Homeland Security Within Local Governments Criminology Essay

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According to Homeland Security official site "Homeland Security leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their homeland."(Department Subcomponents and Agencies retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/).

Nowadays, this theme is topical and it is going to be researched, discussed and analyzed. In the beginning of this paper I would like to describe the background of the Department of Homeland Security.

The background of the Department of Homeland Security

It was created on March 1, 2003. The decision to create such a department was made after the terrorist attacks on September, 11, 2001. The US Presidential Administration created Office of Homeland Security to coordinate the various federal agencies. In 2003, the office was transformed into the Department of Homeland Security. Activities DHS has been criticized for allegedly attempts to establish the total control over society. The head of the Department is Janet Napolitano. As of 2009 the number of Homeland Security's employees is 225 thousand people, the budget consists of 52 billion dollars. The aim of the Ministry is to prevent terrorist attacks, to reduce vulnerability, and in case of terrorist attacks to minimize harm and to ensure the rapid restoration of the vital infrastructure.

The Ministry also performs the environmental monitoring to detect nuclear, radiological, chemical and bacteriological contamination. It publishes forecasts danger of terrorist acts on the US territory.

The term transfer of the US National Security is wrong: first, the word "ministry" does not fit the US presidential republic, where instead of the posts of a President (chief executive) and the secretaries of federal departments, and secondly, the competence of the organization comes to fighting terrorism, its implications and consequences natural disasters, drug trafficking. In addition, the Act of Congress on the Homeland Security is approved establishment of Homeland Security Council under the President of the United States, along with the existing National Security Council. Thus, the terms national security and homeland security, uneven in the USA, and should be translated differently.

The structure of the Department of Homeland Security

The structure of the Department of Homeland Security includes numerous agencies and offices, many of which were created long before they are integrated with this structure. Agencies and offices are subordinated to the Deputy Minister of National Security.

US Coast Guard

The US Coast Guard is the US military service, designed to monitor compliance with the federal law and ensure the safe navigation of vessels in the waters of seas and inland waters of the country.

US Immigration and Customs Enforcement

US Immigration and Customs Enforcement is engaged in the fight against illegal immigration, sexual abuse of minors, child pornography, trafficking for sexual exploitation, etc.

Citizenship and Immigration Services

Customs and Border Protection

Federal Emergency Management Agency

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is The Division Department of Homeland Security engaged in coordination of disasters, which are not capable of handling the local authorities.

Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

US Secret Service (USSS)

US Secret Service is US federal agencies, which are subordinated to the Ministry of National Security (introduced into submission in 2003, before it was subject to the US Treasury).

Office of Operations Coordination

Transportation Security Administration

Agencies and offices subordinate to the Deputy Minister of the program.

Office of Cyber Security and Communications

National Communications System

National Cyber Security Division

Office of Infrastructure Protection

Office of Intergovernmental Programs

Office of Risk Management and Analysis

The Department of Homeland Security began testing a unique system of AI, which will be able to completely eliminate crime as a phenomenon in the near future. If tests are successful, then the criminals will recognize before they commit a criminal act - in fact, once in the head of a man matures insidious plan. The innovative development is called Future Attribute Screening Technologies (FAST). It is a collection of sensors that are remotely remove information about a person: body temperature, heart rate and respiration, blood pressure. Additional modules analyze the facial expression and remove the figures from the eye laser radar, which is also used as information in a neural network artificial intelligence. According to the developers during testing, the system on 140 volunteers system showed 78% accuracy on the definition of malicious intent, and 80% as a lie detector. Independent experts just shrug their shoulders and admit that this is an incredibly high result.

The Department of Homeland Security proposed to replace the existing system of color levels of terrorist threat.

The current gradation levels of threats have five levels and divide them by colors. How new system and what terms will be used, the Department has not disclosed yet. However, there is information that one of its variants requires two levels of danger: "elevated" and "threatening." When it is announced on the transition to the second level, the government will explain in detail to the citizens what the reason for this and where to wait for a possible terrorist attack.

According to the official site of the US President "The President's highest priority is to keep the American people safe. He is committed to ensuring the United States is true to our values and ideals while also protecting the American people. The President is committed to securing the homeland against 21st century threats by preventing terrorist attacks and other threats against our homeland, preparing and planning for emergencies, and investing in strong response and recovery capabilities. We will help ensure that the Federal Government works with states and local governments, and the private sector as close partners in a national approach to prevention, mitigation, and response." (Homeland Security retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/homeland-security/).

The criminal justice structure

Department of Homeland Security is a federal agency of Criminal Justice Agency. To provide opinions to the President on how this Criminal Justice Agency is structured and whether or not it is effectively managed I would like to refer to Joel Samaha's book Criminal Justice in which he states that "the structure of criminal justice consists of a serious of decision points in the three major crime control agencies - police, courts and, corrections. Each criminal justice agency is a point where decisions to keep or release individuals from the criminal justice system are made" (Samaha, 2005). Police is a system of public services and bodies for protection of the public order. It carries a wide range of functions, a set which varies in different countries. Court is the state body administering justice in the form of consideration and resolution of criminal, administrative, civil and other types of cases in a particular state statutory procedural order.

Prison is a correctional institution, a place where people have been detained and are usually deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Prisons are usually part of the criminal justice system, and the deprivation of liberty by detention in a prison - a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for committing crimes.

In addition, Samaha admits that "the parts of the criminal justice system consist of the public agencies of crime control (law enforcement, courts, and corrections) at three levels of government (local, state and federal) (Samaha, 2005).

The American system of criminal justice in the form in which it is now is more objective and fair than in past, particularly in relation to minority women. Tom Tyler the professor of Psychology of New York University proves the fact that Americans believe this system is mainly fair and impartial, and relevant to values that they uphold, promote law-abiding behavior. Tyler examines issues such as an ethical motivation to comply with law in relation to less effective instruments of deterrence.

Many states, especially in recent decades, are experimenting with legislative reforms to make the criminal justice system more efficient and effective. One such reform associated with the emergence of local law-enforcement agencies is different mechanisms of mediation between a perpetrator and a victim.

Taking everything into consideration it is important to mention that the Department of Homeland Security is an effective body, which deals with such global issues as prevention of terrorist acts, thereby protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens. It was created to effectively address emerging issues and safety of citizens.

In addition, at the heart of the American criminal process is the US Constitution. The Constitution guarantees all persons living in the United States fundamental rights and freedoms. From the point of view of an American criminal law, the most important is the presumption of the accused's guiltlessness. The defendant is not required to prove his innocence. The judicial authorities are obliged to his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.