How does labelling theory challenge traditional criminology

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Labelling theory is a classical theory because it's belonging to law, crime and processing rather than on criminal behaviour. Second deviance theory is classified about deviance behaviours. There are basically consult two points of view first is concept of social reaction and second issue of second deviance .labelling theories are question about in universal point that because crime is bad and who commit they must be bad that crime act is also bad.

Labelling theories was changing time to time because of pervious deviance always tried to different method to do crime. The labelling theory introduced us idea that to understand crime we have to explore both object and subjective dimensions of the criminal justice experience. Labelling theory concern was with how human beings actively create their social world.

At end of 1950s society was becoming sentient of fundamental in equality, segregation, and civil right. These issues under advantage members of society become a real one. Civil right protests and demonstrations were commonplace. African Americans griped their treatment in restaurants, theatres, buses, and college admission. Education had also a centre of much of civil rights movement. While equality did not come quickly, white society grew sensible of its treatment of minority group. Social changes were bound to guidance of social thinker. This time was set for sociologist and criminologists to extend their theorizing about effect of social class and minority status on those who came into contact with criminal justice system. The popularity of labelling theory, Kenney and Johnson administrator was improved by social atmosphere. The great society where all would be equal. Social scientists involved plans to make quality education more equally available to all, to increase opportunities, and to overcome the previous associated with being a member of a minority group. At 1960 country become more critical of prospect of government bringing equally society, labelling seemed to be natural answer to why certain people were found frequently stigmatized. Actually with mistrust of government growing the late 1960s and early 1970s, labelling was one of the way to critique and explain the abuses power.

Social reaction

In a social reaction, the labelling attitude splits two parts" the problem of explaining how and why certain individuals get labelled, and the effect of label on subsequent deviant behaviour "(Orcutt, 1973; Gove, 1975) At past that view asked what causes the label; becker's explained statement that "social group create deviance by making rules infraction constitutes deviance, these rules applying on specific people and labelling them as outsiders. From this point of view deviance is not quality of act the person commits but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an "offender" the deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant is behaviours that people so label (1993:9)"

I give a one example of incident that The Rodney King that no action required for viewer to react as if deviant act had taken place. The police officer labelled their use of force as reasonable because they were "defending themselves" and attempting to exercise control, As a king was described danger and not under control if he moved. It did not matter how much moment were involved. One question is why officer attributed PCP use to king. The labelling answer is King fit the stereo-type of people the police believe to be drug users.

Labelling advocates were also concerned with the effect of labels on person who is labelled. Tis part of labelling gives the label as a independent variable, a causal agent, which are create a deviant behaviour. There are two ways which take place (1) the label may catch the attention of labelling audience, causing the audience to watch and continue the labelling individuals; or (2) the label may be internalized by the individual and lead to an acceptance of self -concept. Either of these processes may amplify the deviance (Wilkins 1965) and create a career deviant.

When the original label is more likely to be desperate those with lower class characteristics, this attention serves to highlight the image of those individuals as deviants. When people identified as "deviants" than have few chances to make good in conversional world. This means conversional avenues to success are often to cut off, and illegal means may become left open. Therefor labelling advocate argue the lower class bears the brunt of labelling process and is kept deviant through relabeling.

As example it seem one reasons some people commit a crime because they have not much opportunities available to them to get a job, to make money and buy thing which were advertised on television. In central city of United States have unemployment rates of 40 to 50 present, these rates was younger African American male. There are few jobs, and so no one hire them. After previously some theft caught ,one individual is arrested again and receives prison statement when the individual employability's are decreased. Employer who would not hire the individual before even less likely to turn to crime.

Lemert's secondary deviance

Lemert (1969) is provided labelling people behaviour he analysis that why person behaviour deviance act. He classified that we connected two type of deviation primary and secondary.

Primary deviation is person related to behaviours. There is some limitation, which are related to deviance, liked underage drinking, smoking, cannabis, petty shop stealing we do it some of activates because we are lived in society, culture, and psychological reasons. Primary cause deviant behaviours

Master status and retrospective interpretation