History Location Area And Population Criminology Essay

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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is located on the eastern side of the Arabian Peninsula. It has been long known as the Trucial States or Trucial Coast. From 1820 onwards, Britain has established its presence in the area with the signing of several commitments and this including a naval treaty and that was the zone name. (Sheikh Mohammed, 2009; NCM, 2009; Al-Ali, 2008).

Half century ago, before the detection of oil, the situations of the state were completely diverse; the United Arab Emirate consisted of modest hamlet of diligent herdsman, fishermen and seafarers. Living in such harsh environment was a real challenge. Luckily, the leaders of the UAE had the vision to develop and improve confederation government to make an action for consorting the movements and resolutions for the whole UAE (NCM, 2009; MoE, 2007).

Britain has stated in the year 1968 and the relationship between the seven emirates will be ended (Sheikh Mohammed, 2009; NCM, 2009; Al-Ali, 2008)

On the 2nd/12/1971, the six rules had a meeting to be come as one country apart from Ras Al-Kaimah and at the end Ras Al-Khimah has joined and at end became the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 1972. The seven territories are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain, Ras Al-Khaimah and Fujairah. In 1981, United Arab Emirates helped found Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries, together with five other Gulf countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain. (Sheikh Mohammed, 2009; NCM, 2009; Al-Ali, 2008)

The UAE share borders with the Arabian Gulf into the north, Saudi Arabia to the south and west, and the Sultanate of Oman into the east. It has a coastline on both the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf and lies south of the strategically important Strait of Hormuz. The strategic location of the UAE has given the country real economic advantages, as it lies on the trade routes between Asian and European (EU) countries; this has enhanced the popularity of the country, and gives it an advantage over most other similar countries (Sheikh Mohammed, 2009; NCM, 2009; MoE, 2007; Abdulla, 2004).

The land occupied by the United Arab Emirates consists mostly of sand dunes and salt flats interspersed with an occasional traditional desert oasis in the south and west of the country. It can be divided into three major areas: coastal, desert and mountain. Figure 1 shows a map of the UAE.

http://www.reisenett.no/map_collection/Atlas_middle_east/UAE_map.jpg

The total area of the UAE is around 83,600 square kilometres (32,278 square miles). The emirate of Abu Dhabi is both the principal and the largest of the seven emirates, occupying approximately 86.7% of the total land of the Emirates. Dubai is the second largest covering almost 5 % of the total area. Overall, the UAE is considered the third largest country of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries after Saudi Arabia and the Sultanate of Oman (Sheikh Mohammed, 2009; MoE, 2007).

As it is shown in Table (2.1), the population of the UAE in 2005 was approximately 4.1 million (MoE, 2007). The population consists of around 20 per cent native Emiratis whilst a large proportion around (80 per cent) of the people living in the UAE are workers from other parts of the world including other Arabs, south-eastern and southern Asians, Europeans and Americans (Al-Ali, 2008; Suliman, 2006) (see Table 2.2). The high percentage of expatriates in the UAE is due to the country's open economic policies, fast growing economy and the development rate following the discovery of oil (Suliman, 2006).

Table 2.1: Population Results by Emirate (Census 2005)

Emirates

Male

Female

Total

Abu Dhabi

926,819

472,665

1,399,484

Dubai

989,305

332,148

1,321,453

Sharjah

520,234

273,339

793,573

Ajman

131,684

75,313

206,997

Umm Al-Qaiwain

30,084

19,075

49,159

Ras Al-Khaimah

129,442

80,621

210,063

Fujairah

78,584

47,114

125,698

Grand Total

2,806,152

1,300,275

4,106,427

Table 2.2: Population Results by Sex and Nationality (Census 2005)

Nationals

Non-Nationals

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

10.2

9.9

20.1

58.1

21.8

79.9

68.3

31.7

100

Source: MoE (2007).

2.2 Cultural Characteristics

The UAE is an Arab and Muslim country. The official language is Arabic, but English is widely understood and used for communication across the country. Social life in the UAE is considerably affected by the values and culture of Islam, UAE nationals seeing their religion as an integral part of daily life, deriving their values and ideas mostly from the teachings of Islam, local culture, traditions and customs. Suliman (2006: 64) summarises the value orientation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as shown in Table

Table 2.3: Value Orientation of the UAE

Aspects

Characteristics

General ethical orientation

Personalistic and particularistic

Authority

Highly respected

Interpersonal relationships

Group oriented

Status and prestige

Very high concern

Social structure

Very degree of vertical (kinship) and lateral (class) stratification

Source: Suliman (2006:64).

Suliman (2006:64) indicates that five layers of culture affect work values in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Those layers are

Regional: this is the factor that most influences the work values and includes religion, language and history;

National: this is usually shaped by the regional layer, which in turn reflects on human resources, policies and practices;

Generation;

Social class;

Gender and Organisational culture.

Suliman (2006) concluded that the regional and national layers are those that have the greatest influence on work values in the UAE. This is parallel with the findings of Simadi (2006) who undertook a study of values among young adult Emiratis and found that religious and cognitive values were prioritized.

2.3 Emiratisation

These days, countries and companies in rapidly growing economies like the UAE have started investing more in training, improving and developing the skills of their own national workers because they consider nationals to be an important asset for the development and improvement of their economies. However, the shortage of a local work force in the UAE has led the country to depend heavily on multicultural foreign workers including Indian and Pakistani workers. Al-Ali (2008) argues that the pace of growth continues, but UAE nationals are not employed in their own country.

To counter this effect, in the early 1990s, the UAE Council of Ministers developed a new programme called 'emiratisation' to apply in both the public and private sectors (Al-Ali, 2008; Suliman, 2006). Emiratisation seeks to overcome structural barriers to Emirati employment in organisations, and to address social issues arising from citizens' entry into the labour market (Al-Ali, 2008). According to Shouly (1995), the government has launched the policy of emiratisation in order to give a larger numbers of nationals the confidence to go into the workforce and play very important roles.

The effect of emiratisation has been more obvious in the public sector than the private. Some of the private sector enterprises are not reactive to the issue of emiratisation. However, the government has enacted laws to deal with this issue. A study conducted by Al-Ali (2008) in the fields of private sector banking and insurance in the in the UAE has found the barriers to emiratisation included low standards of education and skills among potential employees, inadequate English, and a lack of trust in the work-readiness of UA nationals among employers. Al-Ali (2008) points out that the national workers consider that the private sector offers few career opportunities and low salary levels in comparison to the public sector. In order to achieve the visions and strategies of the UAE, the private sectors need to reinforce the phenomenon of emiratisation in their organisations in order to become the key partner in the improvement and development of Human Resources (HR) in the State.

However, the supply of foreign workers cannot be easily reduced, so the next best option is to try to improve the quality of national workers and make them more competitive in the job market. According to the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007, companies have to establish committees and teams to study, develop and implement a series of actions designed to support the emeritisation plan and to meet the aim and objective of having a qualified UAE workforce employed at a variety of levels in most sectors. His Highness (H.H) Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai said in his speech in 2007, when he unveiled the UAE Federal Government Strategy, that one of its key issues would be to concentrate on achieving "sustainable and balanced development, improvement and a high quality of life for all United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals" (MoE, 2007).

This effort puts pressure on the UAE system to create larger numbers of its nationals who are ready, willing, and able to enter the job market. Suliman (2006) states that some UAE organisations have started researching and studying human resources development (HRD) in different fields, such as employment, labour relations, market research and employee development.

The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the National Human Resources Development (HRD) and Employment Authority (Tanmia) play a very important role in preparing locals for employment, training and development opportunities in both the private and public sectors (Al-Ali, 2008; Suliman, 2006). The following are examples of Tanmia activities and services, according to Suliman (2006: 72):

Advice and guidance: providing information about the alternative jobs that are available in the market so that locals can decide what career plan to make and how to achieve their goal.

Skills development: helping nationals to develop the basic skills required to obtain a job, such as job search methods, how to organize and develop a CV and the techniques required for job interviews.

Exploring alternatives: instead of immediate employment, locals may be guided to explore other opportunities available, including training for a new job or even the provision of further education if required.

Creating awareness: empowering United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals with the tools and information to make educated choices and positive changes in life, starting with finding the right job, and creating awareness through various sources, such as personal interviews, employment workshops, careers-library orientation programmes, occupational seminars, work shadowing and summer work experience.

Dubai Police (DP)

In the past, the UAE was characterised by a social structure that maintained peace and stability very easily. However, with independence in 1971 and the rapid increase in the population and their needs, the UAE police have witnessed drastic changes and progress in the way in which they create a secure environment for its citizens, residents, business and industry (Abdulla, 2004). However, the UAE has been famous for its stable environment, compared to the instability of other nations in the Middle East where far greater attention has to be given to security (Abdulla, 2004).

The Dubai Police (DP) was established in 1956 in Naif station (the first police station in Dubai city). They come under the direction of the Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE, who is in turn the ruler of Dubai. Initially, the DP took the form of a simple organisation with a modest structure and a small number of employees. They were responsible for simple policing tasks, such as guarding the market and helping the authorities in enforcing local laws (Dubai police, 2009). As UAE society increased in diversity and complexity, the need for effective security systems became more important and it was necessary to establish the modern police procedures to cope with the developing situation.

Despite the fact that the DP is subject to the Government of Dubai, it is an integral part of the UAE Ministry of the Interior. The latter is responsible for the general headquarters in each of the seven emirates. However, each emirate manages its own police force and supervises its own police stations. Police stations take complaints from the public, make arrests, and forward all cases to the public prosecutor, who in turn transfers these cases to the courts (MoI, 2009).

The DP aims at excellence in the performance of its role in relation to security and stability, and to the establishment of a sense of trust in the community. According to Abdulla (2004), these aspects support prosperity and economic growth in any country. Consequently, it is believed that administrative excellence is a key part of security in that it maintains stability and serves social welfare in the country. H.H Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice President and Prime Minister, and Ruler of Dubai, sets out the general policy of Dubai Police strategy, as follows:

"The graces and blessings of God are countless; we may name a number of these blessings under one title, that is, SECURITY. We, as human beings think that each job we perform may bring a certain type of security, such as, personal, emotional, social, economic, or political security. Without security, life becomes unbearable, and looking forward, development, quality, excellence, and success are hopeless and worthless. With the grace of God, the efficiency of our policies, the loyalty of our leaders, UAE is one of the safest countries in the world, and Dubai is the most secure city in the world. Our strategic planning aims for safety, security and justice to go hand in hand with our economic and social growth paths, in that requirement of stabilized safety and security and justice are to be available for country and individuals alike" (Dubai police, 2009).

The major tasks for the DP are as follows: dealing with traffic safety (for example, traffic control); dealing with daily crime (for example, quarrels and swearing); providing police services (for example, E-services, educational programmes); dealing with crimes of a dangerous nature (for example, murder, and armed robbery); providing security (securing people and organisations); dealing with organised crime (that is, money laundering, internationally wanted criminals); employing scientific evidence (for example, fingerprints and DNA); and crime prevention methods (for example, guidance, directives, follow-up, statistical projections and periodicals) (Dubai police, 2009).

Organizational Structure of Dubai Police

(Table 2.4)

Briefly Description of Each Department

General Department of Total Quality:

Since 15/12/1998 a central over-arching department called the 'total quality control department was instigated to coordinate improvements in managerial practice at the behest of the commander in chief of the Dubai Police. On 07/02/1999 the Commander-in-chief of DP established sub-departments in every general department of the DP including the DP station to be called Quality Assurance and managed by the General Department of Total Quality. The instigation of such a management structure was not only the first occurrence within the UAE but also unique within the greater Gulf Community Countries and in Arab countries worldwide. A characteristic of quality management systems is the ability for personnel to advocate suggestions they believe will result in increased productivity or quality and for their suggestions to be given serious consideration. A common complaint expressed to the department of total quality by personnel is that their suggestions are not acted on by their department heads due to lack of interest. Invariably, many minor changes suggested and resisted have proven to yield substantive benefits when they have eventually been put into practice. (Dubai police, 2009).

During the relatively short period of its existence the DP has undergone dramatic changes and has grown at a near exponential rate, fostered by the chief commander's zeal for new innovations and progressive practices. The noble intentions sought by the DP have achieved numerous successes in pushing the boundaries of quality (Dubai police, 2009); however, the pace of change and the increased complexity in operations has undoubtedly presented the department heads with many challenges in endeavouring to meet the ethos of total quality whilst carrying out their primary day-to-day responsibilities. (Dubai police, 2009).

With regard to these challenges, this dissertation will explore a fresh examination of approaches to TQ modelled on a systems approach which will serve as a better instrument for delivering leadership and facilitating TQ. In particular, would a more creative approach enable further enhancements in the realization of TQ. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Organisation Protective Security and Emergency:

General Department of Authorities and Installations Security

This department, founded in 1984, is concerned with the following main tasks:

The security of international organizations and their offices in Dubai

The security of government and commercial buildings, such as markets,

offices and industrial units;

The security of foreign consulates and premises used by military, economic and cultural attaches and of their residences

The security of state visitors such as kings, presidents, sheiks,

princes, ministers and delegations. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Emergencies

Founded in 1968, this department was first located in the Al-Fahaidi District, Bar Dubai, with limited personnel. A year later it was moved to its present site in Jumaira. The main tasks of the department were

Training recruits and developing their skills, as well as preparing for emergencies and the control of civil unrest.

Providing the local police stations with specially trained officers to guard organizations and installations as need arises.

Training new recruits in the Police School affiliated to this department. (Dubai police, 2009).

However, with the rapid and substantial development of Dubai, the Police General Headquarters decided that this last task could be better carried out by a more specialized unit and responsibility for training passed to the Police Academy opened in 1987. (Dubai police, 2009).

The department was later, in 1999, divided and set up in its present form, with on-going security needs and concerns being handled by the department mentioned above. (Dubai police, 2009).

These departments have a huge responsibility for security and safety throughout the Emirate. The high degree of security provided has contributed in no small measure to the overall renaissance of Dubai and the department is justly proud of the way in which it shoulders responsibility for providing the community with its essential services. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Criminal Investigation

This department plays a core role as regards other departments and sections involved in criminal investigations. It seeks to excel, through its highly trained employees, in improving security and stability in the community and disseminating a sense of security, thus supporting the continuing prosperity and economic growth of Dubai. The Department has to be abreast of every technological development in criminal investigations, as well as being aware of and understanding changes in social, economic, political and legal matters both internally and externally, devising programs, plans and flexible strategies compatible with those changes and developments, according to the following guidelines: (Dubai police, 2009).

The Department's Mission Statement

To utilize all available means to prevent crimes

To detain criminals and provide evidence leading to conviction within the regulations and legislation in force in the country.

To maintain security and stability in the community and sustain its current regulations and legislation. (Dubai police, 2009).

Tasks of the Department

These comprise controlling crime in all forms, following the ways it develops and utilizing all means to prevent it, and the achievement of social stability. These tasks can be summarised in the following ways:

Dealing with insignificant crimes (quarrels, cursing, defamation, etc.)

Dealing with crimes of a dangerous nature (murder, rape, armed robbery, kidnapping, etc.)

Dealing with organized crime (drugs trafficking, money laundering, internationally wanted criminals, etc.)

Social services, such as lost and found, certificates of good conduct, licences of all kinds, etc.

The use of scientific evidence (forensics, fingerprints, documents, fires, chemical analysis, firearms, etc.)

Using the aid of identity recognition methods, (fingerprints, DNA, criminal records, etc. (Dubai police, 2009).

Using crime prevention methods (guidance, orientation, follow-up, statistical projections, periodicals, etc.)

The Objectives of the Department:

The objectives of the Department can be summarized as follows:

Reducing the crime rate.

Eradicating dangerous crimes where possible.

Developing local and international relations in the area of security.

Employing scientific and technological advances in the area of criminology.

Broadening the scope of information collection.

Continuing the training of employees and encouraging them to obtain additional qualifications.

Learning from past mistakes and not repeating them.

Pledging to rise to the top level of performance. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Legal and Disciplinary Inspection

At the beginning of 2009, the former Human Rights Department of the Dubai Police was abolished and by the orders of the General Commander of Dubai Police, His Excellency General Dhahi Khalfan Tamim, a new department was set up under the above name.

This new department included six sub-departments, namely:

The Court of Appeals

Legal Affairs

Disciplinary Affairs

Control of Human Trafficking

Administration Affairs

The office of Quality Assurance. (Dubai police, 2009).

under the direction of Colonel Dr. Mohammad Abdullah Al-Murr. The department has fulfilled expectations as regards the importance of its functions and the scope of its obligations and, in spite of the short time it has been in existence, has made commendable progress, through the combined efforts of its sub-departments, to the achievement of outstanding performance in the tasks it faces. (Dubai police, 2009).

The department works in extremely sensitive areas, with particular regard to issues of privacy, and must be aware of and treat with understanding all interests involved. It is particularly involved in work such as human affairs, settling grievances, corruption in work environments and all the problems and risks that can destabilize the security of society and undermine its values, morals and sense of justice. (Dubai police, 2009).

Since the 19th century, the international community has recognized the seriousness of human trafficking, so the Control Centre for Human Trafficking has tirelessly striven to combat this crime, the most serious and dangerous violation of human rights. It works in partnership with all concerned human rights organizations, doing all in its power to confront and combat this crime and reduce its effects.

The department also closely monitors the temporary employment situation in Dubai, ensuring compliance with employment law and safeguarding workers' lawful rights. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Finance:

This department had its origins in an accounting office set up at the Naif Police Station in 1961. When the Dubai Police General Headquarters moved from Naif Street, the accounting office moved as well and was incorporated into the Department of Financial Affairs created in 1988. (Dubai police, 2009).

At the present time the administration of Financial Management involves six departments and sixteen sub-sections which co-operate with the other departments and police stations. The financial services available are wide-ranging and complex, characterized by their efficiency, flexibility, speed and accuracy. Constant dedication to improving the excellence of the service provided achieves a high level of customer satisfaction. (Dubai police, 2009).

The General Department of Finance prepares budgets, pays salaries and suppliers' accounts, collects monies due to and handles the banking requirements of the Dubai Police, as well as preparing quarterly financial reports and the final accounts at the end of each financial year. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Forensic Sciences and Criminology:

This department had its origins in the Criminal Laboratory Department founded in 1981 as a sub-department of the General Department of Criminal Investigation. Due to the expanding

range of criminal evidence needing to be processed and the setting up of other departments dealing with the work of dealing with criminal activity, it became a general department in the year 2000. The ethos of the department is demonstrated by the slogan "Science serves Justice" emblazoned on its flag. (Dubai police, 2009).

The mission statement of the department can be summarized as follows:-

Excelling in providing examinations and technical investigations via:

Adhering to the rules and regulations that regulate quality

Continuing scientific progress

Speedy and accurate services

Exchanging information, locally and internationally, in order to improve performance. (Dubai police, 2009).

In addition to the above, the Department has strategic objectives to which it continues to make steady progress, such as

The provision of technologies required to solve crimes by scientific, modern methods in all relevant fields.

The provision of training in criminal science nationally.

The encouragement of research and scientific studies to support the pursuit of justice.

Publicizing the work of the department.

The creation of a working environment that motivates employees to work together and share information effectively. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Airport Security:

Dubai has one of the finest airports in the world. It is also one of the fastest growing. The Department of Airport Security has, therefore, a great responsibility for the safety, not only of the passengers and the staff employed there, but also for the airport installations themselves and the aircraft belonging to many international airlines, which use it. Nowadays, when everyone concerned with air travel is highly aware of the risk of terrorism, security is of the essence. The Department, therefore, strives to employ the latest and most advanced methods of ensuring a very high standard of security. Highly trained staff improve their skills by attending advanced security courses in accordance with the specifications and standards recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (Dubai police, 2009).

The department also ensures that the travellers themselves have a role to play in maintaining security, not just by encouraging them to be vigilant but also by keeping them informed of relevant security procedures affecting their arrivals and departures. The ultimate aim of the Department is to ensure that all users of the airport do so in complete safety and that passengers experience enjoyable and safe flights, God willing. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Human Resources:

Established in 1997, the Department of Human Resources deals with recruitment and basic training, including guidance to meet the need for more highly qualified personnel. It also analyses data and statistics, both on a day-to-day basis and for use in the future planning of strategies to improve the efficiency of the force. (Dubai police, 2009).

An important part of the work of the Department is the promotion of awareness of the concept of job satisfaction among its employees (Dubai Police, 2009), as it has been realised that satisfied employees have satisfied customers. The General Commandant of the Dubai Police, Lieutenant-Colonel Dhahi Khalfan Tamim, has said that the Dubai Police strategic plan no longer concerns the Dubai Police alone and that they wish to give out the message that the Dubai Police have a deeply rooted sense of responsibility for the security of the public and are anxious to ensure that the services they provide fully satisfy the needs of the community. The Dubai Police are viewed as an integral part of development plans within the UAE and the decision makers of Dubai are committed to the concept of human resource development, since investment in quality and knowledge determines the future of human beings. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Administrative Affairs:

The General Department of Administrative Affairs, while forming the link between the different levels of command at Dubai Police, such as between the General Headquarters, the other General Departments and the police stations, is also one of the main channels of communication between the Dubai Police and the Federal Ministries, Government Departments and, of course, national and foreign interests in Dubai, the private sector in general. (Dubai police, 2009).

The Department is divided into sub-departments, i.e. Administrative Affairs, Information and Knowledge, International Services and the Quality Assurance Office. Its work includes the provision of legal services and consultations, the preparation of statistical and cognitive studies, data collection and analysis. In addition to a variety of day-to -day tasks which facilitate the smooth running of the organization such as managing the medical and health services for the force, the Department undertakes tasks of prime importance such as the preparation of the Annual Report for the Dubai Police. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Community Services:

This Department had its origins in the original Public Relations Department set up in 1974, which developed rapidly over the next decade to serve the needs and high objections of the Dubai Police until, in 1983, it was affiliated to the Department of Planning, which later became the Department of Planning and Training, incorporating public relations, an aspect of the work of the Dubai Police which encompassed a broad spectrum of tasks. (Dubai police, 2009).

Always seeking to improve the service it provides, the General Headquarters carried out further reorganisation, during which the department became part of the General Department of Planning, Training and Moral Guidance, until in 1999, it was felt that tasks relating to mass communication and the relationship of the police with society were of such importance that they should be handled by a dedicated department and the General Department of Moral Guidance was set up, which later became the General Department of Community Services. (Dubai police, 2009).

The department has always endeavoured to reach a high standard in work such as mass communication and international awareness and the day-to-day exchanges, serving the public service needs of other departments while endeavouring to sustain the work of moral guidance and the defence of traditional values within the community. An important element in the public relations work of the Dubai Police is the way in which the views of the general public are sought and considered. (Dubai police, 2009).

The Department has sub-sections dealing with recognised public relations matters, such as those of International Training, Advertising and Marketing, News Media, Electronic Services and Journals Archive. It also has a section offering Psychological Counselling. On a lighter note, it also has a department of Sports Affairs, employs various Club Officers and runs a Kindergarten. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Anti-Narcotics Department :

Unfortunately, in this modern world, every country has to maintain an active programme against the importation and use of drugs, and to this Dubai is no exception. The recent prosperity of Dubai has led to an influx of foreign workers, a constant flow of foreign nationals passing through or coming to reside in the country, both of which, linked to Dubai's geographical position close to centres of drug production, has led to the development of drug crime from a relatively minor concern to one of the utmost importance. (Dubai police, 2009).

Originally handled as part of the criminal investigation work of the Police, a dedicated anti-narcotics section was set up in 1969. By 1979, however, the rising number of foreign nationals employed in Dubai had been matched by a worrying rise in the level of drug use and drug-related crime and the Anti-Narcotics Section was removed from the sphere of criminal investigation to operate independently, albeit still only at a low level, e.g. it was commanded by an officer of the rank of lieutenant, had a staff of ten men and three vehicles. (Dubai police, 2009).

Within five years, however, it was necessary to improve and expand the section, the commanding officer, holding the rank of major, having under him some 40 personnel and 14 radio operations vehicles. The increasing demands of the war against drugs meant that the section, which had become a General Department in its own right in 2008, was constantly recruiting more specialized personnel, working in some eleven subsections and making use of the latest technological advances to facilitate its work. (Dubai police, 2009).

The Dubai Police have always taken a hard line against the use of drugs, drug-trafficking and drug related crime and continues, through the strenuous endeavours of this Department to combat this evil. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Services and Supplies:

First founded in 1970, in the Police Headquarters in Deira, under Mr. Obery, the Department was meant to function as a prime services facility, affiliated to the Police Clinic and various supply sections, catering for the needs of Police personnel, in particular those of the Police Clinic. Maintain and improve the quality of services it offers to all sections of the Dubai Police. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Operations:

The General Department of Operations is the nerve centre of the Dubai Police, the prime point of reference for all reports and inquiries directed to them. It maintains a busy 24-hour call centre and controls all police patrols, mobile or on foot, as well as the air and sea rescue service, by means of electronic and mobile wireless devices, which devices throughout the whole of the Dubai Police being the responsibility of this Department. It is also the link between other General Departments and Police Stations via an operations room equipped with the most advanced installations and technology. (Dubai police, 2009).

The prime task of the Department is to ensure the security of important commercial and community sites by means of an advanced security system, known as the "Early Warning System". The Department also co-operates and co-ordinates operations with emergency sections and committees in a wide range of governmental and local organizations, in a way that ensures prompt and effective action in dealing with emergencies of all kinds. (Dubai police, 2009).

The Departmental responsibilities also extend beyond the borders of Dubai through the work of the Search and Rescue Centre which co-ordinates sea and air rescue missions both in Dubai and in the Northern Emirates. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of E-Services:

This is one of the most recently established Departments of the Dubai Police, designed to enable Dubai to take advantage of technological advances worldwide. This followed the initiative taken by His H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-president and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, to transform the government of Dubai by the use of electronic communication and technology to the fullest extent possible. The establishment of this giant system had become inevitable in the process of creating an e-government, on the one hand, and providing technical and technological support to the Dubai Police on the other and, in 2001, His Excellency Lieutenant General Dhahi Khalfan, Chief of the Dubai Police, issued orders setting up this department. (Dubai police, 2009).

The General Department of E-Services carries out many tasks, the most important of these being: supervising the transformation of outdated systems into e-government, supervising all technical equipment in the possession of the force, such as computers, software, networks, etc. and the supervision of the portal of the Dubai Police (Intranet) and the Dubai Police website. The Department also applies and executes policies necessary to secure and protect the information network approved by General Headquarters. (Dubai police, 2009).

These tasks involve designing and supervising the electronic systems used in the different departments, drawing up plans, providing technical consultations to assist in the process of choosing the best information technology to be employed by the force, as well as establishing what qualifications are needed by personnel and their selection and training to ensure that the Dubai Police equip the human resources at their disposal in ways consistent with modern technology. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Traffic:

One of the busiest departments of the Dubai Police and one of the most important servicing departments, as its work touches many different sectors of the community and it is one of the departments which is more visible to and has most contact with the public, enforcing as it does the law relating to traffic and the many regulations and instructions emanating from the law. (Dubai police, 2009).

It is responsible for the issue of all kinds of driving licences after, of course, verifying the eligibility and competence of drivers, and for the issue of vehicle licences, after ensuring that the vehicles are roadworthy and comply with safety requirements. (Dubai police, 2009).

One of the services most appreciated by the public when it is good and most complained of when it is not, is that of traffic control and the maintenance of a smooth traffic control on the roads. The problem here is to deal with an ever-increasing volume of traffic on the roads while seeking to reduce the number of traffic accidents in a way that ensures security and safety for all travellers by road. (Dubai police, 2009).

In the difficult task of providing a courteous and efficient service to the public, the General Department of Traffic makes use of state-of-the-art technology and is constantly updating its systems. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Punitive and Correctional Establishments

The first prison in the Emirate of Dubai was Al Fahaidi Castle, which occupied the present site of the Dubai Museum. This housed all types of prisoners, detainees waiting to go to court and convicts serving their sentences for breaches of the Sharia law prevailing at that time. (Dubai police, 2009).

In the mid-fifties, as the Emirate of Dubai began to establish a modern court system, the task of administering and preserving the security of prisons was given to the newly formed Dubai Police and a new prison was set up in Naif Castle. During the sixties, trade and industrial activities increased to such an extent that there was an influx of foreign workers looking for jobs. The massive increase in population and the emergence of types of social behaviour hitherto unknown in Dubai led to a marked rise in the crime rate and the emergence of new types of criminal and a much wider range of crimes. The rising number of detainees and convicted criminals put immense pressure on the prison which did not have the capacity to cope. (Dubai police, 2009).

It rapidly became clear that the prison was not consistent with modern punitive philosophy, nor did it offered the range of options necessary, from the high security appropriate for dangerous criminals such as murderers and drug traffickers to lower levels of security for those convicted of less serious crime. Serious inadequacies, which were in conflict with modern thought in the field of scientific punishment, meant that there had to be serious thinking about alternatives, which was followed by the drawing up of plans for a modern prison with all the elements of a decent modern life, a prison that would be consistent, in technical, architectural, administrative and humane aspects, with the broad outlines of a modern policy of punishment. These efforts finally came to fruition, a plan was agreed upon and the construction of the Dubai Central Prison began in 1973. (Dubai police, 2009).

The Dubai Police General Headquarters still have special responsibility for this vital institution and other modern prisons are being created in the Al'Awir area. These are intended to meet the demands for prison accommodation generated by the continued development of Dubai and will conform to all new and essential technologies and methods consistent with modern theories of punishment, which seek to soften harsh punishments and try to reform criminals through the mediums of counselling, training and education. (Dubai police, 2009).

Dubai Police Academy:

The Dubai Police Academy was established in 1987 and quickly became an autonomous department affiliated to the Dubai Police General Headquarters. The first students, on-job police officers employed by the Dubai Police were enrolled in the Academy in the academic year 1987/88, were 51 cadets and 30 full-time officers, some of whom received full-time scholarships to assist them in their studies. In 1989, the Academy was formally opened by His Highness Sheikh Maktoum Bin RashidAl Maktoum, Deputy President of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of Dubai, reinforcing the importance of professional training for members of the Dubai Police. This first batch of students graduated in 1991, gaining bachelor's degrees in Law and Police Sciences. (Dubai police, 2009).

In 1992, the excellence of the Police Academy was recognised by the Higher Council of Egyptian Universities, which issued a decree certifying that the bachelor's degree offered by the Academy was equivalent to the LL.B degree offered by Egyptian universities. By 1994, many graduates of the Academy were accepted onto Higher Education Courses, in subjects such as law and police sciences, by various foreign and Arab universities. The excellence of the tuition provided by the Academy was recognised in 1994 when His Excellency, the Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research issued a decree authorizing the Academy to run accredited degree courses in law, police science and related subjects. By 1998, the Academy was attracting students from countries of the GCC as well as from Arab countries such as Yemen and Palestine and offering graduate diplomas in general and private law. (Dubai police, 2009).

Nowadays, the Academy offers general training in many aspects of Police work, as well as offering academic qualifications at the highest professional level. (Dubai police, 2009).

General Department of Rescue and Transport

This department had its beginnings in a simple Transport Office with a limited number of all-purpose vehicles and a few drivers and was located at the then Police Headquarters at the Naif Police Station. In 1972, it was moved to the new headquarters site and began to function as a stand-alone transport provider, with its own vehicle repair workshop and filling station.

This was quickly followed by the provision of more specialized vehicles, permitting the setting up of a land rescue service and, in 1973, a regular patrol system was set up, utilizing six Mercedes cars. The increasing number of vehicles needed led to the employment of foreign workers on tasks such as the servicing and maintenance of the vehicles. (Dubai police, 2009).

In 1981, qualified divers were included among the personnel, enabling sea rescue missions to be undertaken and insurance cover was arranged for operational officers.

With the continued development of Dubai, the manpower and vehicles of the department increased at a great rate, as did the variety of tasks undertaken, from the mundane everyday duties of transporting police to their various places of work to more specialised police duties.

In 1984, it was necessary for the Department to move again, and sub-departments were set up to cope with the demand for more specialised personnel and equipment. A heavy lifting section was set up in the following year, followed by a purchasing section, to ensure that the department was appropriately equipped for the tasks it had to carry out. It was one of the first departments in the Dubai Police to have its own quality control sub-department. The fleet of vehicles grew to include ambulances and cars equipped to deal with rescue situations and it was soon realised that control of such number and diversity required a modern approach. After consideration by a special committee, the FLEETANYWHERE computer programme was adopted, which has led to similar systems being used by other sections of the Dubai Police. (Dubai police, 2009).

Among the many highly qualified sections of the department there are some that have won international recognition for their expertise. Having had vast experience of rescue operations in plane crashes, natural disasters, extreme weather conditions, building collapses and other sudden accidents, the Dubai Police General Headquarters has been authorised, via the General Department of Rescue and Transport and by virtue of the nature of its work, to take over the responsibility of operating the Dubai Maritime Search and Rescue Centre, which covers not only Dubai, but the Northern Emirates as well, together with the eastern coast of the state. A sub-department dealing with crisis management was set up in 1995, affiliated to the General Department of Rescue and Operations. The department also works to ensure the smooth running of international and local competitions, festivals, celebrations and all other activities of a like nature held in the Emirate of Dubai. (Dubai police, 2009).

On the techno-administrative side, experts from the department design suitable electronic programmes for other departments, such as

Traffic and traffic flow programmes, records of traffic tickets issues, records of DP

Force vehicles deployed to traffic accidents and a special programme to supply

licensing information to field officers. (Dubai police, 2009).

The department also carries out an active publicity campaign to bring safety issues to the attention of drivers, passengers, pedestrians and those who enjoy aquatic pursuits. (Dubai police, 2009).

Decision Making Support Centre

This centre was first established in 1988 under the name of the Research and Studies Centre and became in 2001 the Decision Making Support Centre, comprising six departments, namely:

Justice and Security

Early Warning

Community Development

Database and Information Systems

Statistics

Administration and Community Relations (Dubai police, 2009).

The DMSC has, to date, produced some 1062 publications, covering an outstanding spectrum of important disciplines of interest throughout Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, the other Gulf States and throughout the world, many of which are in use in academic institutions, police academies and colleges and used by researchers, teachers and students all over the Arab world. It is noted for its innovative and flexible approach, its interdisciplinary outlook and for the development of security methodologies. (Dubai police, 2009).

Police Stations:

The police stations are often the first point of contact the public have with the Dubai Police. They seek to identity with the communities they serve by maintaining a visible presence and fighting crime at all levels. (Dubai police, 2009).

In 1939, when Dubai was still a traditional community with relatively little crime His Highness Sheikh Rashid Bin Saeed Al-Maktoum ordered the construction of the Naif Fortress in the heart of the commercial area of Dubai, where it served as both a prison and the first site of the Dubai police Headquarters. (Dubai police, 2009).

The site chosen for the fortress, which was designed on traditional lines, was of historical significance and controlled an area of approximately 5.4 square kilometres, in an area which rapidly attracted people to live there (386,147 inhabitants by 2008) and is one of intense financial activity, full of establishments such as banks, currency exchange agencies, hotels and commercial centres, the most significant being the gold market. (Dubai police, 2009).

As Dubai developed over the years, the need for more police stations dispersed through the various residential and commercial areas made itself felt and the police Headquarters itself soon outgrew the Naif Fortress site and is now an organization of many general departments, each fulfilling its own specialised task. There are now ten police stations, namely:-

The Ports Police Station, established in 1969, responsible for securing port

facilities and the protection of general maritime security a task which has grown

steadily over the years to keep pace with the development of Dubai. (Dubai police, 2009).

Nad Al Sheba Police Station, is a newly constructed station designed with scope for Family are situated. Originally, the Zabeel Police Post, later known as the Zabeel

Police Station, was responsible for guarding the Ruler's palace, as well as those of the other sheikhs. The Bar Dubai Police Station takes charge of investigating criminal

and traffic cases in the region. (Dubai police, 2009).

Jebel Ali Police Station

This was another of the police stations which has developed from very modest

beginnings, in this case a group of tents, followed by a small station, equipped with

a radio and a single Land Rover which had responsibility for the control of traffic

between Dubai and Abu Dhabi. However, when the Jabal Ali Free Zone was created

the rapid development there and in surrounding areas made it necessary to upgrade

the police station to respond to the security requirements of this important part of the

Emirate. (Dubai police, 2009).

Hatta Police Station

This is a small station, manned by only 114 officers and 11 civilians, situated on the border between Dubai and Oman. One of the most important tasks of this station is that of patrolling the road between Dubai and Oman and dealing with traffic

accidents in the area. (Dubai police, 2009).

Murgabat Police Station

Before the establishment of the Murgabat Police Station, complainants had to go

to the Naif Station to conduct any necessary business they had with the Police or to

report crimes or other incidents. As the residential area of Murgabat increased to its

present vast size, it was obvious that local facilities had to be provided. (Dubai police, 2009).

Al Qusais Police Station

Here again, this station was established to meet the needs of an expanding population.

Al-Qusais was the subject of displacement and resettlement of its population in the

late seventies and has since seen rapid development and an increase in population. (Dubai police, 2009).

Bar Dubai Police Station

This Police Station differs from others in Dubai because of the very large area it

controls, one in which there has again been rapid development. The area controlled

is diverse, containing trade zones, economic zones, financial organizations,

residential areas and foreign consulates and embassies. The officers at the station are

assisted in this onerous workload by two Police Posts, Al-Faqa and Lehbab. (Dubai police, 2009).

Rifa'a Police Station

This station was set up to support the work of the Bur Dubai station. (Dubai police, 2009).

Rashidya Police Station

This station covers sizeable residential and commercial areas, such as the vegetable

market, the largest in the Middle East and the free zone car market. Subsidiary

Police Posts have been established in the Chinese Market and other shopping

centres, such as the uptown Centre, in Mirdiff. Other posts are to be opened in

the Festival City and in the new main train station. (Dubai police, 2009).

The DP has kept up its steady growth since its inception and has undergone a major transformation in terms of manpower, logistics, resources and organisational framework under successive governments in the country. It has been undergoing structural reform as well as recruitment and training changes so as to adapt the rapidly changing social needs (Dubai police, 2009; Abdulla, 2004) and is now regarded as one of the largest organisations in Dubai in terms of the number of people it employs and the volume of services it provides to the public (Abdulla, 2004) DP currently employs more than twenty-five thousand personnel of high educational standard (Dubai police, 2009). Furthermore, it is renowned for its success in the tasks it undertakes and in its high levels of customer satisfaction over a number of years. It is also regarded as one of the fastest-growing workforces among Arab police forces (Government of Dubai, 2009).

Today, DP does its best to be the most progressive of all Arabic police forces (Government of Dubai, 2009). Interestingly, the DP is proud to say that it is the first Arabic police force to apply DNA testing in criminal investigations, the first to use global positioning system (GPS) systems to locate stolen vehicles, the first to use electronic finger printing, and the first Arabic department to be cognisant with and to implement the paperless department concept (Government of Dubai, 2009; Dubai police, 2009; Abdulla, 2004). Another first was achieved with the DP adoption of the community policing programme; it was also the first police force to establish a Human Rights (HR) Department. The DP has also stayed one step ahead in the Arab world by being the first to apply electronic services (Dubai police, 2009), and, in 2001, the DP was the first force to include their web site and email address on each of their official vehicles (Dubai police, 2009).

The DP has received both local and international recognition. In 2007, it was the first champion (Golden Category) of the Dubai Award for Government Excellence Performance (Dubai Government Excellence Programme, 2009) whilst, in 2008, DP departments achieved great success in being awarded the ISO 9001/2000 certificate for applying quality management systems in all police fields, which in turn, provide services to internal and external customers (Government of Dubai, 2009; Dubai Excellence, 2009). According to Major General Khamis Al Mazeina, Deputy Chief of the Dubai Police, "The Dubai Police became one of the first police bodies in the world to have implemented quality standards in

all its departments and stations" (Dubai police, 2009). To this effect, in April 2009, the DP attained the Gold Award for the era of global quality in Geneva (Albayan Newspaper, 2009).

The DP is facing a really great challenge in making Dubai a safer place and believes that information flow between the force and the public is vital. They actively encourage opinions, suggestions and comments from the general public. Therefore, effective policing requires maximum co-operation with the public. The DP has started to emphasise the need for gaining community support to help prevent and solve crimes. According to Abdulla (2004), considerable effort is essential to improve and maintain a good relationship between the police and the community. Thus, the competence, integrity and dedication of each officer are important to the police service, both in terms of the quality of police duties and in enhancing their relationship with the community.

Like any modern organisation, the DP has vision. Mission statements have been drawn up setting out strategies to take it into the year 2015. In 2007, Dubai Police DP presented its proposed strategic plan, based on the Dubai government strategic plan for 2007-2015 (Dubai police, 2009). This strategy looks to the future for the lifetime of the plan and beyond (see Table 2.5).

Table 2.5 Vision

Security is the pillar of development. Let us ensure security and safety for our community and let us maintain public order at world-class efficiency, professionalism and levels.

Mission

To strengthen the feeling of security and protection rights and to provide service that will lead to public satisfaction..

Values

Strategic Goals

Integrity and Loyalty.

Honesty and Transparency.

Justice and Fairness.

Proficiency in work.

Brotherhood and Co-operation.

Politeness.

Recognition and reward of individual contributions.

Prevention of crime and reduction of crime rates.

Detection of crimes and the arrest of criminals.

Safeguarding rights and freedoms.

Readiness to deal with crises and disasters effectively.

To control the roads safely.

Summary

This chapter has set out the main features of both the United Arab Emirates and the Dubai Police Force. In the first section, details of the general background to the UAE were explained, including history, culture and the problems of Emeritization were discussed, with emphasis on the need for the UAE to put greater effort into the establishment of a pool of native highly skilled professionals with a view to easing the UAE's dependence on foreign workers, especially in the fields of security and police operations.

The second section addressed the role of the Dubai Police, its achievements to date and its vision and strategy for the future. Two features which are of note at the present time are the DP's willingness to use of the most modern technology to assist them in their work and their commitment to the concept of Total Quality and their continued efforts to improve the service offered to the public.

Although the DP has demonstrated its quality and achieved an excellent reputation among police and organizations worldwide, it has begun to realize and be concerned about the importance of human resources in the workplace. One of the most serious issues in the DP strategy for the future is promoting awareness of the importance of job satisfaction among its employees in all its departments and in all fields of police work and seeking ways in which this can be achieved. The military organization of the DP has contributed in no small degree to its overall efficiency but new perspectives are now being sought to improve communication between the various levels in the chain of command as it is realized that only by utilizing all the talent and experience at its disposal can the Force progress in its continuing search for ways to achieve Total Quality.

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