Intelligence And Security Informatics Criminology Essay

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The course is assessed by one essay coursework which is detailed below. Your essay must be fully and correctly referenced throughout, both in the text and in a separate bibliography section and conform to the Harvard system of referencing (you can obtain a Harvard System factsheet in the library). We would also ask you to reacquaint yourself with the university policy on plagiarism. Particular attention will be paid in ensuring plagiarised work does not pass by unchecked and all essays must be by hardcopy and electronic copy and will be checked by the Turnitin system. You should use at least five sources to construct your essays. Class handouts and of course books and journal articles are acceptable. Websites and internet articles should not be used unless for brief citation as they are of often dubious quality and accuracy. Website and internet articles are not a substitute for legitimate source materials though you may of course use the websites of newspapers and TV channels. Similarly, you are expected to make use of news and documentary programmes and newspapers, and these should be thoroughly referenced and include as relevant, the names of reporters, anchorpersons and photographers.

Assessment: One 3000 word essay due on 10th January 2011.

1) What are the implications for the transformation of criminal opportunity inherent in digital and virtual technologies? Discuss with reference to one of the following; sex and cyber crime, cyber privacy, cyber terrorism, cyber stalking.

 

2) To what extent do networked technologies blur the distinction between the real and the virtual? Discuss in the contexts of one of the following; Intelligence gathering, war and the military, terrorism, security, crime detection.

SO1150A - Virtual Environments, Crime & Cyberspace

Week 1 - Andy Panay - Introduction To the Course: Thinking about course themes.

This is an introductory session in which we will discuss the programme in detail and highlight core themes and ideas that underpin the sociological analysis of Virtual Environments, Crime and Cyberspace. It is also envisaged that we will consider for discussion the short paper 'Intelligence in War' by John Keegan (detailed below), which succinctly and accessibly introduces some key pointers for next week's class.

Class Reading:

Keegan, J (2004) Intelligence in War: 'Introduction' pp 1-5.

London, Pimlico.

General Reading:

Andrew, C et al (2008) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Routledge.

Armitage, J & Roberts, J (2002) Living with Cyberspace: Technology and and Society in the 21st Century. Continuum.

Coleman, R (2010) Surveillance and Crime. SAGE.

Gill, P et al (2009) Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates. Routledge.

Kirkpatrick, G (2008) Technology and Social Power. Palegrave Macmillan.

George, RZ & Bruce, J (2008) Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles and Innovations.

Mosco, V (2005) Digital Sublime: Myth, Power and Cyberspace. MIT Press.

Mackenzie, D (1999) The Social Shaping of Technology. Open University Press.

Holmes, D (2005) Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society. SAGE.

Geraci, R (2008) Apocalyptic Ai: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality.

Week 2 - Andy Panay - Theorising Intelligence and understanding the Intelligence Cycle

In this session we will discuss the two papers detailed below taking first the essay by Mackenzie and Wajcman (detailed below) which is considered to be a classic consideration of approaches to the sociology of technology, and secondly the paper by Warner(detailed below) which provides a critical discussion of the definition of 'Intelligence' and gives some insight into the processes and ethical concerns by which Intelligence is gathered.

Class Reading:

Mackenzie, D & Wajcman, J et al (2003) The Social Shaping of Technology: 'Introductory Essay' pp 3-27. Open University Press.

Warner, M (2009) 'Wanted: A Definition of 'intelligence.' In Christopher, A et al, Secret Intelligence: A Reader. London: Routledge.

General Reading:

Andrew, C et al (2008) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Routledge.

Armitage, J & Roberts, J (2002) Living with Cyberspace: Technology and and Society in the 21st Century. Continuum.

Coleman, R (2010) Surveillance and Crime. SAGE.

Gill, P et al (2009) Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates. Routledge.

Kirkpatrick, G (2008) Technology and Social Power. Palegrave Macmillan.

George, RZ & Bruce, J (2008) Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles and Innovations.

Mosco, V (2005) Digital Sublime: Myth, Power and Cyberspace. MIT Press.

Mackenzie, D (1999) The Social Shaping of Technology. Open University Press.

Holmes, D (2005) Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society. SAGE.

Geraci, R (2008) Apocalyptic Ai: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality.

Week 3 - Anne Wilson - Cybercrime

This lecture will critically examine the ways in which criminal behaviour and activities have been transformed through new technologies such as the internet and will provide opportunities to consider the impact that these behaviours and activities may have on public security

Key issues/concepts: risk assessment vs reality; globalised communications network and personal computing power; automated cybercrime; networked technologies; 'lawless electronic frontier'?, surveillance.

Recommended Reading

(More detailed reading will be provided in the lectures)

Bakhtin, M., 1984, Rabelais and his World

Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., Young, J., 2008, cultural Criminology An Invitation, Sage

Jewkes, Y., Yar, M., 2010, Handbook of Internet Crime, Willan

Leman-Langlois, S., 2008, Technocrime, technology, crime and social control, Willan

Presdee, M., 2000, Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime, Routledge

Thomas, D., Loader, B., 2003, Cybercrime, law enforcement, security and surveillance in the information age, Routledge.

Wall, D.S., 2007, Cybercrime, Polity

Week 4 - Aaron Winter - Political Crime Online: Terrorism, Extremism and the Internet

This session will examine the concept and phenomenon on online extremism, the role, function and use of the internet and ICTs by extremists (e.g. terrorists and hate groups), as well as the different forms it takes and methods used (e.g. finance, recruitment, planning, propaganda, cyber attacks, etc.). The session will also look at different academic, expert, NGO and state approaches to understanding, critically engaging with and combating online extremism. Finally, it will look at how this phenomenon and approaches to it relate to wider sociological themes and issues such as crime, violence, surveillance, identity and community, state and civil society, social antagonism and political activism, communication and networks, modernity and globalization.

Main Reading

Denning, Dorothy E. (2010), 'Terror's Web: how the Internet is Transforming terrorism', in Handbook of Internet Crime (Cullumpton: Willan), 194-213.

Wykes, Maggie and Harcus, Daniel (2010), 'Cyber-terror: construction, criminalisation and control', in Handbook of Internet Crime (Cullumpton: Willan), 214-229.

Recommended Reading (More detailed reading will be provided in the lectures)

Daniels, Jessie (2009), Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield).

Ronczkowski, Michael R. (2004), 'Chapter 6: What the Future May Hold', in Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime: Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigations (Boca Raton: CRC Press), 129-142.

Roversi, Antonio (2008), Hate on the Net: Extremist Sites, Neo-fascism On-line, Electronic Jihad (Aldershot: Ashgate).

Verton, Dan (2003), Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism (Emeryville: McGraw-Hill).

Also see sections/chapters on cyber-terrorism in these and other books on terrorism:

Martin, Gus (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, London: Sage.

Ross, Jeffrey Ian (2006) Political Terrorism: An Interdisciplinary Introduction, New York: Peter Lang, 2006.

Resources

See UK Terrorism Act 2000 and 2006 sections on cyber-terrorism:

2000 Act: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/11/contents/enacted

2006 Act: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/11/contents

See also US Department of Homeland Security:

http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm

Week 5 - Jason Annetts - Sex and Cyberspace

This lecture will focus on sex and sexuality in cyberspace. Media attention tends to focus on the darker side of cybersex, particularly child pornography on the net, however, the impact that the internet has had on sex and sexuality extends far beyond the paedophile threat lurking in the chatroom. The internet has opened up a new sexual world that is only a keystroke away. This lecture will consider the impact this new cyber-sexual world is having on contemporary society.

Below is a list of some articles and books that you may find useful. More specific reading(s) will be given to you in Week 4 for this class.

Blevins, K. R. & Holt, T. J. (2009) 'Examining the Virtual Subculture of Johns', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38(5): 619-648

Brown, S. (2006) 'The Criminology of hybrids: Rethinking Crime and Law in Technosocial Networks' Theoretical Criminology, 10(2): 223-244.

Gies, l. (2008) 'How material are cyberbodies? Broadband, Internet and Embodied Subjectivity' Crime Media Culture, 4(3): 311-330.

Holt, T.J, Blevins, K. R. & Burkert, N. (2010) 'Considering the Pedophile Subculture Online' Sex Abuse, 22(1): 3-24.

Kibby, M. & Costello, B. (2001) 'Between the Image and the Act: Interactive Sex Entertainment on the Internet' Sexualities, 4(3): 353-369.

Jewkes, Y. (2007) Crime Online, Uffculme: Willan.

Webb, L. Craissati, J. & Keen, S. (2007) 'Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders: A Comparison with Child Molesters' Sex Abuse, 19: 449-465.

Yar, M. (2006) Cybercrime and Society, London: Sage.

Week 6 - Jim Moir - "Get real, it's just a game"

What is computer game playing and its relationship with the 'real world'? The concept of the 'magic circle' has over recent years become one of widely debated and contested ideas within contemporary video games studies. The origins of this concept can be found in work of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, and in particular his 1944 (1949 in English) book Homo Ludens. He noted that these places of play are isolated spots with special rules. The study of games in this way is know as 'ludology' and it has attempted to distance itself from 'media studies' and establish itself as a distinct academic field. Therefore the major thrust of this approach is to argue that video and computer games cannot be understood as media texts (a narratological approach) because playing such games is a kind of activity that is more like that of play or sport. This is a major academic division in the study of gaming and one that this lecture explores.

Reading

Castronova, E. (2005) Synthetic Worlds: The Business & Culture of Online Games. University of Chicago Press [This book looks at the (dis)connection between virtual societies and economies and real societies and economies.]

Castronova, E. (2007) Exodus to the Virtual World: How Online Fun Is Changing Reality. Palgrave McMillan [This book considers the implications of the growing number of people around the world spending more and more time playing multiplayer games in virtual reality both as a form of escape and as a search for meaning.]

Dovey, J. & Kennedy, H. W. (2006) Game Cultures: Computer Games as New Media. Open University Press. [This book examines a range of social, political and economic issues related to the production and consumption of computer games.]

Kline, S., Dyer-Witheford, N. & De Peuter, G. (2003) Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing. McGill-Queen's University Press. [An account of the rise of interactive gaming, from its roots in the military to its status as a global phenomenon and industry. There is also a consideration of some of the contentious issues such as gender and violence in video games.]

Van Loon J. (2008) Media Technology: Critical Perspectives. McGraw-Hill [An examination of the way in which content is shaped by the form of media technologies.]

Week 7 - Reading Week.

At this midway point of the semester….

Week 8 - Andy Panay - Technoscience and the Cultural Representation of Virtual and Transhuman Technologies.

This session will consider the cultural representation made through cinema, Tv, games and virtual world environments the meanings made of advanced technologies and consider these as representations of utopian and dystopian social visions.

Class Reading: To follow.

General Reading:

Andrew, C et al (2008) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Routledge.

Armitage, J & Roberts, J (2002) Living with Cyberspace: Technology and and Society in the 21st Century. Continuum.

Coleman, R (2010) Surveillance and Crime. SAGE.

Gill, P et al (2009) Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates. Routledge.

Kirkpatrick, G (2008) Technology and Social Power. Palegrave Macmillan.

George, RZ & Bruce, J (2008) Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles and Innovations.

Mosco, V (2005) Digital Sublime: Myth, Power and Cyberspace. MIT Press.

Mackenzie, D (1999) The Social Shaping of Technology. Open University Press.

Holmes, D (2005) Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society. SAGE.

Geraci, R (2008) Apocalyptic Ai: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality.

Week 9 - Hazel Work - War Games.

This lecture will discuss the technological culture of war, beginning with a brief examination of transitions in the way in which wars have been fought. This will be followed by a discussion of more contemporary debates about war, simulacra and hyperreality; focusing on the arguments surrounding total war and the blurring of the boundaries between real and virtual war.

Recommended Reading:

Baudrillard, J (1993) Symbolic Exchange and Death. London:Sage.

Baudrillard, J (1991) The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Berger, A (2002) Video Games: A Popular Cultural Phenomenon. New York: Transaction.

Bosquet, A (2009) The Scientific Way of Warfare: Order and Chaos on the Battlefields of Modernity. London: Hurst.

Derain-Derain, J (2001) Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Gray, C.H. (2003) Posthuman Soldiers in Postmodern War. Body and Society. 9 (4): 215-226.

Halter, E (2006) From Sun Tsu to Xbox: War and Video Games. New York: Thunders Mouth Press.

Kingsepp, E (2007) Fighting Hyperreality With Hyperreality: History and Death in the World War II Digital Games. Games and Culture. 2:pp366-375.

Power, M (2007) Digitized Virtuosity: Video War Games and Post-9/11 Cyber-Deterrence. Security Dialogue. 38 (2) pp271-288.

Schut, K (2007) Strategic Simulations and Our Past: The Bias of Computer Games in the Presentation of History. Games and Culture. 2 (3):pp213-235.

Virilio, P (1989) War and Cinema: the Logistics of Perception. London:Verso.

Virilio, P (1997) Pure War. New York:Semiotext(e). and Pure War Revisited (2007)

Virilio, P (2002) Desert Screen: War at the Speed of Light. London: Continuum.

Week 10 - Law Enforcement & Regulation.

Anne Wilson

This lecture will examine the ways in which cyberspace can be regulated and in which cybercrime can be policed against a framework of managing harm and violence. It will provide opportunities to identify the kinds of regulatory challenges that cybercrimes present for criminal justice at national and international levels

Key concepts: multiple regulation and order maintenance strategies; distal (Offline) governance of cyberspace; proximal (online) governance; conventional policing; second life players; hybrid cybercrime; risk management

Recommended Reading

(More detailed reading will be provided in the lectures)

Bakhtin, M., 1984, Rabelais and his World

Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., Young, J., 2008, cultural Criminology An Invitation, Sage

Jewkes, Y., Yar, M., 2010, Handbook of Internet Crime, Willan

Leman-Langlois, S., 2008, Technocrime, technology, crime and social control, Willan

Presdee, M., 2000, Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime, Routledge

Thomas, D., Loader, B., 2003, Cybercrime, law enforcement, security and surveillance in the information age, Routledge.

Wall, D.S., 2007, Cybercrime, Polity

Week 11 - Andy Panay - Global Surveillance & The Bleak Future of Privacy.

This session will consider the implications for personal privacy in the global context of increasingly ubiquitous regimes of surveillance. We will consider the ethical and social implications of intrusive surveillance technology and discuss its implications for the future of democracy.

Class Reading: To Follow.

General Reading:

Andrew, C et al (2008) Secret Intelligence: A Reader. Routledge.

Armitage, J & Roberts, J (2002) Living with Cyberspace: Technology and and Society in the 21st Century. Continuum.

Coleman, R (2010) Surveillance and Crime. SAGE.

Gill, P et al (2009) Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates. Routledge.

Kirkpatrick, G (2008) Technology and Social Power. Palegrave Macmillan.

George, RZ & Bruce, J (2008) Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles and Innovations.

Mosco, V (2005) Digital Sublime: Myth, Power and Cyberspace. MIT Press.

Mackenzie, D (1999) The Social Shaping of Technology. Open University Press.

Holmes, D (2005) Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society. SAGE.

Geraci, R (2008) Apocalyptic Ai: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality.

Week 12 - Conclusion: Discussion and Essay Preparation.

In this session will discuss your coursework essay which is due in on January 10th.

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