Investigating the Asian Immigrants Settlement in Suburban America

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The entry of Asians into the US is dated back to 1948, when a substantial number of Asians, particularly Chinese, landed on the American continent shortly after the discovery of gold mines in California (Lin, 1998). After the gold rush, these early Chinese Americans chose to settle for economic opportunities, and became a significant source of labor for building the trans-continental railways (Mei, 1979). Other important sources of early Asian Americans include Japanese, Koreans and Filipinos (Daniel 1998). Seeing the increasingly large Asian population as a threat to Americas' labor opportunities, Congress was pressured by public to take action in preventing the influx of Asian immigrants, prompting the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Gentlemen's agreement of 1908 ( Lee,2002). Latest developments in immigrant settlement patterns are altering communities across the United States.

According to the American Community Survey (ACS) 2006-2008 Asians are approximated to be 4.4% of the America's total population US Census Bureau, 2009). Asians also constitute the largest percent of foreign born population at 26.9% this makes Asians the second largest immigrant group in the United States (US Census Bureau 2009). One interesting thing about this group that calls for their study is that they are economically well off than standard Americans.

Asian immigration into the US has led to economic, political, and cultural implications in the suburbs. For example, many immigrants earn little and lack the spending power. Asian suburban communities in the US have reciprocated in different ways to the presence of the Asian immigrants to the extent of hostile exclusion.

Part 2:

Annotated Bibliography

Skop, E., & Li, W. (2005). Asians in America's suburbs: Pattern and consequences of settlement.

Geographical Review 95 (2), 167-168

Skop, Emily, Li, Wei, (2005) in an effort to give a more multifaceted and complex examination of the process of spatial assimilation, they explore different ways in understanding racial/ethnic residential patterns. The authors examine patterns of modern Asian Indian and Chinese settlement in two urban areas: Austin and Phoenix. The two areas represent newly upcoming Asian centers. In their study the authors note that little consideration has been drawn away from usual immigrant gateways to the increasing population of Asians in other parts of the United States. They also note that there is analysis of the residential geography within the upcoming settlement areas. They argue that understanding what actually is happening in the areas will front a richer and a full account of varied residential patterns of minorities and a clear understanding of the assimilation process. Asian population increased to 72% between 1990 and 2000, from 6.9 million to 11.9 million. In comparison to the U.S population which grew by 13% between 1990 and 2000, from 248.7 million to 281.4 million (US Census Bureau 1990, 2000). They attribute the rapid population growth to the fact that the Asians account for a third of the entire immigration into the United States. Migrants from India and China are recruited by the U.S government and other multinational corporations for their skills and business connections to developing markets overseas. However less educated and less skilled Asians enter the US through family reunions. It is noted that despite settling in all areas they are concentrated in the south and west with California holding the majority. The authors agree that even if the number of Asians living in the suburbs is increasing, they are however, not assimilating into normative composition of native born,

Wen-Jui. H, Chien-Chung. H , (2010). The Forgotten Treasure: Bilingualism and Asian

Children's Emotional and Behavioral Health. American Journal of Public Health, 100

(5), 831-838

Wei Li is Associate professor in the Asian Pacific American Studies, School of Social Transformation and the School of Geographical Sciences and urban planning at the Arizona State University.

Li (2005) in this article address the socio economic and spatial consequences of modern international skilled and low skilled migration, coupled with changing social structures and settlement patterns. He notes that earlier analysis of immigrant settlement forms and society pattern focus on integration process. He also argues that America's social analysis of ethnic communities doesn't differentiate between ghetto and ethnic enclave, while recognizing the integration model as the only basis for explanation. Having analyzed the appearance of a Chinese middle class society and investment center in Richmond and other area he notes that there have been changes over the years with Asians now concentrating in areas that had earlier Asian settlements. The readily available jobs and amenities in the suburbs like Phoenix, Rockville and Seattle, have attracted large number of Asian highly skilled migrants. In the immigrant communities good and services for the adults, language schools for generations to come are abundant. He finally argues that the rise in skilled and less skilled immigration has brought major implications on host societies. Modern international migration frameworks have become complex and highly networked. As a result international migration comes along with unprecedented prospects and challenges for further future studies on international immigration

Min, Z; Yang, X. (2005). The multifaceted American experience of the Children of Asian

immigrants: Lessons from segmented assimilation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28 (6 )

1119-1152

Min Zhou is a professor of sociology and the Founding Chair of the Department of Asian American Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Yang Sao Xiong is a doctoral student of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Min,& Yang (2005) in this article argue that America's class system and racial stratification have to an important extent shaped the Asian Americans' experiences. They focus on outcomes of assimilation among the Asian immigrants children. They note that these are very diverse but not haphazard, depending on the interaction between individuals, societal factors, community and family, which are associated with unique contexts of reception and exit. The two also find out that irrespective of the fact that most children of Asian immigrants cling firm to the ideology of integration and that they aspire to achieve equality with the dominant group, they are conscious of their inferior racial status and that they are expected to internalize the shortcomings associated with it. Therefore they tend to call upon ethnic uniqueness for empowerment and even be integrated to a culture of mobility.

The success of these children depends on ethnic community resources and family, while others fail to succeed due to their family low social economic status brought about by the lack of essential ethnic community resources. This reality has determined to an important extent their multifaceted life chances and experiences. In order to succeed they might have to work twice as much as other Americans.

Gupta V.B. (2010). Impact of culture on healthcare seeking behavior of Asian Indians .Journal

of Cultural Diversity, 17(1), 13-19.

Vidya Bhushan Gupta MD, MPH, is a professor of Clinical Pediatrics at New York Medical College located in Valhalla, New York.

Gupta (…..) in this article investigates the influence of ethnicity at each phase from the perspective of Asian Indian culture. Although they comprise a small percent of the American population they are the immigrants who are growing at the fastest rate. The author tries to make it known to the clinicians that at the first visit they should examine what are the symptoms, what they mean to the patient and what are the modalities complementary and alternative the patients used to tackle them and at following visits they should examine how the advice they gave was understood through the prism of patients customs and what the patient followed and what was neglected. In other cases such as disability or even death the clinicians should first examine the patient's customs and religious beliefs.

He notes that Asians are a very different group and as such they have very different behavior and beliefs, with over twenty languages and practice close to all religions in the world. He further notes that their practices, beliefs and health care attitudes differ depending on their occupation, education, socioeconomic status and where they grew up. According to him the recent immigrant's values are very different from their earlier counterparts. The recent immigrants have almost assimilated the practices of the dominant culture.

The implication of culture on healthcare seeking activities is changing and as a result the service providers should tailor make their clinical dimensions to the phase of health seeking and ethnicity acculturation of their clients.

Somanchi, M.; Juon, H; Rimal, R. (2010) Predictors of screening mammography among Asian

Journal of Women's Health, 19 (3), 433-441

Somanchi, Joun and Rimal are all professors at the Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

Somanchi et al., (2010) in this article inspect the how mammogram test procedures are adhered to and also assess the likelihood of contacting a mammogram later than two years in Asian settlers. The authors note that Asian ladies in America possess a superior risk of contracting breast cancer than their equivalent in their country of origin. The heterogeneity of this set poses a challenge in learning this group. Somanchi, et al.,(2010). The increase in figures of this group has necessitated the need for information concerning this group values, health and so on. Studies illustrate that there are obstacles in conducting a mammography test in this group. This included lack of information on where to get tested, panic of being tested by the men and fear of needless radiation. Somanchi, et al.,(2010) Due to the rise in costs of health concern and the growing statistics of immigrants in the country, information that help comprehend how and when various immigrants ladies take on or don't to the protective procedures is indeed important. They emphasized on the need to devise outreach mechanisms that attend to the factors that forecast mammogram tests that will focus on a two way advances aimed at at both the Asian women and Asian physicians Somanchi,et al.,(2010) They also suggest that those Asian women who don't have a medical indemnity can be got in touch with through state funded programs, public cover carriers and society base projects. The young generation of Asian women also requires to be well-informed on protective measures and methods on how to detect cancer at an early stage, and ]also be encouraged to participate in breast cancer tests.Somanchi,et al.,(2010)

Ta, V.M.; Holck,P ; Gee, G.C. (2010). Generational status and family cohesion effects on the

receipt of mental health services among Asian Americans: American Journal of Public

Health, 100 (1), 115-121

Ta et al., (2010) In their research noted that people from families that high level of unity are less likely to experience psychological stress, drug abuse and so on. Asian immigrants are not spared as well due to fewer ties. Arriving immigrants will be required to keep mental health issues in the family structure. Understanding family bond and use of various services by generations will provide information from which planning should be based on. They argue that children from immigrants' families are more likely to have mental problems as opposed to the dominant culture children.

Kumar A; Nevid, J. S (2010). Acculturation, enculturation and perceptions of mental disorders in

Asian Indian immigrants. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority, Psychology, 16 (2), 274-

283

Kumar, & Nevid (2010) conducted as study trying to assess the behavioral acculturation, values enculturation, and perceptions of the psychological and medical determinants of cases of depression. The results they got revealed that reply to the men case vignettes attracted lower levels of acceptance of psychological causes and greater heights of endorsement of biological causes in relation to their female counterparts. In addition vignette gender controlled the relationship between the perceptions of psychological cause of ailments and behavioral acculturation shown in the vignettes. It is the gender and the type of ailment that controlled the relationship between the years in America and the perceptions of biological causes.

Gary, P. Yu, Z. (2010). Immigrants and housing markets in mid-sized metropolitan areas.

International Migration Review, 44 (2), 442-476.

Gary & Yu (2010) the two authors focus on the recent tendency of immigrants arriving in the suburbs saying that it has received increasing attention. They explore the success of this group in the housing market. The immigrants who settle in gateway metropolitan areas are more likely to succeed than their counterparts in suburbs. Their results proves that the immigrants success in owning a home is limited and as result they are forced to live in overcrowded areas as opposed to the dominant community of native born whites. The immigrants' effort on homeownership also differs by immigrant group and geography. The difference in population composition largely affects the success of owning a home.

Kenneth Kuk, (2010) New Asian Destinations: A Comparative Study of Traditional Gateways

and Emerging Immigrants Destinations. New York : Guilford Press.

Kuk (2010).The author identifies diverse types of Asian settlement areas and assesses income consequences across geographic regions among Asians. The result shows that Asians are nowadays moving to non- traditional Asian areas. This author classifies Asian immigrants into three groups namely native born, secondary and new immigrants. Further according to their experiences in America either spatial assimilation segmented assimilation or straight line assimilation theories are used in explaining modern Asian settlement patterns. Emphasis is laid on the importance of policies both at the government and local level to accommodate these immigrants. The policy makers and planner should therefore bear the fact that Asian are moving to new areas for settlement in mind and as result promote racial unity through outreach programs and education

Smeeta Mishra, & Gaby Semaan (2010) Islam in cyberspace: South Asian Muslims in America Log In. Phoenix: University of Phoenix Press

Smeeta Mishra Assistant professor Communications Department, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad, India. Gaby Semaan is a lecturer at the University of Toledo, Ohio..

Mishra, & Semaan (2010) in their study examine how the Asian Muslims in America use internet for religious reasons. The American social life differs largely with the Islamic performance. Most Muslims are therefore left to wonder whether there is a way in which they can lead a proper way of living in non Muslim environment. The author examines how the internet helps the Muslim to lead an Islamic life in America. Emphasizing the importance of the i9nternet for diasporas populations, Krueger (2004) points out that the internet provides an excellent opportunity to remain connected with one's religious community in distant lands. However scholars such as Dawson (2000) emphasize that limited work has been done to date on religion and internet. The author also notes the importance of verifying the credibility of various sites visited by those seeking religious advancement. Most Muslims prefer the internet for the fact that it offers confidentiality and as such it provides answers to so many personal questions that they may be having. According to second generation immigrants internet helps them to follow real Islam. There is also the fact that internet has helped in offering the best information which is reliable for those who want to practice Islam in US. The Muslims in America can follow what others especially the teachers in their original countries are teaching and practicing. The cheaper cost of accessing the internet has also contributed greatly to the practice of Islam in America

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