Looking Into The Structure Of Human Trafficking Criminology Essay

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The US Congress ratified the 13th Amendment of The Constitution which lays out that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist with the United States. We are to the point that no country can escape this lucrative business from operating within their country. Traffickers on our land are stalking anyone, especially children. According to the U.S. State Department Trafficking in Person Report of 2009 their are at least 12.3 million people from children to adults that are in forced labor, bonded labor, commercial sexual servitude. [2] 20,000 of these people are trafficked over the U.S. borders single-handedly. [3] The most profound fact of human trafficking is that the half of all trafficking victims are under the age of eighteen. In the history book you can see how slave owners controlled there slaves and likewise these modern-day slave owners use the same techniques of violence, intimidation, physical restraints, and threats. It is hard to compare the destructiveness of the past slave owners and the modern human traffickers but "Human trafficking is considered to be the third-largest source of criminal income worldwide, generating an estimated $9.5 billion per year. It is also closely linked with "money laundering, document forgery, drug trafficking and international terrorism." [4] 

Human Trafficking is one of the worst crimes again humanity, it brings shame to those around it and lets the innocent suffer. Human trafficking which involves sex trafficking is one of the disgusting human rights violations. You rarely or never hear the new speak on this subject or is it a conversation that you want to have with your friends over the gossip that you watched on E! News the night before. The American government has finally taken a step forward because national security is threatened because money from human trafficking has funded terrorism. [5] 

When trying to define human trafficking it gets hard because is it slavery or is it an other servitude? The United Nations defined trafficking as it "Involves the movement of people through violence, deception or coercion for the purpose of forced labor, servitude or slavery-like practices." [6] This means that the traffickers use violence to coerce the victims to do anything they want. Including controlling all aspects of their lives from where they go, who they talk to, and essentially controlling their freedoms. This new breed of Human Trafficker is "global sophistication, complexity and control of how woman and children are trafficked from/to/in all parts of the globe." [7] 

The profits made from Human Trafficking are enormous because the traffickers want to maximize business with men, women and children as their commodities. The United Nations believe that it is the third largest source of income for organized crime after arms and drugs. [8] It is considered the fastest growing criminal businesses and has been estimated a $9.5 billion a year enterprise. This only corroborates the fear that human trafficking is a global, regional and nation problem. [9] What attracts organized crime to this horrendous crime is the possibility of huge profit gain and a very low risk to them. A drug dealer can sell an ounce of cocaine for $1000 but once it is all used and sold you have to restock. Human Traffickers will kidnap or buy from others a women or child for any amount and then sell that person over and over again. These lucrative businesses have only been fuel by the fall of communism and the worsening of third world countries.1 [0] The business of human trafficking make a lot of money but it also opens pathways to sells drugs, weapon and any other illegal material to the same people who might be buying children as sex slaves. These traffickers are selfish to say the least and are only motivated by self-enrichment where the steady income, low depreciation of human merchandise, and the close to no initial investment fuels the low-risk economic venture.

The question now is can Human Trafficking be a National Security Risk to the United States? According to Christine Dolan from the "Terrorism Nexus" seminar the answer is a definite yes.1 [1] Terrorist use the trafficking networks already established for the traffickers to move its operative to any part of the world unnoticed. Drug trade has been are of the most important businesses funding terrorism and in many parts of the world human trafficking are part of the drug trade. Organized crime in the Balkans has confirmed ties to terrorists and a major source of their economy comes from human trafficking. Also in the Philippines trafficking plays a major role in allowing terrorist to anonymously move their money.1 [2] 

After the attacks on September 11, 2001 the security changed dramatically and narrowed in all some new security threat including human smuggling. With as many people getting over our borders undetected the conditions are immensely right for the human traffickers to join forces with terrorist organizations. Factors have made it right so that criminals and terrorist organizations can join an effort to benefit both their needs. Criminal organizational are growing in numbers and sophistication and the ability to use public corruption as a tool.1 [3] There has been reported cases of Al Qaeda engaging in abductions of women and girls as war prizes and many accounts of murder, rape, forced to be a concubine, and forced marriages. The rest of the women or girls could be sold to wealthy Arabs who work with or for the terrorist network. "The United States will continue to work with our allies to disrupt the financing of terrorism. We will identify and block the sources of funding for terrorism."1 [4] was written by President Bush in the National Security Strategy of the United States of America.

Still many Arabs, Middle Easterners, and other Muslims are using South American and more specifically Central America in their routes to gain entry to the U.S. undetected. With law agencies cooperating they shut down multiple human trafficking organizations that were known for specializing in Arabs and middle easterners which could have included terrorists. These immigrants must seek other avenues like the Salifi Network in Mexico or the use of the Mara Salvatrucha, a violent gang which has no allegiance to any country or and government just their gang. Any terrorist wanting to gain access to the United States through the rail line must deal with the Mara Salvatrucha.1 [5] 

As we take down human trafficking rings we learn that to end human trafficking we have to target the factors supporting it. One of these factors is called sex tourism and is one of the biggest factors that gains business. But what supports sex tourism? Men's demand for sexual prostitution, poverty is coercing women and children to engage in sexual exploitation, and military presence generate sex based venues tolerated by governments that see it as rest and recreation for the troops. Also, the globalization of the economy which trickles down to globalizing the sex industry. Trafficking networks work across borders to "recruit" women and girls and doing business with hotels, charters, and airlines.1 [6] 

The only way to combat these growing threats of human trafficking helping terrorist activities it to attack the source of the problem thereby preventing unlawful entry into the United States. The most effective strategy to this problem would to use gain intelligence of major violators and focus on the ones that have ties to terrorist organizations.1 [7] It would be to all our benefits to in the future to understand the inside workings of human trafficking as a part of organized crime like we understand how the drug trade works. We would benefit also from better international cooperation in effectively enforcing human trafficking law and investigating crimes. Educating the public would be an immense way to combat trafficking by teaching the public to be aware of what is going on around them. The legitimate business also need education in that they need to know that they might be causative to the problem of trafficking by how they are engaged in the legitimate economy.1 [8] 

This modern-day slavery is happening right in front of us as we choose to look the other way because we do not want to face the truth. Human trafficker have no morals, no compassion as they will hurt and deprive the vulnerable innocent of our society. The children slaves are exposed to the grueling side of life before they can see the greatness of life. Fueled by greed and power they will not stop because of human right and will break people down all to sell that person to the highest bidder.

The United State and NATO have are moving forward in the right direction. The task is not to be able to physically take down these organizations because more will just take their place. Instead to change the mindset of society and get everyone to open their eyes and see the horrific tragedy of how this modern-day slavery denies human rights, establishes crime, and funds terrorist activities.1 [9] Countries need to set up better border security to prevent human trafficking and better homeland security to detect trafficking. Part of this strategy would involve the use of technology and media. Media could be on the frontline of educating the public and with their skill of entertainment they can grab the attention of the masses.

Human trafficking is the major source that is denying billions their basic human rights. Sex trafficking is a major public health risk of spreading an epidemic across continents. Our history of slavery makes this even a more uncomfortable subject to share because we don't want to recognize we could be contributing to modern-day slavery. This issue need to be shared because it is only by full cooperation and understanding will the issue of urgency be solved. President Obama on the 4th of January 2010 proclaimed "We must join together as a Nation and global community to provide that safe haven by protecting victims and prosecuting traffickers."2 [0] We must prevent modern slavery or human trafficking from becoming a common decency as it once was. We must fight against this evil facing us, attack the sources of the injustice without toleration until slavery is abolished from our society.