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The feminine nature is widely thought to be in no way involved with crime of any nature, the existing histography has always presented women as victims rather than the main perpetrators of violence and crime, female violence was typically perceived by many as same sex violence ,rather very trivial and inconsequential (Jones, 2008). Serious female crimes comes in when a woman kills and this is sensationalized as abnormal gender behavior, which is why whenever a woman is contravened with any criminal offence it becomes very blown up to the public limelight. However, in partnered crime, where a woman is involved in crime with a man, most of the accusations are rejuvenated to the woman as is the case in the article that was in Britain involving myra hindley and Ian brandy, where both were involved in torturing children and then killing them, although it is know that it was Ian who was the instigator of that crime, myra hindlery still remains hated nationaly until the day she passed on in the year 2002 (p.153).
There have been little interest by media and criminologists to the relationship between male and female who are involved in crime, but much attention is always casted to the female criminal (Anderson, 2005). It has been found that most research have concentrated more on abuse of women and their experiences in the prisons, this essay will look into the feature of the partners in crime, this is to say we shall look at certain characteristics the relationship of the women who are involved with partners in crime in a critical discussion.
What is the role played by women in criminal partnership? Are they in crime by their consent or they are forced into crime by their male counterpart or is it just a helping hand as a show of loyalty to the relationship between the two? Were they in their right mind in their involvement in crime or are they themselves victims of circumstances. The Research Methods is Knowledge Based, this is a comprehensive method. It covers the entire research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and no probability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper. It also addresses the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics.
Research that was conducted earlier portrays women as just playing secondary role in crime and the men playing the starring part (Koon et al., 2003). However, recent research indicates that women were independent in their involvement in crime. Anderson, (2005) state that most women were drugged and violence used against them so as to get involve din crime. In another research done by Alarid et al (1996) half the number of women was found to have played a primary role in crime but they admitted that the crimes they committed had been initiated by their male counterpart. Racial role was found that the African American women found in crime had been forced by their male partner due to their intense emotional relationship (Anderson, 2005). The gender entrapment is found in the study done by Koon et al., (2003) who tried to differentiate between the romantic and the non-romantic criminal partnerships. Furthermore, Koon et al., (2003) states that most of the women did not even know that their partners were going to commit a crime until they arrived in the crime scene. Baskin and Sommers (1998) found out in their research that the most serious that had been committed by women only a quarter had been committed with their female compliance, the other they had committed with other women and they rejected the possibility that they had been forced into crime.
In drug business crime women took hat as a career option (Baskin and Sommers, 1998) although Koon et al., (2003) disputed the notions that the women have gained equal ground in drug trafficking but they are just employed as peddlers of the drug by male drug barons. According to Koon et al., (2003) most of the crimes that male take an influence role include the sex work drug and dealing. With reference to the data form the American national incidence ââ‚¬"based reporting system it was discovered that when female committed the crimes alone the crimes were of less magnitude compared to those who partnered in crime with male for their crime was more serious (Koons et al., 2003, p. 368). Typically, men use violence to influence all aspects of womenââ‚¬â„¢s behavior.
In the research conducted in one year between 2004 December to 2005 December indicates that all the female prisoners at the age of 21 had not partnered in crime with a male. However it was discovered that women had been influence to crime by men who have never been prosecuted. The statistics showed that about 58% of the women prosecuted were aged 21 to 29although their male counterpart were a little older ,this is also found that males were 3.8 years older than their female counterpart, and 64 percent of the female had children, and jobless (Baskin and Sommers, 1998). This appears that those who engage into crime do not have ban alternative in trying to make ends meet. In addition, most of them had drug problem, the use of drug featured in most of the criminals indicating that the women were not in their right mind or crime was committed to get money to buy drugs.
The personal relationships between the co-defendants ,this relationship is classified to various categories depending on the level of the dependency; there are those in a coercive relationship with their male co-defendant who usually committed crime due to direct threat or use of violence by their male co-defendant.in overall it is found that one third of the females claimed to be in a violent relationship with their co-defendants, others claim do be abused in childhood (Baskin and Sommers, 1998).they also found out that 36% of the females abuse was from their immediate family,26% from extended family and 40% had a regular physical assault. Imprisoned mothers 25% blamed it on their boyfriends, 20% said to be offering help and 13% were escaping abuse.
There are those women who committed crime because that is what their male co-defendants expected of them, as an obligation. Most of these women had been sexually abused, they are said to believe that they can not be loved and thus they settle with those who need them (Alarid et al, 1996). There is another group of women who engage into crime because of love, as it has previously been shown on the Myra hindley is thought in these terms as being in love with Ian, this infatuation made her commit madder together with her boyfriend just to please him. On many occasions, the man is not abusive but behaves very irresponsibly that she decides to engage in crime to support him (Alarid et al, 1996, p.17).
Some of the co-defendants are equal partners in crime. Some women although rare made it clear that they could not be pushed around, appearing that the women had willingly got into crime although this is not clear enough as the women believed, but they are both prepared to take full responsibility. Other co-defendants are women like them; none of them alleges coercion or threats. However the magnitude of crime is not violent, some committed an assault, shoplifting and burglary although most of them were introduced into drugs.
Table 1 data collected and analyzed results
The research method applied was effective although the information given could not be 100% quantified as true, the variations provided enough information required on the women co-defendants in crime.
With the gender equality that is lashing within our society, it is not in order to assume women as only victims of criminal injustices but also as perpetrators of crime ,the study has indicated that female crimes are equally higher as he one committed by men. However we can not rule out the fact that most of women are forced into crime by their male counterparts. whereââ‚¬â„¢s in the earlier research had not clearly indicated the influence of male in the female crime, feminists have come in defense of women highlighting that the women are just victims and o not act out of their own decisions, and thus women need to be empowered so that they maybe in a position to take their stand on various issues. A good approach maybe by introducing law that also convicts women offenders in the custodial centers,
The government must deal with the offenders and victims such as child prostitutes should be helped (department of health, 1998).the society should face the full implications of the abusive relationships. It is also important that substance abuse be dealt within the study most of the convicted criminals have used hard drugs such as cocaine as they committed crime. In addition, most of the women involved in crime a have partners who are either drug dealers or addicts of drugs.