Hree Critical Issues In Law Enforcement Criminology Essay

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Citizens today look to law enforcement for service and protection. In order for officers to serve and protect, some issues have to be resolved. Remaining stress-free, enforcing the code of ethics and lastly, the presence of female police officers. These three critical issues can quickly weaken a department if left to manifest without any intervention.

Being stress-free in law enforcement is very important. An officer's performance is diminished greatly if he or she has trouble concentrating at work. Law enforcement officers are perceived to be tough, rough, and always ready to protect and serve. Citizens feel safe when police officers are seen regularly patrolling the streets.

When it comes to dealing with personal issues, officers tend to keep to themselves. Sometimes living up to those expectations can be challenging because the general public has a superhero image of law enforcement. Officers regularly deal with the worst of what society has to offer, and make special sacrifices to maintain the peace. In the process, performing daily tasks can be increasingly difficult. Unlike firefighters and paramedics, police officers are not trained to work as a group. Officers are left to work alone or with a partner. As a result, police coverage is often sparse throughout a jurisdiction.

Officers today are in desperate need of a better support system. With the rising crime rate in today's society, officers can only handle so much before reaching a breaking point. As the stress of police duty builds up, an officer may soon experience anger, depression, or


disillusion. Over time, these feelings may cause strained relationships with family and co-workers and in the end lead to suicide (Franklin, 2007).

Officers need to be in constant emotional control. Law enforcement officers have a job that requires extreme restraint under highly emotional circumstances. Officers are trained to stay calm when excited, to take charge when nervous, and to be stable when emotional. Constantly altering emotions takes a tremendous toll on an officer's mentality. When an officer is emotionally drained, it may make the officer more prone to fatigue, such as not wanting to participate in social or family life. Energy drain can also create job and social burnout (Goldfarb, n.d.).

Another cause of stress is shift work. No matter how many years an officer has been working, a person's body never gets used to fluctuating schedules. The human body is naturally

programmed to eat, sleep, and wake at a certain time. An officer performing shift work never gets a chance to stay on a schedule and in turn upsets the physical and mental balances.

Police have several options when it comes to dealing with stress. One option is psychological therapy. Police officers who have gone through a disturbing experience on the job, such as the death of a partner, can be made to undergo therapy. Therapy allows them to cope with the debilitating stress that these encounters saturate them with. Police officers may be ordered to undergo sessions with a therapist. The sessions can persuade the police officer to identify any problems officer might have with their career and ultimately arrive at valuable solutions. The focus of the therapy session is to teach the police officer in finding out how and


why he/she reacts to certain situations. This in turn can help the officer react correctly to stress factors. Stress management in law enforcement also includes anger management. In anger management, police officers can be taught to identify the triggers causing aggression within an officer.

The police department can possibly employ a fulltime chaplain. The presence of a chaplain can help keep the peace in the department. And also, if any of the officers feel the need to talk to someone, the chaplain would already be in place.

Regular Exercise has been proven that exercise helps relieve stress. Even an evening stroll can take an officers mind off the stressors of the day. Exercise will boost energy levels making it easier to cope with the stress of daily life.

Anger management also teaches police officers how to detect and prevent hostile situations from ever taking place, which in turn can be applied in settling disputes between citizens. Anger management can allow the officer to prevent and manage their stress by themselves, either on the job or at home with their families.

The second critical issue within departments is code of ethics for criminal justice personnel. In order for the criminal justice system to work efficiently a code of ethics is needed. Due to the amount of power criminal justice professionals possess and because of the nature of problems officers encounter every day, employees often face serious conflicts and needs guidance, which is exactly what a code of ethics provides.


One of the main purposes of a code of ethics is to guide a person in making a decision. These guidelines have to be in place in order for law enforcement agencies to operate smoothly and correctly. Superiors have to lead the rest of the department by being an example. If the leaders are corrupt, more than likely the subordinates are also (Peak, 2010).

There are some behaviors which are completely unacceptable in law enforcement: bribery, excessive force, extortion and forgery. At no time should these behaviors be exercised by officers or any member of law enforcement. Citizens entrust law enforcement to protect and to serve communities.

Bribery is one of the main reasons why society is so distrusting of law enforcement. Bribery is illegal and has caused turmoil and made a mockery of the justice system. Solicitation

is common in the law enforcement field and frowned upon. Any officer who is contacted with a bribe is obligated to report the attempted bribery and more importantly, turn it down.

The lifeline of law and order for any society is law enforcement. It is therefore very important for the police personnel to command the respect citizens, to function effectively. The public-police relationship is vital, for maintaining law and order, and this relationship can be strengthened only when police conduct themselves in appropriate manner. Every police officer

must realize the importance of being law-abiding citizens also, and be committed to serve society proudly and with morals.

All officers and members of law enforcement should be made to attend a seminar on ethics. And after the seminar is complete, all employees will be tested and trained on all material


presented. Testing will help to ensure all employees are on one ethical accord. Also, all officers will need a written copy of the ethics code, sign the copy and have one placed in personal files.

Most police officers deemed as certified after reading the code of ethics at the ceremony and is not mentioned anymore for the rest of their careers. This procedure must change and the officer should be held liable for carrying out the code until retirement or termination. And to enforce the code, an ethics committee should be formed. The responsibility of the ethics committee would be to attend all meetings, to discuss ethical issues, clarify grey areas of the ethics code, and communicate the code to all ranks of the agency. The committee would also investigate all code violations, and review and revise the code annually based on community changes.

A code of ethics can help an officer decide how to act on a daily basis. Ethics is very important for people of power because this type of person has great influence on the public daily. Law enforcement personnel make important decisions every day and the decisions an officer

makes, impacts the lives of others. Therefore, it is necessary that all members of law enforcement are bias free.

The last issue that needs to address is female officers in criminal justice. There has been tremendous growth of female officers within the last thirty years. Law requires law enforcement agencies to hire regardless of gender or race. Traditionally, the only job a female had in law enforcement was a social worker.

In the past, men have strongly resisted the integration of female officers into police departments because being a police officer was thought to be a "man's job". Women have


slowly transformed the social worker role because of their determination to overcome the stereotypical barriers and in more recent years, the law. However, a female's acceptance by males has grown in the past thirty years.

The first female police officer was Alice Stebbin Wells, born on June 13, 1873. Alice served in the Los Angeles police department. Joining the police department was no easy task in those days. Alice had to send petitions to the mayor, city council and police commissioner. Wells felt women and children needed someone to be their voice and Wells wanted to be the one who stood up for them. In 1985, Penny Harrington accomplished being the first female police chief in a large agency. And in 1990, Elizabeth Watson became the first female police chief of a city with a population of more than 1 million in Houston.

Another reason why police departments have been hesitant in hiring female officers is because women officers are thought of as not being unable to balance their personal and professional lives. Trying to balance child care and work, especially for single female officers,

can be a very demanding task. The pressure is on to be a good wife and mother regardless of the job. Every day a police officer encounters risks and dangers, including dealing with irate people and criminals. And also, maintaining workplace relationship in a male dominated field is not easy.

Discrimination against female officers can also come from the community. Some citizens believe that policewomen are only able to settle domestic disputes or to deal with rape victims. Some may also think policewomen are incapable of diffusing physical altercations, mostly due to the fact that most crimes are committed by males. There are some female officers try to fit in and


go along with the male police culture by acting subservient are quickly written off as not performing to police standards.

Hiring and retaining female officers offers great advantages. First, women are great communicators. Listening to a woman's voice can sometimes calm an intense situation. Second, male officers are more likely to use excessive force than females, it is only natural. Males are naturally more authoritarian. Third, the presence more female officers will reduce the amount of claims of sexual discrimination within the department.

Women officers tend to use a style of policing that relies more on communication than physical force, and are far more likely to avoid the use of excessive force. Female officers are far more likely to have a community-oriented style of policing and females excel in responding to domestic violence situations which constitute a majority of crime calls. Also, female officers trend to have more empathy than male officers in certain situations and the trait could be useful

in delicate situation such as domestic calls. Inappropriate response also adds to the risk of litigation, as departments are increasingly being held accountable for failing to properly handle domestic violence (Harrington, 2003).

In the past, fitting in a police force has been a challenge for women. Some of the requirements were seen as discriminatory against females. For example, scaling a 6 foot wall and being "able to bench press one's own weight" was almost impossible for a female to do (Peak, 2010 pg. 132 para. 8). One way to make sure women are not discriminated against is to make departments re-examine physical fitness tests and figure out ways to include females in the tests.


And also, "agencies should permit all candidates to practice for the pre-employment physical exam" (Peak, 2010 pg. 132 para. 8).

There are several issues which need to be addressed in order to help female avoid discrimination in the department. Police departments can hold job fairs at different colleges and pass out flyers, brochures, newspapers, or television advertising (Peak, 2010). Hiring in this manner is instead of randomly hiring brings a more diversified police force. Training males and females together will make female officers feel more equal to males. Female instructors are important also because female officers can look to the instructors as role models.

Sexual harassment is another hurdle for female officers. Law enforcement is considered to be a hostile environment. Female officers are supposed to concentrate on fighting the battle of keeping the streets free of criminals, not fighting a battle inside their department against male counterparts. Placing officers of the opposite sex on patrol together can often create an uncomfortable environment for a female officer. Sometimes having male and female officers working closely together can create an environment for personal relationships or an environment for harassment.

Most of the harassment cases occur on rookie officers. Many training officers are taught to be seen and not heard. Asking questions is considered to be a sign of weakness. New officers' loyalty is tested constantly tested. Law enforcement is seen as a brotherhood and has a positive meaning. If an officer is being harassed, the officer may not feel that reporting the perpetrator


because of the possible repercussions of scrutiny and embarrassment. If the officer were to report the harassment, the department may consider the officer's past sexual history. This information can be used to establish the officer's credibility. Many sexual harassment victims' home lives are affected, especially if the officer has a husband and children. The officer often takes the pressure home and may not know how to deal with the emotions. Also, the victim avoids work by taking sick days to escape the ill feelings from fellow officers.

All departments need to have written policies informing employees of the consequences of harassment in the department. Law enforcement departments need to learn to protect female employees by providing the support needed for victims. In order for law enforcement departments to continually serve and protect communities, departments need to provide a safe environment for female officers.

In the written policies, the information should include illustrations and examples of what not to do and a description of the proper protocol of handling complaints. The department will need to promptly file and investigate all complaints and most important of all, keep all information about the case and individual confidential.

Remaining stress free, ethics and female officers in the police officers are three issues which are critical. These issues affect the general public and officers daily without realizing the impact, both inside and outside the department. Without proper intervention, these situations can result in devastating circumstances law enforcements around the nation (Irons, 1993).