Looking At The Incarceration Rate Of Americans Criminology Essay

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Each year there is a steep rise in the number of African Americans incarcerated in prisons. According to statistics it is projected that if the current rate continues, it is estimated that it well up with a rate of having every one male in three having at least been incarcerated once. This portrays a very serious problem that need more in-depth focus as the question goes begging as to what are the major factors contributing to this or is a case of an institutionalized case of racism. This is due to the fact that the African Americans in term of statistics are much higher in comparison to there male counterparts who are of white and Hispanic origins. The numbers according to studies are astonishing as it implies that in the current generation young boys, they stand a very strong chance of ending up in prison at some point in there lives. This is a perfect portrayal of a case where the problems of inequality and other social problems are not being well addressed because at the same time the African Americans have produced some of best success stories through the degree of excellence achieved.

The facts that so many male black men are incarcerated imply that the long run effect is the exclusion from some of the social amenities that are provided by the government. These former inmates will end up not getting the normal assistance as citizen that most people are entitled to like the housing plan others include the loans given for college students. Some of the other disadvantages encountered by these ex-convicts include finding it very hard to get employed due to the criminal background as most organizations end up doing a background check on its employees and tend to shy away from those with a criminal background. This results in a permanent black out from jobs of certain cadres due to the perceived risk of threat or danger. To make matters worse some of the states end up reserving the rights for voting for individuals who are convicted criminals even after the completion of the allocated sentences. This factors always lead to the begging question rising of is there a form of racial profiling taking place taking into consideration the fact that the higher percentage of the incarcerated persons belong or are of black origin(Orfield, 2004).

Currently in the United States the population of people in incarceration is in the excess of over two million people which makes it the country with the highest prison population in the world. This fact combined with the idea that African American in incarceration is the highest of the different groups of people. African Americans is a minority group implying that if the population is high in prisons mean the community ends up lagging behind as most of the young men have or are in prison and this reduces their competitiveness in the job market in relation to other persons of different racial variation. This alone means it costs the tax payer a lot of money in terms of maintaining the prisons running and other facilities required like the wardens to run the same(Pew, 2009).

The fact that a large number of black people are incarcerated is a dimension of some kind of contemporary form of racial equality. It is a perfect case of people being marginalized when it comes to the global economics. This means it is a method of trying to maintain the black population to be left for the low income job opportunities. Another fact that arises is that most corporate are making a killing economically by making large profits in the ware housing of the poor which mainly targets poor black individuals(Waquant, 2000).

The fact that many black males are in prison gives an impression that not only did the negative perception begins with justice system but also by the stereotyping that began long before the criminal activities. The act that being labeled as a criminal began way earlier probably when most the young males were still in high school where they are viewed as to members of either criminal gangs or thugs. This early sort of being taught to be criminal can be assumed to contribute to this as due to be assumed can have a mental influence on the activities will do later in life as in some cases it begins as early as the elementary school. This can also be supported by the fact that although the youth of color make up only about a third of the nations youth, when it comes to the youth in the incarceration facilities, they compose about two thirds the population of those are of colored skin. (Ferguson, 2000).

The issue of the racial discrimination for the African American can be supported by the fact this ends up profiting other people. The first that prisons are not located in urban areas means they are constructed in remote areas where the need for construction will provide housing tenders to the booming contractors who make money from the tenders. The construction of the prisons also creates the development in this area as jobs are created through the employment of wardens to oversee the running of the facility. During the last century prisons used to engage in industries that provided goods for the local market where the target was the local merchants for the sale and consumption for the local community. Since the laws were made which prohibited the direct competition with the industries. This was for a while but has since been loosened allowing to which has led to the expansion of these activities again to produce in a factory setting. This can be a reason to target the people to go to the black community for increasing the number of people in incarceration to be used for the labor in producing these products (Prashad, 2003).

This rate of incarceration is alarming and increases the speculation on the causes of this effect. This is because it has resulted in the increased gap between the men of color in terms of development where even the fellow minority Hispanic group seems to be progressing, the African Americans are on the decline with each year hence the resulting question of apart from the racial profiling what may be the other effects that may lead to the decline. Some of the reasons believed to be factoring to this is poor education.

African American tend to get stiffer penalties when committing crimes due to the racial profiling where an assumption is made that Africans tend to have a tendency to commit crimes more than the people of other groups like Hispanics or the white. Studies seem to imply that in cases of drug felon charges, African Americans always receive stiffer penalties where most include serving time but in a case of whites they seem to get away with suspended sentences and community service time. These raises further the issue of racial profiling and its relationship to being sent to prison which makes it a hot issue in the society.

Causes of prevalence in incarceration of young men of color

Poor education

Poor education is very prevalent in African American men especially in the urban areas where the rate of high school dropout is quit high. This has brought about a large pool of unskilled and poorly educated young black men who are much behind their peers in the mainstream as compared to the Hispanics and the whites. This is very prevalent in the inner cities which harbor large populations African Americans. The poor education makes them unattractive in the job market which maybe leads them to be driven to a life of crime. Poor education combined with a history of incarceration makes the young black men a poor prospect for any employee (Eckhlom, 2006).

The racism is further portrayed by the law itself which is focusing on trying to solve crimes committed by the African Americans; by this the incarceration institutes have been slowly transformed into an African American community due to the high number in population of the same group. The prosecution also use in the prosecution for people found to be in possession of drugs like crack which is popular among the African American community will get the same kind of treatment with the fellow who has need found with about 100 tonnes of the same drug. This also shows an unjust judicial system aimed at putting these men found with the same instead of focusing on the rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of these men does not occur in the incarceration centers as most of them get to interact with hard core criminals and at the end, the people come back to the society with a criminal mindset instead of a reformed citizen.

The other major line through which the racial profiling has been used is the school to prison pipeline. In this a form of institutionalized racism is practiced where adolescent who misbehave are shipped to juvenile detention instead of the more correct way which could have been prevented by proper counseling which would result in a proper reform process. By this form of criminalizing young black teenager s due to the minor errors committed result in a defined problem in the society that needs to be removed. The process of referring students who have done mistakes to law instead of solving the problem is unwarranted and unjust as the young teenagers are exposed to a discriminatory behavior that affects there development later in life. The high rate of suspensions in the high school can be viewed ad a factor to be considered in the resulting of teenager dropping out of school because they are too often and they are too high. The schools should handle these cases of indiscipline in a better way by making the suspension as a last resort after all has failed. There are also high rates of suspension where there are cultural differences between teachers and students, such as in schools where the majority of students are black and the majority of teachers are white(Waquant 2000).