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In the twelfth century Henry II established the basis of system of criminal justice in England including the trial and jury system and for some centuries order was generally maintained through a system of local community based peacekeeping and responsibility for keeping the peace rested on local householders and duty to help with the raising of the hue and cry formed the basis of much local policing (Newburn 2007). In history policing mainly were based on local policing and also it aimed to fortify towns and introduced watchmen to patrol between sunset and sunrise.
In the UK there is a history of watchman type policing judicial decisions are primarily based on crime control rather than due process the public has accepted a social role for the police from its inception and society is prepared to tolerate a high level of government involvement in personal lives. In 1986 the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) came into force (Home Office 2008). The act contains much that places more power into the hands of the police but at a cost. The cost was the development of a series of Codes of Practice that have the effect of creating a due process environment for Police officers in UK. Some sections of the Act itself fulfil the same function. New policing only begins to emerge in the eighteenth century and modern police forces were not introduced until the beginning of the nineteenth century. Today's current policing based on areas such as protecting the UK from counter terrorist attack, preventing crime and reducing crime especially violent and drug related crime and ensuring people feel safer in their homes. By using the latest technology this give the police to use their power effectively on policing.
1998 Crime and Disorder Act which introduced Anti-Social Behaviour (ASBO) that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household(Fielding 2005).The 1998 act introduced anti-social behaviour orders (ASBO) the reform of youth offending and a raft of other policies to get tough on criminal and anti-social behaviour (ASBO) because the government were saying that ASBO were making a real difference to life in communities blighted by anti-social behaviour. The 1998 act also some claimed that represented a new form of community policing one which saw the boundaries of authorities, community network and voluntary agencies would from crime and disorder reduction partnership that would bring a more integrated approach to dealing with crime and anti-social behaviour. As part of this strategy the government also created community support officer and neighbourhoods wardens. The general population tends to equate ASB with problems they associate with young people including graffiti, drug us or simple rowdiness (Reiner 2000).
There are particular criticism that the rights of those subject to ASBOs are undermined because of the civil nature of the application that because of the length of the order and the fact that number of prohibitions is often excessive orders are easily breached resulting in some young people being dragged into custody who would never have previously been there. Children young people and families were being stigmatized and branded as outcasts. The numbers of children and young people in penal custody doubled from 1.415 in 1994 to 2.850 in 2008 according to the Home Office 2007.
The effective use of forensic science is broken in to a number of areas such as: Identification of offenders and suspects, corroboration of persons, elimination of person, intelligence and understanding trends in criminality. The contribution of forensic science has an important key role play in criminal investigation. Its mainly use by the police and it needs to be properly managed by the police and organised within the criminal investigations (Jackson 2004). It is important to make an efficient as well as effective contribution to the prevention and the detection of crime. In a suicide case to use the cost effective use of forensic science would be to quickly screen all the evidence and not continue the case to further investigation. In a spousal rape case DNA is not always found effective at this point and DNA cannot always guarantee things to come lighter and cannot prove things all the time. DNA is used with serious crimes such as murder, rape and assault, but increasing sensitivity and automation have led to it being applied to a wider range of crimes for example car crime and burglary another way to reduce sot of effective use of forensic science is not to use DNA on minor cases where DNA is not needed (Stuart & Nordby). Because very DNA profile requested has a financial cost to the police. In the past the relatively high cost influenced judgements about whether to use DNA evidence in a particular investigation. Because the cost had to be balanced with the high success rate using DNA evidence which ultimately reduced the time of the investigation ( Nickell &Fischer 1999 ).To reduce crime and the fear of crime will actually improve the quality of service and will provide good justice to the public. This will lead to public confidence in the public and the public likely to assist the police and act as witness in court with their investigations.
The development of forensic DNA techniques in the mid 1980 was followed by constant advancements in both science and technology. The techniques that are used in today's forensic science labs are quite different than those used earlier (Goodwin, Linacre, Hadi). They are more sensitive, more rapid, more specific and more reliable. Science is not a static it is constantly changing bringing new improvements and advancements. Science is closely linked to technology and therefore scientific advancement leads to technological benefit. Forensic science is part of a process beginning at a crime scene and concluding in a court room. It does seem likely that fingerprinting and other forensic standbys will continue well into the future and many databases contain DNA profiles for hundreds of thousands of convicted people. In UK the police mainly focused on the need for more quality, better, faster and cheaper forensic science for their investigations. The future use and impact of forensic science in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) there are two areas that come first and must be considered. To focus on possibilities and priorities firstly what will be possible in terms of the future use and development of forensic science. And how will forensic science be used.
There is a need to establish how the application of forensic science should be prioritized to address the Home Office and the police priority areas and to deliver high quality and high utility results CJS .When dealing with serious violent and sexual offending also dealing with organized crime and terrorism at a number of different stages (Home Office 2009).