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This essay will describe and evaluate the central historical themes of working with children and young people after the beginning of the first world war in 1939 and how and relate the findings and concerns into current practice of working with young people.(revise)
"what youth workers do is make 'relationships' with young people which accept and value young people; and demonstrate honesty, rust, respect and reciprocity" (Young, K, p121)
During the later part of the 19th century and the first 40 years of the twentieth Century, youth work was seen as a philanthropic and a benevolent paternalism pastime with the volunteers at the time were privileged members of society with money and power, often seen as bourgeois pursuit. Concerns with the growing problem with urban living and the general living conditions of the working class prompted Christian philanthropists and religious groups to take action. (threatening youth, b Davis)
Maude Alethea Stanley (1833-1915) devoted her time to social and the services of youth work around the parish of Five Dials establishing the Girls Club Union in 1880 which morphed into different clubs run under auspices of the YMCA. Like most volunteers in that era, she was a religious follower (revise) and came from a privileged background. She believed in working girls and young men to be given an alternative to dance halls and street corners to provide a healthy safe environment for young people. (Smith, M 2001)
development of Sunday Schools associated with churches and chapels in last few years of the eighteenth century, and, in particular, the activities of pioneers such as Robert Raikes and Hannah More as an important forerunner of the work. Sunday Schools schools often used more informal ways of working and later developed a range of activities including team sports and day trips. It is also possible to look to the emergence of ragged schools in the first half of the nineteenth century as precursors of youth work.
The philanthropic initiators of the times were mainly the clergy involved with church youth clubs and universities including Cambridge House Settlement and the Oxford and Bermondsey Boys Club, these clubs involved professional men of the upper and middle class and their wives were heavily involved. (Williams, O, L, 1988)
Smith, M. K. (2001) 'Maude Stanley, girls' clubs and district visiting', the encyclopaedia of informal education
However young people had special wants and susceptible to dangers of boredom associated with leisure time, which would call for a youth institute with peculiar needs of evening recreation, healthy environment and companionship under useful instruction and guiding influence towards social acceptance and morality. Organisations like Jewish Boys Clubs, London Boys clubs, and Boys Brigade to name a few, catered for boys and girls clubs including The Butler Street cubs became popular institutions to cater for young people's leisure time. (Smith, M, 1988)
The Second World War became the turning point for the beginnings of the youth service with a report commissioned by the king George's Jubilee Trust started in 1939 on the needs of school leavers, the report tried to make out a stronger need for state presence which did undermine the voluntary sector.(Davis b 1939)
The influential report dismissed as wholly unsuitable the "less well educated leader" and the indigenous leadership emerging on the new housing estates. A. E. Morgan wrote the report stating "encourage the younger members of the more privileged classes" (Davies, B, 1999, p181)
It was felt in the report, by focusing on young people at the earliest opportunity, it was felt they could target and define youth work at the earliest level and target the clientele who were less privileged. (Davis, B, 1939 p16) However the Circular to local education Authorities for Higher Education. (27th November, 1939) Also know as Circular 1486 was released.
In spite of efforts of local education authorities and voluntary organisations, it was felt that young people aged between 14 and 20 years of age were neglected, especially if they have ceased full-time education. . (Board of education (1939) In the service of youth, London; HMSO)
In some parts of the country, provisions including clubs and facilities for young were almost non-existent. Lessons were learnt off World War 1 by the Government which emphasised the strains of war and the disruption to family life which created social problems and conditions which was seen by society as the growing menace of youth. (more about war)
The Board of Education would take a direct responsibility for young people's welfare with a National Youth Committee appointed to advise a board to administer and grants for the development of facilities. N.Y.C. included members of local education authorities and voluntary organisations with a purpose leadership and guidance to the movement throughout the country. The Committee would facilitate the opening of closed clubs and the premises requisitioned for war purposes and recommend financial assistance through voluntary organisation to provide competent instructors and provide equipment and hire premises for clubs and centres. The Council would co-operate with any authority or voluntary organisation that would request them to do so.
There was a call for a new sense of social responsibility and more a full partnership between local education authorities and voluntary bodies in a common organisation with board setting up the N.Y.C. representing all interests with parliamentary secretary as chairman. The N.Y.C. will have its counterpart in the form of local Youth Committees representatives of local authorities and voluntary organisations.
First, the local Youth Committee needs to formulate a policy for to ascertain local needs and then decide where assistance is best needed, including the best use of leisure on the group of young people where welfare is the main family income or young people living under difficult living conditions and are work unduly hours should be allowed to access any facilities offered to them. The purpose of the Local Youth Committee is not to directly conduct youth activities but strengthen the hands of local authorities and voluntary organisations (revise). The service of the youth has been said to be far too long neglected part of the education field and the board was confident that local education authorities will do meet the challenge needed to the satisfy the needs of the young. (Board of education (1939) In the service of youth, London; HMSO)
In 1944 the Board of Education, teachers and youth leaders, report of the committee appointed by the president of the board of education to consider the supply, recruitment and training of teachers and youth workers known as the Mc Nair report.
The Albemarle report published in 1960 is commonly regarded as an important paper for the expansion and development of youth work in England and Wales through the later part of the 20th century. For years youth workers have felt neglected and rejected by the Government and the society as a whole.
The need of such report came about after a Committee review the work of the Youth service in England and Wales, for a while society regarding they was a youth problem especially at the time of the street riots in Notting hill (revise) with armed gangs clashing and the emergence of mods and rockers culture.
Though the Albermarle Committee was only appointed 3 months after the street riots in Notting hill and Nottingham riots, the limitations of the analysis emerged again when it considered the Britain's multi-racial society, drawing on the cultural perspective, it seemed surprised that racial outburst should occur at all. However the report only made one reference to 'racial outbursts' and only then because of poor housing and making the comment " common interests common interests such as jazz and football and even a common culture" (Davis, B, 1999, p48). According to the Albermarle, a sense of insecurity could develop within an established community as 'strange faces' could appear on the streets and which could create racial tension amongst young people and create inter-racial tension so the committee concluded that the solution was integration of 'these' families into a ' British way of life'. (Davis,B, 1986)
National service had come to an end and there were a large number of young people in society after World War 2. (revise) the select committee agreed that the people involved with working with the youth work had 'held the line' in providing provision (revise) encouraging research and experiment to meet the needs of young people however it was agreed that the voluntary sector was the main source of help in working with the young person. (Davis , b history 1939)
Albemarle had a vision that the newly developed Youth Service Development Council would contain a 'intelligence unit' and the growing demands of the Youth Service by the young people, the needs of the young person were reinforced and extended by the Bessey Report (1962) with ideas for the for-mentioned 'intelligence unit' how it would run training course with basic research into psychology and social group work which thought for mainly part-time workers could be found invaluable. (wylie,t, essays in history etc)
Voluntary attendance was felt, key to attendance to clubs and activities so the young person has choice and free will to attend. The committee found that the authorities and local government had failed to make a meaning partnership between themselves and the voluntary sector and organisations.(revise) and policy as a whole with lack of funds and encouragement and showing less wiliness to break new ground (revise words).
The committee felt urgent work needed to be done and as a consequence a poor report was carried out due to very little research undertaking due the quickness of the report. It made history by being endorsed in its entirety by the ministry within hours of publication. The committee showed concern towards youth culture and especially social groups of young people which had sprouted in the late fifties and early sixties. (Davis, B, 1939 p38)
The Albemarle committee were also concerned with the new emergence of crime and delinquency being part of the youth culture and very much a youth problem, also being a working class phenomenon. (revise) The Albemarle report looked beyond clubs and tried to make actives more attractive to increasing numbers of young people and made proposals to make the Youth Service a more attractive and user friendly service. As well as establishing a new basis for youth work the committee wanted to expand the service.
The youth service was regarded as integral part of the education system in England and Wales provides informal education the young people in achieving maturity and responsible personal choice and offer individuals opportunities to better equip the young person to be a member of a responsible and creative member of society, aiming not too remove tensions but to adjust to social life.
Citizenship can be seen to arise in social relations in a good youth, qualities which can be seen in public life today, with language used by the youth worker to relate to the youth person. "I don't get told; I get asked. (The youth worker) has helped me stand on my own two feet..... (Youth workers) are honest, they set boundaries, for example about confidentially.... and I'm empowered to make decisions by that. You tell (the youth worker) what you need rather than vice versa" (defined by history; uk , Davis b)
The impact of the Albemarle report became evident with the rise of part-time youth workers more than doubled in a decade with half of the workers attending the emergency college set up at the National College for the training of Youth leaders, however Central and local Government spent around £28 Million between 1960 and 1968 on building projects incorporates Youth service projects with a the Experimental Projects Fund set up try to encourage innovation in the volunteer sector. ( infed )
( infed) http://www.infed.org/youthwork/albemarle_report.htm
The Youth Service has been said to have been in place to try and structure young people in a way that is acceptable to society, in doing this the service tried to solve any problem which was raised with the youth at the time, "it carved out for itself some space as a 'catch all' service, ever ready to jump in the fray and assert its authority in the service of youth" (Williams, L, 1988, p11)
However issues were raised and the Hunt report 1967 highlighted themes which still specifically look young black people and the Youth Service being a problematical, and pointed out in the report " . . . at other times the young generation with its absence of colour bias, will set the older an example" (hunt, 1967 as in William, O, L, 1988) The report puts faith in the younger generation of trying to integrate race issues in society. (Williams, O, L, 1988)
The post- 1979 Conservative Governments were whole-heartily committed decreasing the states commitment to the youth service as the state regarded the Youth service as suspect as the service relied on voluntary participation. The Government appointed yet another committee headed by Alan Thompson, a DES civil servant.
The Thompson report was set up in January 1981 by a committee sanctioned by the Government to gather information whether the Youth Service could use the resources given to the service more effectively (revise). When the report was finally issued late 1982, the Youth Service was criticised for the lack of co-ordination between the voluntary and statutory sectors. The recommendation was given that local education authorities would give responsibility to provide activities and facilities for young people aged 11 to the age of 21.
Thompson was explicate about area which needed to be examined were the treatment of young offenders, full time education and vocational training. A committee was set up, however only one of its members was classed as being young, only one person was a woman, none were black, however readdress this issue a single appointment of Jan McKenley, a lecturer and former youth worker who had originated in the West indies, was appointed. (Davis, B, 1999)
The primary needs towards young people were not recreation but to provide social education "to provide social education as a universal service to all young people who might benefit from it....the concept of 'social education' has provided youth work with a relatively consistent, through shifting, centre of gravity since the late 1960's" (p59 working with young people) and the Youth Service should be more involved with devising an appropriate curriculum for young people. (needs expanding and revise) and ref)
Racism and sexism were incorporated in the report together with the needs of the handicapped young person and young people in rural areas which felt provisions needed to be catered for. However some groups were ignored altogether, young gay people were not at all mentioned. (threatening youth Davis) mention gay
Youth and Community work in the 1970's developed out of the review of the Albemarle report and developments afterwards too. Two sub-committees were formed, one by chaired by Andrew Fairbairn, who examined the education and schooling and also chaired by Fred Milson, who looked at the relationship between young people and the adult community. However the two sub-committees differed in the view of the long term role of the Youth Service, Fairbairn wanted youth work to be more involved within the school system, especially community schools, while Milson was sceptical of this idea and if it could represent the full range of community interests. (infed) thus dividing it and often distracted it from its core youth focused tasks (revise wording)(Thatcher)
A majority of the 1970's doubts allowed the Government to affectively 'wash its hands' of the Youth Service. Margret Thatcher, the then Secretary of Education, affectively abolished the Y.S.D.C. (Youth Service Development Council) with local authorities battling the Youth Service with the subject of community education, recreation and leisure. (revise words) (Thatcher)
The youth service in the 1970's became subject to cuts to its budget and to any planned growth of the Youth Service in the 1970's which was echoed in the later parts of the decade reducing the service to effectively to a non-statutory status with local authorities choosing the level of funding which was a variable levels, however voluntary organisations adapted and survived. (Thatcher b davis)
In the 1980s and 1990s, the youth service, lack of response to gay and lesbian young people carried some powerful messages, first securitised by the Thompson report then by groups like NYB and Her Majesties Inspectorate. One HMI report with a wider remit did refer approvingly to work in progress with gay young people, it had nothing at all to say to encourage or support work with one of the submerged but consistently oppressed sections of the adolescent population (reword) (Thatcher 112 davis)
"There are serious doubts abroad as to the purpose of the youth service in day's full employment and the claims it can make on the already over-pressed resources of the state and local authorities... There is widespread doubt whether in fact the youth service has a part to play in the life of young people.... The reasons for a youth service, whether they date from the 19th century or from the stresses of war, have gone; what need is there, then, to perpetuate arrangements for situations which have vanished, we hope for good" (b.davis 1939-history p35)
Mention gay and lesbian now
In 1996 a new Nation Youth Agency had emerged (reword) as New labour had taken over the Government, the NYA, no longer a quango ( an organisation funded by taxpayers however funded central Government) but a agency in partnership with central Government and direction shared with local authorities, voluntary sector and young people themselves ( reword) involving literature and short course for youth workers and practitioners, and introducing a more supporting role for young people's voluntary action for innovative work of importance in the nation's youth work. (Walker, J et al 2009)