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At this time of globalization, America as a country has faced complex challenges especially to cope up with the rising crime rate in the world targeted to its people. This has necessitated to ensure that it determine the course of action to ensure it build sources of strength in the years to come. This is through influencing and shaping its previous internal and international strength to ensure that it is capable to overcome seen and unseen security challenges.
After the era of cold war ended, it ushered another era of globalization which saw business across the globe expand. There is always flow of people in and out of the country on daily basis. New war has developed from ideology war, religious, ethnicity as well as the most menace one nuclear war. Therefore, due to the technology that has risen very fast, it necessitate fast and firm emergency management program to be put in place.
The dark side of this globalization hit America in September 11, 2001 that ensured that emergency management program should be put in place as fast as possible. The government realized that waging physical war for example the one that was there to curb A-Qaida group was not the best method. Therefore, they required a prior preparation of such episodes as the one that happened on 11 September 2001. Therefore, they came up with Homeland Security (White House, 2010).
Homeland Security is a term that is more an umbrella term signifying the security effort in protection of United State against terrorism. The national efforts that are encompassed in this umbrella are prevention measure of U.S against terrorist attacks, reducing its vulnerability against terrorism as well as minimizing damage that these attacks that may bring forth if they happen to occur.
Due to increased globalization that ha brought about technology and open exposure to the security of America, there is need to check on the way the government responded towards this. It is through this research that different methods of emergency management plan and program will be put into light to give way for further research and recommendation.
Justification of the research
After looking at the attack that happened on 11 September 2001, the research is viable to ensure that American people know the fate of their security. This research is also justified by the National Security Strategy that was laid in place on May 27 2010. This strategy lays advanced American interest that include people's security, growing economy, support of the values and the international order that is concurrent with this research.
Aims and objective
The aim of the project is to come up with what the government of America through Homeland security has done to ensure the security of the American people is guaranteed now and in the future.
The objective of the research is to ensure that all the people understand and take part in the evaluation of their country security status through dissemination of emergency management program and Homeland Security purposes and the way they work. They will also form a platform to make their views on how to better the program through their active participation through different methods that will be applied in data taking and analysis.
What are the American national security strategies?
What is their effectiveness?
What can be done to improve the emergency security program?
Types of hypotheses
The null hypothesis
Due to the tragedy of September 11 2001, it shows that it the emergency security program that the government has come with it is more pronounced to curb present and future challenges. This is through being sensitive of the technology that is so rampant nowadays as well as making sure that the trend of the globalization that makes the country interrelationship with other country is monitored very much. Involvement of other countries in fighting of terrorism can be another positive way that shows that America is still at per in winning the terrorism battle. Different methods that ranges from use of diplomatic method as well as promotion of physical and social infrastructure may be a possible way to curb completely insecurity in the country and worldwide
Due to globalization, terrorist has been in a position to access the roots in which the American government are using to fight them. Through the online communication, they are able to read and see the security system in the country that poses danger of them devise more pronounced method to propagate their terrorism ideas. Therefore, as much as the government of US comes up with ideas to protect their people, more technical method to counter that can be devised therefore not getting to their objectives.
The other ways that the terrorist can use to avenge the war is through attacking the diplomacy of the US in other countries as the Homeland Security and emergency security program works within the country more than in other countries. Therefore, failure of some country to support Americans in the process of curbing terrorism internationally may get their whole program in jeopardy.
The function of the federal government in America is to ensure that the people are safe. It is therefore their paramount responsibility to ensure that the value of the people is upheld as they are protected. Therefore, through the presidential help, homeland security is put in place to ensure that terrorist threats and ensure prepare emergency plan and strong response recovery (Dhs.gov. 2010). Therefore, the following national security strategies have been laid to ensure that the national security has been assured to the people.
To ensure that the terrorism and national security is ensured in the country, American government has laid a financial disbursement strategy of $5 billion (Waugh, 2003). This will be assistance to the shared security partners. The finance will be used to enhance the ability of the partners own security and work by updating their equipment. The partners will ensure that they help American government fight the terrorism worldwide.
The effectiveness of these strategies is that the government will have ensured that their security across borders is ensured. They are capable of getting intelligence in other countries therefore reducing the capability of the terrorism to happen across the world and in their country particularly.
Strengthening Bio and nuclear security
According to Waugh, 2006, use of nuclear weapon, biological weapons and outbreak of deadly diseases are great threats in the national security of America. Several strategies have been put in place to counter this. They include, enhancing the nuclear detection by use of the latest technology. It is also very important that the security of the nuclear plant in the country be increased. This is through well-planned, completely rehearsed plans for coordinated emergency response. There is a plan also to ensure that there is capability to suppress or otherwise diminish the effects that are brought up by chemical, nuclear, biological as well as radiological accidents. This is through installation of detective devices that will arrest the situation before it causes hazard and security risk to the people.
Another important aspect is ensuring that the decision makers pertaining the security of the people and the country at large are equipped by the necessary materials to respond towards any danger (Osu.eduCR. 2002). For example by managing a certain disease outbreak, smooth link between the healthcare providers, public health agencies and the hospital should be put in place. Another important strategy is building American unparalleled talent and working with international partnership to ensure that creation of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic test are put in place.
The effectiveness of this strategy is that it will offer quicker and more efficient method to respond to emergencies. They will also ensure that other resources from international companies will be tapped to help raise their emergency security program (McNeese, 2004)..
Improvement of intelligence capacity and information sharing
The American country has put in place a firm strategy to ensure gathering, analyzing and sharing effectively of vital intelligence is done to ensure their security. Through strengthening intelligence by identifying and interdicting the collaborators of terrorist, the country will have prevented national threats especially against terrorism.
The information that will be gathered through the intelligence will be analyzed and shared. This will be made possible by investing in the analytical capabilities and increasing the capability of sharing this analyzed intelligence in all levels of the government. Privacy and civil rights of America will also not be compromise in expense of sharing this intelligence but will be ultimately be upheld.
The effectiveness of this strategy lays in the capacity information will bring to the country. Through effective use of the analyzed information, the government will be able to put strategy long before any potential hazard happens.
Ensuring a secure global digital information and communications infrastructure
As the country of United State is based strongly its strength and vital economic, public safety, infrastructure as well as national security in cyberspace technology, is therefore important to ensure it is safe especially in this globalized world (Godschalk, 2003).. This is because; most of the global digital infrastructure is based on internet. This is makes it not resilient enough to succumb the future challenges. Therefore, to ensure that cyberspace is protected effectively, strong human resource, vision and good leadership is required to ensure that changes are effected in policy governing cyberspace, improve technology, education and laws that govern it.
The strategy will be effective, as policies that are more firm will be put in place that will counter the emergencies. Strong upholding of technology as well as education strategy will ensure that information as well as communication is done in a more private manner thus ensuring civil rights and security of the people.
Variables to evaluate strategies
Improvement of national security strategies
One of the major variables that will be checked into is the improvement of national securities that especially emerged with the homeland security and emergency security program. The research will get to the deep part of it making sure that it is well understood. To do this, well-organized strategy will be put in place to carry out a good research on this
Having an access of the previous security program that the country had before the tragedy of 11 September 2011, the improvement will be well cited and compared between the new one. Loopholes that resulted to the terrorism will be checked and see to it that they are put into right and how such occurrence are to be prevented in future.
Effectiveness of the security strategy
The effectiveness of the strategy is another variable that will also be checked. To ensure that this variable is look at comprehensively the following will be looked checked.
How the crime has dropped within the country
How effective emergency response has increased
The technological change that is underway
The crime change especially on terrorism
Through checking the statistics that have been recorded in the recent episodes, the effectiveness of the strategies will be at well measured. The confidence of the people of the American towards the steps taken will also be evaluated in the process of measuring the effectiveness. Emergency response department will be visited where data of how fast and how effective the program has boosted taken and analyzed. Through looking at the international record of the crime rate, the research will be able to establish the comparison of the current and the previous records. The crime especially change will also be diagnosed to see how it has changed since the enactment of the national security program.
Method of data gathering process
The research employs a mixed study to obtain relevant data and information. A theoretical study, a research approach in which the goal is to prove/disprove a hypothesized truth or proposed future research plans that may be carried out in the future but not at the current moment. The choice of this method was as a result of its simplicity and ease of use. It is important to note that theoretical study calls for deeper digging of various literatures ranging from journals, publications, books, other forms of literature and from the internet (Whiston,2005). Most of the data required will be collected from the existing statistic from secondary sources of data as well to primary sources.
Qualitative research is also employed in the study; the approach seeks to contextualize the research by immersing the researcher into the study scenario as well as with the study sample. Hypotheses are developed, data is collected, and the results tend to be subjective. Case study as a sub type of qualitative research is used to ensure that the study is flexible enough to give the researcher room to investigate issues that were not previously thought of and could be worth being brought to light. More data will be collected from primary sources, which include; observation and questionnaires. In the usage after establishing the target sample, issues of ethics, accountability and confidentiality are given a priority before collecting necessary data(Whiston, 2005). This is because; the national security should be adhered to for some of the materials are very sensitive to be handle openly in the public.
Method used to analyze variables
The method that will be used to analyze the data will include the following.
Chi-square (c2) good-of-fit test
This will be used to determine the set of proportions if they have specified numerical values. This method analyzes cross-tabulated data. This will be used in the data that will be collected through questionnaire.
This method will be used to test null hypothesis. Null hypothesis in an experiment is the one that independent variable has no effect on the dependent variable. Alternative to the null hypothesis is the hypothesis where variable affects dependent variable. However4v null hypothesis is assumed true unless proven otherwise. However, alternative hypothesis states that the relationship that is to be observed between variables cannot be explained only by chance but requires other variables.
Validation of the data
The first method that will be used in the data validation is consistency checks. This is used to ensure that data in this research correspond. The second one that will be used is the cross-system consistency checks. This will be able to compare data in different systems to ensure that they are consistent. The final validation of data is data type checks. This will help in checking the data type that has been collected and give an error message if the data that has been input do not match with chosen data type.
Challenges encountered in researches
In collection of the data of the national security, it was very difficulty to convince the security about the security of the message. Oath has to be taken in some instances to ensure that some statistics are offered. The other challenge that the research overcome was to gather information from the public as they thought that we were investigators. This made it very hard to convince them to give information.