the lack of infrastructures for single working women who have to leave their families at an early age to work away from home. The most effective strategies are likely to be those that support women to organize peer groups and mobilize community resources and public services, including women's health services. Such approaches enable women to overcome resignation to the legitimacy of the established order are important factor in the perpetuation of imbalances of power between women and men. If women are to implement their reproductive preferences, then it is essential that their empowerment occur not only within their personal spheres, but also in the broader spheres of the community and the state. [1] 

Meaning of Violence against Women

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According to Oxford dictionary definition of violence: -"

behaviour involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something: violence erupted in protest marches domestic violence against women the fear of physical violence screen violence. Law the unlawful exercise of physical force or intimidation by the exhibition of such force.

strength of emotion or of a destructive natural force: the violence of her own feelings."

Domestic violence, as defined in the Digest, [2] includes violence perpetrated by intimate partners and other family members, and manifested through:

Physical abuse such as the slapping, beating, arm twisting, stabbing, strangling, burning, choking, kicking, threats with an object or weapon, and murder. It also includes traditional practices harmful to women such as female genital mutilation and wife inheritance (the practice of passing a widow, and her property, to her dead husband's brother Sexual abuse such as coerced sex through threats, intimidation or physical force,, forcing unwanted sexual acts or forcing sex with others.

Psychological abuse which includes behaviour that is intended to intimidate and persecute, and takes the form of threats of abandonment or abuse, confinement to the home, surveillance, threats to take away custody of the children, destruction of objects, isolation, verbal aggression and constant humiliation.

Economic abuse includes acts such as the denial of funds, refusal to contribute financially denial of food and basic needs, and controlling access to health care, employment, etc.

Act of omission are also included in this Digest as a form of violence against women and girls. Gender bias that the discriminates in terms of nutrition, education and access in health care amounts to a violation of women's rights. It should be noted that although the categories above are listed separately, they are not mutually exclusive indeed; they often go hand in hand.

Violence against women and girls is a major health and human rights issue. At least one in five of the world's female population has been physically or sexually abused by a man or men at some time in their life. Many, including pregnant women and young girls, are subject to severe, sustained or repeated attacks.

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Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill-health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. [3] 

As a signatory to CEDAW and Beijing Platform for Action, India has accepted 'violence against women' to mean 'any act of gender -based violence that results in, or is likely to result in , physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.'

Any abusive, violent, coercive, forceful, or threatening act or word inflicted by one member of a family or household on another can constructed domestic violence. Domestic violence, once considered one of the most underreported crimes, became more widely recognized during the 1980s and 1990s. Various individuals and groups have defined domestic violence to include everything from saying unkind or demeaning words, to grabbing a person's arm, to hitting, kicking, choking, or even murdering. Domestic violence most often refers to violence between married or cohabiting couples, although it sometimes refers to violence against other members of a household, such as children or elderly relatives. It occurs in every racial, socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious group, although conditions such as poverty, drug or alcohol abuse, and mental illness increase its likelihood. Studies indicate that the incidence of domestic violence among homosexual couples is approximately equivalent to that found among heterosexual couples. [4] 

Future violence against women surveillance systems should also collect data on all types of perpetrators. Although women suffer a significant proportion of their victimization at the hands of intimate partners, they also are victimized in large numbers by other types of offenders, such as family members, acquaintances, and strangers. A surveillance system that focuses only on violence perpetrated against women by intimate partners would provide inadequate data with which to comprehend fully the experiences of women as victims of violence. This is especially true with respect to women who may have been victimized while in state custody or while residing in refugee camps, or who have been victimized by a person with power over them (e.g., a teacher, coach, boss, priest). [5] 

Violence against women throughout the life cycle [6] 

Phase Type of violence

Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on birth outcomes

Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse

Girlhood Child marriage; female genital mutilation; physical, sexual and

psychological abuse; incest; child prostitution and pornography

Adolescence and adulthood Dating and courtship violence (e.g. acid throwing and date rape); economically coerced sex (e.g. school girls having sex with "sugardaddies" in return for school fees); incest; sexual abuse in the workplace rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and pornography; trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy

Elderly Forced "suicide" or homicide of widows for economic reasons; sexual, physical and psychological abuse

Meaning of Atrocity against Women [7] 

According to Oxford dictionary definition of Atrocity:-"An extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury: humorous a highly unpleasant or distasteful object: atrocities in cheap red nylon"

Any form of crime, violence against women and such type activities is called atrocity. The term "Atrocity" with reference to women has not been defined in law. In common parlance, the term "Atrocity" denotes an act of extreme heinous cruelty. A woman is the spiritual and direct agent of life force and if the foundation is not properly maintained the whole building of the human life in bound to crack. She is not only a bread distributer but also as bread winter. She is working shoulder to shoulder with men. [8] 

Atrocities against Dalits

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The term "atrocity" is a legal one. Atrocity cases against Dalits vary in severity and form, including the following: [9] 

Causing injury, insult, or annoynance to a Dalit;

Assaulting, raping, or using force of any kind against a Dalit woman or a Dalit girl;

Physically injuring or murdering a Dalit;

Occupying or cultivating any land owned by or alloted to a Dalit;

Forcing a Dalit to leave his/her house, village, or other place of residence;

Interfering with a Dalit's legal rights to land, premises, or water;

Compelling or enticing a Dalit to do 'begar' or similar forms of forced or bonded labour;

Intentionally insulting or intimidating a Dalit with the intent to humiliate him.

Atrocities against woman are an age old phenomenon. Women were always considered weak, vulnerable and in a position to be exploited. It is disheartening that education has not brought about an increase in awareness - only a shallow superiority. To a very large extent we can say that violence against women is part of wider current of lawlessness in society. The main causes being the lack of respect, for the law Rape and dowry are two crimes that have increased greatly in recent years.

They are considered to be the decent half of the society, yet they live a life of vulnerability. They fall victim to atrocities and the criminal instincts of people of their own community with whom they grow from a baby girl to a woman. The recent cases of abuse and atrocities on women in the state of Orissa have made social thinkers and even the common man to look for the reasons behind the increasing vulnerability of women in the society. While the much hyped case of alleged assault and attempt to kill the 19 year old girl from a Dalit family of Ajungoda village under Pipli Police Station in Orissa's Puri district hit the headlines of almost all media and impacted politics in the state where a minister had to quit the cabinet to save the face of the Government, a series of cases of attacks and atrocities on women have raised questions on the safety of women in the society. [10] 

Such common type crime and violence is associated to atrocities against women:-Sexual Violence, Eve-teasing, Physical Violence, Dowry, Honour Killing, Prostitution, Child Prostitutes, Police, The Problems of the Girl Child, Childhood sexual abuse, etc. and they are happened main causes are:-

Psychological, Jealousy, Behavioral, Social theories, Resource theory, Social stress, Social learning theory, Power and control, Mental illness, Marital conflict disorder.

Finally meaning of crime, atrocity and violence against women are individually defined but they are most common offences, who related all over the worldwide women. We see that the victims are made by different-different types attacking for vulnerable group like that women and girl child.

Nature of Crime, Atrocity and Violence against Women

In this research program, the underlying framework for any of the operational nature of crime, atrocity and violence against women adopted by specific studies resembles this latter view: that the process of subordination becomes manifest in a wide range of violent acts. The nature in each study attempts to be as broad as possible. Similarly, crime, atrocity and violence against women are the studies on nature to violence against women examined herein explicitly state an operational nature of crime, atrocity and violence that includes mental, emotional, and financial abuse of a woman. These are intimidation and cruelty led women or their family members such like private and other social member in society such like as public to seek the support of Government and other agencies.

"Domestic violence is any act of physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, or the threat of such abuse, inflicted against a woman by a person intimately connected to her through marriage, family relation, or acquaintanceship is universal and has its root in the socio-cultural set up of the society. The perpetrators of domestic violence have often been found to be the males and the victims, their sexual partners. Internationally, one in three women have been beaten, coerced into sex or abused in their life time by a member of her own family. [11] 

There is no universally accepted definition of violence against women. Some human rights activists prefer a broad-based definition that includes "structural violence" such as poverty, and unequal access to health and education. Others have argued for a more limited definition in order not to lose the actual descriptive power of the term. In any case, the need to develop specific operational definitions has been acknowledged so that research and monitoring can become more specific and have greater cross cultural applicability. [12] 

I hereby my research program, crime, atrocity and violence against women are universal and similar nature, so discussion these type nature found our life, family ,society and every were worldwide problem in same nature. Therefore there natures are similar and combined type. The nature of Crime, atrocity and violence against women acts, which can be [13] :-

Physical Violence - Such as slapping, hitting, kicking and beating.

Sexual Violence- forced intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion.

Psychological/emotional Violence - Such as intimidation, constant belittling and humiliating.

Deprivation or neglect Violence

Various controlling behaviours - such as isolating a person from their family and friends, monitoring their movements, and restricting their access to information or assistance [14] 

Physical Violence

Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to, scratching; pushing; shoving; throwing; grabbing; biting; choking; shaking; slapping; hitting, kicking, punching; burning; use of a weapon; and use of restraints or one's body, size, or strength against another person. [15] 

2. Sexual Violence-

Forced intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion are called sexual violence. Sexual violence is divided into three categories: [16] 

1) use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed;

2) attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, to decline participation, or to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act, e.g., because of illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or because of intimidation or pressure; and

3) abusive sexual contact.

3. Psychological/emotional violence

Psychological violence are involves trauma to the victim caused by acts, threats of acts, or coercive tactics. Psychological/emotional abuse can include, but is not limited to, humiliating the victim, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, and denying the victim access to money or other basic resources. It is considered psychological/emotional violence when there has been prior physical or sexual violence or prior threat of physical or sexual violence. In addition, stalking is often included among the types of IPV. Stalking generally refers to "harassing or threatening behavior that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as following a person, appearing at a person's home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person's property" (Tjaden & Thoennes 1998). [17] 

4. Deprivation or neglect Violence

While violence can be defined as intentionally causing harm to another, neglect or deprivation involves the failure to provide or perform what is required for the healthy development or the sustained wellbeing of another. Neglect, like other forms of abuse is pattern of behaviour. that behaviors such are

Needed medical care or attention

Appropriate supervision

Appropriate required help to aid a disabled person

Adequate food, water, clothing or access to education and social interaction

Appropriate protection against environmental hazards or exposure to harmful and unsafe situations in the community and in the family home

Neglect or deprivation is often mistakenly associated solely with low socioeconomic status or communities with a low employment rate. Limited access to money and restricted ability to provide for a dependent other is not the same as neglect. Neglect is the failure to perform what is necessary and achievable in order to maintain a person's physical, emotional or safety needs and is found across all all socioeconomic sections of society. [18] 

5. Various controlling behaviours

Such as isolating a person from their family and friends, monitoring their movements, and restricting their access to information or assistance. Men who physically abuse their partners also exhibit higher rates of controlling behaviour than men who do not. The WHO Study defined controlling behaviour by a woman's partner as including: [19] 

keeping her from seeing friends;

restricting contact with her family of birth;

insisting on knowing where she is at all times;

ignoring or treating her indifferently;

getting angry if she speaks with other men;

often accusing her of being unfaithful;

controlling her access to health care.

The proportion of women reporting one or more of these behaviours by their partner varied. This suggests a great variation in the degree to which such behaviour is acceptable (normative) in different cultures different criteria in much country.

Types of Violence

The typology proposed here divides violence into three broad categories according to characteristics of those committing the violence act:- [20] 

Self-directed:- Suicidal behaviour and Self -abuse

Interpersonal

Family/partner:- Child, Partner, Elder

Community:- Acquaintance and Stranger

3. Collective: - Social, Political, Economic

Self-directed violence:- Suicidal behaviour and Self -abuse

Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal behaviour and self-abuse. The former includes suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides - also called ''parasuicide'' or ''deliberate self-injury'' in some countries - and completed suicides. Self-abuse, in contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation.

2. Interpersonal violence

Interpersonal violence is divided into two sub categories:-

Family and intimate partner violence - that is, violence largely between family members and intimate partners, usually, though not exclusively, taking place in the home.

Community violence - violence between individuals who are unrelated, and who may or may not know each other, generally taking place outside the home.

The former group includes forms of violence such as child abuse, intimate partner violence and abuse of the elderly. The latter includes youth violence, random acts of violence, rape or sexual assault by strangers, and violence in institutional settings such as schools, workplaces, prisons and nursing homes.

3. Collective violence: - Social, Political, Economic

Collective violence is subdivided into social, political and economic violence. Unlike the other two broad categories, the subcategories of collective violence suggest possible motives for violence committed by larger groups of individuals or by states. Collective violence that is committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for example, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence. Political violence includes war and related violent conflicts, state violence and similar acts carried out by larger groups. Economic violence includes attacks by larger groups motivated by economic gain - such as attacks carried out with the purpose of disrupting economic activity, denying access to essential services, or creating economic division and fragmentation. Clearly, acts committed by larger groups can have multiple motives.

Section 498A IPC and Domestic Violence In 1983, domestic violence was recognised as a specific criminal offence by the introduction of section 498-A into the Indian Penal Code. This section deals with cruelty by a husband or his family towards a married woman. Four types of cruelty are dealt with by this law:

conduct that is likely to drive a woman to suicide,

conduct which is likely to cause grave injury to the life, limb or health of the woman,

harassment with the purpose of forcing the woman or her relatives to give some property, or

harassment because the woman or her relatives is unable to yield to demands for more money or does not give some property.

The punishment is imprisonment for up to three years and a fine. The complaint against cruelty need not be lodged by the person herself. Any relative may also make the complaint on her behalf. [21] 

The following are the examples of the cruelty:

Persistent denial of food,

Insisting on perverse sexual conduct,

constantly locking a woman out of the house,

Denying the woman access to children, thereby causing mental torture,

Physical violence,

Taunting, demoralizing and putting down the woman with the intention of causing mental torture,

Confining the woman at home and not allowing her normal social intercourse,

Abusing children in their mother's presence with the intention of inflicting her mental torture,

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

According to The protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, defines the expression "domestic violence" to include actual abuse or threat of abuse -physical sexual verbal emotional or economic violence. Section 3 of the Act says that any act, omission or omission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it-

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or

harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or

has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or(d) otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.

Explanation I For the purposes of this section,

"physical abuse" means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm, or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the aggrieved person and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force;

"sexual abuse" includes any conduct of a sexual nature that abuses, humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the dignity of woman;

"verbal and emotional abuse" includes

(a) insults, ridicule, humiliation, name calling and insults or ridicule specially with regard to not having a child or a male child; and

(b) repeated threats to cause physical pain to any person in whom the aggrieved person is interested.

"economic abuse" includes

(a) deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the aggrieved person is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a court or otherwise or which the aggrieved person requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by the aggrieved person, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance;

(b) disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the aggrieved person has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the aggrieved person or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the aggrieved person; and

(c) prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the aggrieved person is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household.

Explanation

For the purpose of determining whether any act, omission, commission or conduct of the respondent constitutes "domestic violence" under this section, the overall facts and circumstances of the case shall be taken into consideration.

In nutshell, the term Domestic violence includes elaborately all forms of actual abuse or threat of abuse of physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic nature that can harm, cause injury to, endanger the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, either mental or physical of the aggrieved person. The definition is wide enough to cover child sexual abuse, harassment caused to a woman or her relatives by unlawful dowry demands and marital rape. The kinds of abuse covered under the Act are:

Physical abuse:

An act or conduct causing bodily pain, harm, or danger to life, limb, or health; An act that impairs the health or development of the aggrieved person; An act that amounts to assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

Sexual abuse:

Any conduct of a sexual nature that abuses, humiliates, degrades, or violates the dignity of a woman

Verbal and Emotional abuse:

Any insult, ridicule, humiliation, name calling;

Insults or ridicule for not having a child or a male child;

Repeated threats to cause physical pain to any person in whom the aggrieved person is interested.

Economic abuse:

Depriving the aggrieved person of economic or financial resources to which she is entitled under any law or custom or which she acquires out of necessity such as household necessities, stridhan, her jointly or separated owned property, maintenance and rental payments.

Disposing of household assets or alienation of movable or immovable assets; Destructing continued access to resources or facilities in which she has an interest or entitlement by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household.

Other Forms of Crime, Atrocities and Violence against Women

Crime, atrocity and violence against women in different type's action called exploitation of women. These type actions are following:-

Female Foeticide [22] -

Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants. Neonaticide, killing within 24 hours of a child's birth, is most commonly done by the mother whereas infanticide of a child more than one day old is slightly more likely to be committed by the father. In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible. In some countries, female infanticide is more common than the killing of male offspring, due to sex-selective infanticide. Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children, especially in parts of People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, and the Caucasus.

Honour Killing [23] -

Human Rights Watch defines "Honour killing" as follows:- Honor killings are acts of vengeance, usually death, committed by male family members against female family members, who are held to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce-even from an abusive husband-or (allegedly) committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that "dishonors" her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life. Men can also be the victims of honor killings by members of the family of a woman with whom they are perceived to have an inappropriate relationship. The loose term "honor killing" applies to killing of both men and women in cultures that practice it. Some women who bridge social divides, publicly engage other communities, or adopt some of the customs or the religion of an outside group may be attacked. In countries that receive immigration, some otherwise low-status immigrant men and boys have asserted their dominant patriarchal status by inflicting honor killings on women family members who have participated in public life, for example, in feminist and integration politics.

Case- In a landmark judgment in March 2010, Karnal district court ordered the execution of five perpetrators of an honor killing in Kaithal, and imprisoning for life the khap (local caste-based council) chief who ordered the killings of Manoj Banwala (23) and Babli (19), a man and woman of the same clan who eloped and married in June 2007. Despite having been given police protection on court orders, they were kidnapped; their mutilated bodies were found a week later in an irrigation canal.

Bride-burning [24] -

Bride-burning is a form of domestic violence that occurs in India in which a bride is killed at home by her husband or husband's family due to his dissatisfaction over the dowry provided by her family. Kerosene is used the fuel. It has been a major problem since at least 1993. It is not the same as ancient and long abolished (formally abolished in 1829) custom of Sati, where widowed women were forcibly placed on a burning pyre of the dead husband (usually a man in his old age) and burnt to death. The crime has been treated as culpable homicide and if proven, is punishable accordingly (most up to death sentence or life imprisonment).Bride burning has been recognized as an important public health problem.

In 1961, the Government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act, making the dowry demands in wedding arrangements illegal. In 1986, the Indian Parliament added "dowry deaths" as a new domestic violence crime. According to the new section 304-B of the Indian Penal Code, where a bride "within 7 years of her marriage is killed and it is shown that soon before her death, she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband, or any relative of her husband, or in connection with any demand for dowry, such death shall be called 'dowry death' and such husband or relative shall be deemed to have caused her death.

Assault-Acid Throwing, Jealousy,

Acid throwing also called an acid attack, is a form of violent assault. It is defined as the act of throwing acid onto the body of a person "with the intention of injuring or disfiguring out of jealousy of revenge." Perpetrators of these attacks throw acid at their victims, usually at their faces, burning them and damaging skin tissue, often exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones. The long term consequences of these attacks include blindness and permanent scarring of the face and body.

Case- Ameneh Bahrami [25] is an Iranian woman blinded in an acid attack. She became the focus of international controversy after demanding that her attacker, Majid Movahedi, be punished by being similarly blind. The punishment is permitted under the Qisas principle of sharia law. She will literally have an eye for an eye when a doctor, acting under the orders of an Islamic court, applies 20 drops of acid to each of her attacker's eyes.

Elder abuse

Mistreatment of older people, taking place in the home or at care institutions, is being referred to as elder abuse and has been defined as: "a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person". Elder abuse was first identified in developed countries, where most of the existing research has been conducted but reports from developing countries have shown that it is a universal phenomenon. This kind of mistreatment takes the form of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse as well as financial or material abuse or as pure neglect-that is, the failure to fulfil a care giving obligation. [26] 

Drug Related Violence [27] 

An alcoholic beats his wife and children. There are number of incidences where under the influence of alcohol a Father raped his own Daughter. Alcoholism increases violence and therefore family interruption takes place.

Stalking

While stalking may be perpetrated by strangers or acquaintances, stalking is most often committed against women by former or current partners. Any allegation of stalking should be taken very seriously as it is synonymous with increased risk of serious harm or murder. (Stalking was a feature in 40% of those domestic murders reviewed by the Metropolitan Police and has also been especially identified as a shared feature of murders where there have not been previously recorded incidents of violence). [28] 

Rape and Custodial Rape [29] 

In most of the cases the victim is branded as a woman of loose morals. Child and adolescents rape are on the rise, about 58% are below 16 years. In recent years girl children in the age group of 6-12 years have been more victimized. Custodial rape is extremely heinous since the offenders are supposed to be guardians of the law. Witnesses refuse to testify against offenders or men in power, which makes it impossible for the victim to get justice.

There are many myths about rape-to have sex against one's will-which are based on stereotypes about what is appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women. For example, most people associate rape with a violent attack by a stranger, but rape is most often perpetrated by someone known to the victim. There is also an assumption that rape leaves obvious signs of injury, which is often not the case. Only around one third of rape victims sustain visible physical injuries. Physical violence or pressure in the form of blackmail or threats might occur simultaneously with the rape, or is the violence carried out while the woman is asleep or under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, unable to defend herself. Rape is often not reported to the police and existing statistics greatly underestimate the magnitude of the problem. [30] 

Harassment at Work Place and Eve Teasing [31] 

Whether out of choice or out of compulsion, most of the women who are involved in the work place in all vital sectors of country's economy may fall in the unorganized sectors. They are ill-paid but don't leave the job due to increasing unemployment. This need for survival drives to rape situations. Harassment at work place is all pervasive.

Intimate partner violence [32] 

Intimate partner violence refers to behaviour in an intimate relationship that causes physical, sexual or psychological harm, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse and controlling behaviours.

Mutual violence

Mutual violence is often difficult to tell the difference between an act of self-defence and a victim who is aggressive because of mutual violence. A victim who has been arrested may tend to plead guilty to get out of quickly in order to return to his or her children. A victim who fights back in self-defence or in defence of another person-should also be treated as battered victim.

Dating violence

Dating violence refers to verbal, physical, psychological or sexual abuse that occurs in relationships before partners marry or begin or stability of the relationship. An act is classified as dating violence whether it occurred within the context of a single date or over a long period of time. Although relationships (data rape), researchers have noted that the full gamut of aggressive behaviour, including murder occurs within violent dating relationships.

Forced Marriage

A forced marriage is a marriage that is performed under duress and without the full and informed consent or free will of both parties. Victims of forced marriage may be the subject of physical violence, rape, abduction, false imprisonment, enslavement, emotional abuse, and murder. It is important not to confuse 'forced' marriage with 'arranged' marriage. In the instance of an 'arranged' marriage both parties freely consent. [33] 

Economic violence

Victim is frequently denied opportunities or capabilities to develop and work. There may be discrimination, deprivation and obstruction in goal achievement. Victim may be denied opportunities to go schools or work outside the home, they may have little or no access to or control over finances.

Economic or financial abuse aims to limit a victim's ability to access help. Tactics may include controlling the finances; withholding money or credit cards; making someone unreasonably account for money spent/petrol used; exploiting assets; withholding basic necessities; preventing someone from working; deliberately running up debts; forcing someone to work against their will and sabotaging someone's job.

Abuse against people with disabilities

Research commissioned by Women's Aid in October 2007 [34] reveals that people with disabilities are more vulnerable to domestic violence and will often face additional difficulties in attempting to access support. It included the following findings-

50% of disabled women have experienced domestic abuse compared with 25% of non disabled women.

Disabled women are twice as likely to be assaulted or raped as non-disabled women.

Both men and women with a limiting illness or disabilities are more likely to experience intimate partner violence.

Disabled women are likely to have to endure it for longer because appropriate support is not available.

A study of women who access mental health services identified between 50% and 60% had experienced domestic violence, and up to 20% were currently being abused.

Sexual violence

Sexual violence is any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed against a person's sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. [35] 

Sexual coercion was defined by Heise et al as "the act of forcing (or attempting to force) another individual through violence, threats, verbal insistence, deception, cultural expectations or economic circumstances to engage in sexual behaviour against her/his will." This definition emphasises the many forms beyond the physical form in which another person can be made to have sex against their will. [36] 

Magnitude of Crime, Atrocities and Violence against Women

Crime, Atrocities and Violence against Women is increasingly becoming an issue of present magnitude. When we see ancient period women are more safe own family, relative and society. But present time more IPC crime all over India and they were steadily climbing 1953. Some recent data from NCRB release year 2011 dated June 30, 2012.

National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) releases its data of crime in India for the year 2011. The report made public on Saturday, June 30, 2012 and show alarming situation of crime in India. Highlights of this reports given below: [37] 

The report shows crimes under IPC has registered a 2.5% rise in 2011 over previous year, while crimes under special and local laws- such as Arms Act and Gambling Act-have declined by 7.4%.

Total numbers of crimes reported in India in 2011 are 62.5 lakh.

1442 people died due to accidents and suicides every day. In which every day suicide cases were 372.

Two third of women committed suicide were housewives.

452 people died and 1298 were injured in rail and road accidents daily.

Number of murders has increased by 250%, rape by 873% and kidnapping and abduction by 749% since 1953.

Burglary and breakings have shown a declining trend in 59 years.

All other crimes have been steadily climbing since 1953.

Delhi is most violent city, confirming the assumption. New Delhi accounted for almost 10% of crimes reported from India's mega cities that have over a population of 10 lakh each.

Delhi topped among mega cities in cognizable crimes.

West Bengal is most cruel toward women. The State has maximum number of crimes against women.

M.P. is India's rape capital. M.P. has reported highest number of rape cases (3406), accounting for 14.1% of the total such cases in the country last year.

The report finds that in 94% of the rape cases, the offenders were known to the victims and 10.6% rape victims were under 14 years, while 19% were teenagers.

Kerala has the highest rate of violent crimes.

U.P. accounts for 33.4% of total crimes in India i.e. every third crime from UP.

India's 53 cities have been seeing spurt in criminal activity and are more violent than the states in which they are located.

Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Bangalore accounted for 9.9%, 7.3%, 6.7% and 6.3% of criminal activities, respectively.

Asansol in Bengal as reported significant increase of 83.7% of IPC crimes as compared to 2010.

Statistics show crime against women has been steadily rising.

The criminal incidents against women were reported2.28 lakh in 2011 as compared to 2.13 lakh in previous year.

Bengal with 7.5% of India's population has accounted for 12.7% of the total crime against women and reported 29,133 cases.

Andhra Pradesh accounting for nearly 7% of the population of the country recorded 12.4% of the total crimes against women in India.

There has been a substantial rise in custodial deaths. It was 104 in 2011 against only 70 in 2010.

In front of cyber criminal activities, these activities have doubled in India in the past one year. 1791 case of such crimes were registered in 2011 as compared to 966 such crimes in 2010.

Conclusion

From ancient time, women have been the butt of all the fury of men which shows in crime, atrocities and violence on women. They have always been mere chattels, to serve and please men, but it is their misfortune that, in return they have got only discrimination, hatred and torture. It is thought provoking as to how and why this could continue unabated for centuries after centuries, and no one yes, no one ever thought of the plight that women had to ridiculous.

There are many ways a woman has added to her woes at home and outside. She has been only one category both home and outside. At home she remains at the same level of a doormat, working day and night to do justice to her home and her job in the outside world also. Women working in offices are not too welcomes, they always encounter men ogling at them, sneering and jeering at them. They are paid in most cases less than their male counterparts. I must add here to my dismay that, men probably cannot see women rise from the dust they have always been and try to crush them at every step and every step ahead is disastrous for men.

I had say that, right from the cradle to the grave, life for a woman is full of crime, atrocities and violence on her whether they be physical, mental or spiritual. She is crushed to the very bone and is not allowed to bear flowers. To add to all this there has been a latest trend in the lives of women and that is, killing them before they are even born. The latest technique the scientist, a man, has found is a method of testing the sex of an unborn child. This test is called amniocentasis, and by this test on the pregnant women the doctors can certify the sex of the child, and, obviously, if the child is a girl, she is killed forthwith. So now we can destroy the child without being born if it happens to be a girl. It may appear to be a great achievement of the scientists but, I personally feel that it is a boon for the unborn girl. She is saved from a life full of tortures, differentiations and humiliations. At this juncture I daresay that, if male chauvinists hear and understand this side of the picture they may even stop these tests as, how can they bear to see a woman to be, saved from crime, atrocities, violence and unkindness of this man's world.

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