Examining The Roles Of Army Intelligence Criminology Essay


The end of the Cold War has caused an evolution in the global order by which world is expected to be more secure. Post-Cold War era was the period with full of optimism and possibility and perceived by many scholar the end of history while others claimed the triumph of democracy over totalitarianism. [1] On the contrary, recent global scenario saw the world facing with the new security challenges with the growing of non-traditional security threat particularly international terrorism. In fact, terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but it has been recorded since the beginning of human history. However, the new breed of terrorism so call "New Terrorism" has raised great concern to world community due to the capability of inflicting devastating damage to wide range of targets. [2] They are also highly funded and technologically articulate group. Sep 11 incident is wake-up call for the world community to a new face of terror. The message conveys is very clear that the act of terrorism could be occurred in any parts of the worlds where no place is safe and even superpowers are not immune. The threat of terrorism is present across the entire world including in the Southeast Asia region. Thus, Malaysia is no exception to this threat and potentially to be terrorist target in the absence of effective preventive measures are implemented. This effort is responsibility of security agencies and relies heavily on predictive intelligence.

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The use of Intelligence is no limit to military alone but range to various fields such as in political, economic, social, environmental, health, and cultural. However, many people assumed intelligence closely associated with the military and security agencies. Throughout history, intelligence proven plays an important role in the success of military operations. Intelligence has increasingly been more crucial as the face of threat changes from traditional form to asymmetric where no emminent enemy faced and no clear battle front drawed. Hence, intelligence is considered as the first line of defence against terrorism. Generally, the role of intelligence is to identify the threat, provide advance warning and disseminate critical actionable intelligence in a usable form for the end user or decision maker. The intelligence in combating terrorism is divided into two components, antiterrorism and counterterrorism. Antiterrorism (defensive measures) is the preventive stage of combating terrorism. Defensive measures are intended to harden potential targets and to develop procedures to detect planned terrorist actions before they take place, thereby reducing the probability of a terrorist event. Meanwhile, counterterrorism is the full range of offensive operations against terrorists or those who support terrorists.

1.1.2 Problem Statement

Malaysia continued to enjoy a stable and peaceful security atmosphere in spite of relentless violence in neighbouring countries. The emerging threat of terrorism in this region especially in Indonesia, Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines has raised concerns it will affect the stability of Malaysia. However, many people in Malaysia are inclined to believe that this country seems to be spare from this kind of threat. Additionally, all these while there is no major terrorist insident such as bomb attack, so call the most common tactic used by the terrorist happen in Malaysia. In this regard, does it indicates that threat of terrorism really absence in Malaysia or if the threat does exist, in what form it may come from? On the other hand, having said that intelligence is the first layer of defence against terrorism, so what intelligence is all about and what is the role of intelligence in combating terrorism?

1.1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the research are as follows:

a. To give general idea on what terrorism is all about.

b. To examine the threat of terrorism in Malaysia environment.

c. To explains the role of intelligence in combating terrorism.

d. To give a sound recommendation pertaining to the effective way on handling and combating the threat of terrorism in Malaysia environment.

1.1.4 Significance of the Study

There are many study and literatures has been made in Malaysia about terrorism but few of them focusing towards the roles of intelligence in combating terrorism. On the national front, the National Security Council, Directive No. 18: Pengurusan dan Pengendalian Krisis Keganasan clearly stipulated the roles of each government agencies in the event of terrorist attacks. However, this directive only provides guidelines to facilitate emergency response in the event of terrorist attack but did not touch on preventive measures to stop the incident before it happen. Moreover, its not explain in detail the roles of intelligence or intelligence agencies in handling terrorism. Even though most of the government agencies already have experience dealing with terrorism in fighting communist terrorist way back during the emergency era but modern terrorism so call new terrorism is varies in many aspects. In this regard, security agencies need different ways and means to handle this new form of threat.

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This study also significance with the recent developmet that saw few cases of terrorist activities in Malaysia. There is a report saying Malaysia was used as launching pad for the September 11 attacks. Some of the perpetrators who directly involved in Sep 11 attacks tracked to be in Malaysia before the incident took place. Furthermore, some terrorist figures who were directly involved in the terrorist acts in Indonesia such as Dr Azhari and Nordin Mat Top are Malaysia nationals. These cases indicated the presence of terrorist elemen in Malaysia soil and the ideology of terrorist also influenced Malaysian that subsequently inspired them to get involved in terrorist activities. This research seeks to fill the gap of present literature and study how far the threat of terrorism in Malaysia environment and at the same time examine the roles of intelligence in combating terrorism as well.

1.1.5 Literature Review

The sources of this research paper will come from all these following references:

a. Gus Martin, Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perpectives and Issues, California: Sage Publication Inc, 2006. The book provides comprehensive exploration of contemporary terrorism. Its offer readers with the most recent theories and cases related to terrorist activity and effort to combat terrorism.

b. Russell D. Howard, Reid L. Sawyer, Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the New Security Environment, Reading and Interpretations, Connecticut: Mc Graw Hill Companies Inc, 2004. Both thinker Colonel Russ Howard and Major Reid Sawyer have articulated the current and future policy implications of terrorism. Their relevence experience in military intelligence and teaching security-related courses in the Department of Social Sciences at West Point places them in the best position to examine of this wide-ranging subject. The book mainly provided the broad perpective of terrorism spaning from philosophical, political and religious roots of terrorist activities and discusses the national, regional and global effect of historical and recent terrorist acts. The content also deals with responses to terrorism and defenses against it.

c. Assaf Moghadam, The Roots of Terrorism, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. The book gives broad overview of the root causes of terrorism. It guides reader through the many factors that give rise to terrorism. The author demonstrating that it is ultimately the combination of all of these factors that lead to terrorist attacks.

d. Paul J. Smith, Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc, 2005. This book offers considerable insight and fact-based information on the issues surrounding terrorism mainly focus on Southeast Asia. The editor addresses the latest challenge of terrorism and transnational crime to Southeast Asia. This book helps reader in understanding the complexities of this region and its importance to combating terrorism.

e. Mahathir Mohamad, Terrorism and the Real Issues, Selangor: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd, 2003. The book is compilation of speeches of Dr Mahathir Mohamad addresses the issue of international terrorism from various perspectives including its causes, dimension, impact and remedy. The view from Islamic leader is significance for this research paper since there is argument linked Islam with terrorism. Therefore, it forms a basis for the comparison between the two mainstream views of Western and Islamic perpective on the issues of terrorism.

f. MP 10.1.2 TD-Intelligence. This military intelligence manual provides comprehensive explanation about intelligence in Malaysian Armed Forces. Its touches on intelligence process in various level, intelligence collection disciplines and techniques, tactic and procedure of intelligence.

g. Majlis Keselamatan Negara, Arahan No 18 (Semakan Semula), Pengurusan dan Pengendalian Krisis Keganasan. The directive offers broad overview on the response of every government agencies in the event of terrorist incidents on the national level. Apart from that, its also highlight threat of terrorism in Malaysia environment and government policy on terrorism.

h. F8, Jan 09, Intelligence In Combating Terrorism, US Army Intelligence Centre, Fort Huachuca, Arizona. This literature is helpful for the study in providing detail guideline about intelligence support in combating terrorism operation from the of U.S intelligence perspective. As a country that has wide experience in intelligence operation all over the world we can learn many thing from them. Specific to the study, these additional input provide a good source for understanding on leading intelligence agency in the world dealing with terrorism.

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i. Summary of Literature Review. All of literatures have provided the background information for the study. The authors are from various backgrounds and expertise in their field, places them in the right position to write about the subject matter. On the other hand, the background different of the authors will be an advantage to form the basis for neutral study.

1.1.6 Limitations

The duration of the study is about 11 weeks from 7 Mar to 27 May. Base on the time constrain given, the study will be limit and focus on the overview of terrorism, threat of terrorism towards Malaysia and intelligence support in combating terrorism emphasising on the intelligence analysis part. The scope of discussion will be narrow down to the role of Army Intelligence in combating terrorism.

1.1.7 Research Methodology

The method of the study will be mainly relies on the literature research. Therefore, the sources will be come from published books and journal articles that relevent to the subject matter. Apart from that, newspaper articles and speeches by relevant personalities will also be sought after. Information will also be extracted from government documents and manuals published by Malaysian Armed Forces.

1.1.8 Chapterisation

The essay will be written in five chapters. The chapters and scope of discussion are as follows:

a. Chapter I - Understanding Terrorism and Intelligence. The introduction will briefly describe the general outline and organization of the research paper as a whole. It wills adress the objective and significance of the study. This chapter will also consist of literature review, limitations of the study, methods and source of the study and lastly chapter outline. This chapter also aimed to give an overview of terrorism and Intelligence. It will discuss the various definitions of terrorism by different country and organization. The historical background of terrorism is included in this chapter to explain the origin of terrorism. It is important to find terrorism's root causes and its goal in order to effectively eliminate this threat. So these subjects will be also looking into. This chapter will also examine the terrorist organization, terrorist goals, targets and terrorist tactics. On the other hand, intelligence is considering the first line of defence against terrorism. It's played supporting roles in combating terrorism by providing prediction and real time information. Thus, it will look into the definition of intelligence, roles of intelligence, sources of intelligence, responsibilities of intelligence agencies, priority intelligence requirements, considerations in managing terrorism and specialise training required.

b. Chapter II - Terrorism in Malaysia and Army Intelligence. Chapter II will discuss the threat of terrorism in Malaysia environment. This chapter highlights Malaysia stance on terrorism, past experience, current terrorist threat in Malaysia, implication of terrorism, future challenges and legal considerations. Furthermore, it will highlights on Army Intelligence. As a one of the intelligence community in Malaysia, Army Intelligence also plays a crucial role in combating terrorism.

c. Chapter III - Intelligence Support in Anti-Terrorism. Intelligence support in combating terrorism is divided into two operations antiterrorism and counterterrorism, by which antiterrorism is passive in nature. Chapter III will look into this preventive stage of combating terrorism by highlighted the roles of intelligence in this operation.

d. Chapter IV - Intelligence Support in Counter-Terrorism. Chapter IV will examine all aspect about the full range of offensive operations against terrorism. Nevertheless, the discussions will only limits to the roles of intelligence that do not directly involved in any combat or strike force as understand by many.

e. Chapter V - Conclusion and Recommendation. The conclusions seek to serve as a useful platform for readers to understand the seriousness threat of terrorism and the complexity roles of intelligence in combating it. Then the research paper will be concluded with the recommendations to give appropriate suggestion particularly on the areas of how the world supposed to response to the issues of terrorism, the effective ways to reduce threat of terrorism in Malaysia and things need to be done in order to improve the reliability of intelligence community in combating against terrorism.

1.2 An Overview of Terrorism

1.2.1 Definition

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for millennia. Despite having a history longer than the modern nation-state, definitions of terrorism vary widely and are usually in adequate because of the difference in life values and beliefs. It is becoming more complicated when discussing about terrorism on international level. Furthermore, the use of terror by governments and those that contest their power remains poorly understood. Examples of the ambivalence in the definition of terrorist are many. The Jewish Haganah, Irgun Zeva'i Le'umi and Stern Gang were at one time regarded as terrorist and were hunted by the British. But later they became respected leaders of Israel. Meanwhile, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a terrorist organisation in the eyes of the British but is regarded as freedom fighters worthy of financial support by the Americans. [3] 

Different states, departments or agencies of even the same government will themselves often have very different definitions for terrorism. Each of the definitions reflects the priorities and particular interests of the specific government and agency involved. In this regard, the US State Department, for example uses the definition of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d):

"premediated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience", [4] 

While the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as:

"the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives", [5] 

and the US Department of Defense define it as:

"the unlawful use of-or threatened use of-force of violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives". [6] 

For Malaysian Government, the term is based on Directive No. 18, National Security Consul (NSC) which means;

" Unlawful use of threat or the use of force or terror or any other attack by person, group or state regardless of objective or justification aim at other state, it citizens or their properties and its vital services with the intention of creating fear, intimidation and thus forcing government or organization to follow their impressed will including those act in support directly or indirectly". [7] 

The term of terrorist contain in the Internal Security Act (ISA) 1960, defined terrorist as any person who (a) by the use of any fire-arm, explosive or ammunition acts in a manner prejudicial to the public safety or to the maintenance of public order or incites to violence or counsels disobedience to the law or to any lawful order; (b) carries or has in his possession or under his control any fire-arm, ammunition or explosive without lawful authority therefor; or (c) demands, collects or receives any supplies for the use of any person who intends or is about to act, or has recently acted, in a manner prejudicial to public safety or the maintenance of public order [8] .

Generally, the stated definitions did not have much difference. The meaning of terrorism is more towards the use of whatever aspect of violence or force aimed to gain a political end. In this aspect, the aim is major distinction between the acts of terrorism with criminal or other unlawful activities. Base on the frequencies of definitional elements in 109 definitions of terrorism, the five most prominent elements are violence, force (83.5%), political (65%), fear, terror emphasized (51%), threat (47%) and psychological effect (41.5%). [9] 

1.2.2 Historical Background of Terrorism

Generally, the recorded history of terrorism could be divided into five eras. The first era of terrorism span up from prehistory throughout the period immediately prior the French revolution. The earlier known organisation that demonstrated aspects of a modern terrorist organisation was the Zealots of Judea or dagger-men. They carried on an underground campaign of assassination of Roman occupation forces and their Jews collaborators. Religious as well as political terrorism in this era also became widespread during the Middle Ages and into the 17th Century, as evidenced by acts of mass murder during the Crusades, and the slaughter of divergent Christian sects in French during the same period. Since action usually constitute the acknowledged policy of the government, and make use of official institution such as the judiciary, police, military, and other governments agencies, most terrorism during the first era is classified as Establishment Terrorism. The second era closely related with the French Revolution, specifically the several years of the French Revolution commonly called the "Reign of Terror". The French Revolution provided the first uses of the words "Terrorist" and "Terrorism". In 1795, the use of word "terrorism" begin in reference to Reign of Terror initiated by the Revolutionary government. The agents of the Committee of Public Safety and the National Convention that enforced the policies of "The Terror" were referred to as "Terrorists".

The third era saw the political and philosophical foundations of modern terrorism were formed. This era begins in the mid-1800s and extends through the end of World War II. The action and writings of few people, especially those in and from Czarist Russia and Germany, had a remarkable impact on the political thoughts and actions of many. The fifth era or also known as the age of modern terrorism, begun in 1968, representing by the incident of the hijacking of E1 A1 airliner route from Tel Aviv to Rome by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). This was the first time that the one state national (Israeli) and its symbolic value was targeted. Also a first recorded on television that gained significant attention.

1.2.3 Causes of Terrorism

By knowing the root causes of terrorism logically enable us to take effective steps to resolve the problem. One of the major steps is to eliminate causes of terrorism as a starting point. Once the causes have been removed, support for the terrorist will be much reduced if not cease altogether. Terrorism has occurred throughout history for a variety of reasons. Its causes can be political, social, economic, cultural, historical, psychological and religious or any combination of these. Therefore, a clear understanding of terrorism requires insight from a variety of disciplines, including political science, international relations, psychology, sociology, religious studies, cultural studies and economic. [10] Indeed, it is a complex concept that is best understood in a larger context and cannot be examined in isolation.

In this research paper, the root causes of terrorism will be examined from two different perspectives mainly based on the view of scholars and relevence personalities on the issue. In this regards, Dr Mahathir, former Malaysian Prime Minister views that the principal causeof terrorism is the Palestinian issue. [11] He believed that the oppression of Muslims in many parts of the world particularly in Palestine, has caused deep bitterness and anger among them. Therefore, the act of terrorisme executed by the Muslims perceived as a symbolic displays of political grievances over these long-ongoing issue.

Some scholar examines the root of terrorism from three different perspectives; individual, organizational, and environment. [12] Individual perspective explaining whether or not terrorist are mentally ill and how individual terrorist justify the use of violence against innocent civilians. [13] Meanwhile, the organizational perspective helps us to understand terrrorism because majority of terrorist acts are perpetrated by organizations, not by individuals acting alone. Organizations provide the infrastructure, the means, the ideology, the justification and the social support required to carry out terrorist activities. [14] The third perspective on enviromental factors such as political, social, economic and other condition. The differences and grievances derrive from these factors may affect organizations and individuals and have an impact on their decisions to commit acts of violence to achieve their goals. [15] 

1.2.4 Categories of Terrorism

The categorisation of individual terrorist organizations has a useful purpose in combating terrorism. It provides significant information about terrorist group particularly their intention and capabilities. Basically, terrorist organizations are categorised into two groups by Scope of Operations and Degree of State Support.

a. Scope of Operations . The Geographic designation is simply to consider where, geographically, the group conducts its terrorist operations. Regardless of where the groups lives, trains or based the only considerations are the geographic location of the terrorist attack. There are three classifications of terrorist group within this category which is domestic or national, transnational and international. [16] Domestic or national terrorist group are local terrorist that operate within and against government or social system of their home country. Their aim principally focuses on their nation's socio-political arena. In this case, all attacks are conducted within the borders of that single country. [17] Meanwhile, the transnational terrorist group is one whose target is singular, i.e. they wish to destroy or replace the government of a single designated country. The group's operations targeted not only the interests of that particular country internally but attack the interests of that country externally. [18] The third group, international terrorist group on the other hand, conduct terrorist operations whenever they perceive it to be to their advantage. Unlike domestic or national groups and transnational groups, their targets are not singular. They operated across international boundaries with no limit to area of operations. [19] 

b. Degree of State Support. Categorising terrorist groups by their affiliation with governments provide indications of their means for intelligence, operations, and access to types of weapon. [20] In this regard, the degree of state support can be identified with three affiliations i.e. non-state supported, state-supported, and state-directed terrorist groups. Non-state supported is self-sufficient terrorist groups that operate independently and receive no help, aid, assistance, or direction from a government. [21] Their capabilities are generally limited by lack of training, lack of funding, and lack of general support in all other areas. On the contrary, state supported are groups normally operate independently but receive a degree of help, aid and assistant from one or more governments, even if only passive support such as a safe haven for a base of operations. [22] In this regard, supporting state, by virtue of their support have a degree of influence over terrorist operation. Next category is state sponsored or state directed terrorist group which operate as an agent of a government received substantial intelligence, logistics, operational support, and in addition, will receive direction and operational orders from the sponsoring government. [23] Normally, State supported and sponsorship or direction of terrorist organizations falls into three broad categories: logistical, political and operational. The governments involved in supporting and sponsoring terrorism obviously do not abide by any internationally accepted norms of behaviour and certainly are not worried about condemnation by the international community.

1.2.7 Terrorist Ideological Motivation

Generally, all terrorists are, by characterization, motivated by an extreme ideology. [24] In other word, all terrorist is extremist which by their very nature intolerant of beliefs which differ from their own. Ideological categories explain the political, religious or social orientation of the group. Terrorist believe that the use of any means including violence is justified by their particular ideological objective. A terrorist group's ideological motivations is segregated into three specifically politically motivated terrorism, Nationalist/Territorialist and Religiously Inspired Groups. Ideology is paramouth and at the centre of all major decisions and choices makes by politically motivated terrorism. Political ideologies divided by two categorise; Left Wing and Right Wing. The Left Wing groups are usually associated with revolutionary socialism or variants of communism. Meanwhile, the Right Wing groups are associated with the reactionary or conservative side of the political spectrum, and often, but not exclusively, are associated with fascism or neo-Nazism. Nationalist inspired group are those who are conducting their activities to further the interests of their particular national, ethnic, or racial group and to achieve independence or autonomy within a given geographic area. The most prominent terrorist today is Religiously Inspired Groups those who are to further their perceived divine goals. It is to be strongly emphasized that all of the major world religions have small minority extremists that have taken up violence as means to attain their goals.

2.5 Terrorist Organisation

There is no standard or doctrinal structure for terrorist organizations. Nevertheless, base on the membership terrorist organization structure could be segregated into three level group of people; Terrorist Leadership or Membership, Direct Support or Active Support and Indirect Support or Passive Support. Terrorist organization structure segregated into three level group of people; Terrorist Leadership or Membership, Direct Support or Active Support and Indirect Support or Passive Support. Terrorist Leadership or Membership and Support Group can be distinguished by a few key criteria. Terrorist Leadership or Membership is the terrorist; those who provide direction and policy, approve goals and objectives and provide guidance for operations. They are highly mobile, generally have a fixed base of operations and travel from that base to the location of their attack to conduct the operations. Support Structure however, lead "normal" lives, they provide support for terrorist operations. Support Structure relatively immobile, and conduct their support activities in the area of their homes and workplaces.

Elements of the terrorist Support Structure are the political, religious, ethnic or special interest "front group" or seemingly innocent individuals or groups. The major difference between the direct and indirect tiers is one of knowledge. Members of the direct support are generally fully knowledgeable of the purpose of their activities. Contrarily, members of indirect support tier, on the other hand, has no direct knowledge of the purpose of their tasks and are not parties to the terrorist plot. Despite their diversity in motives, sophistication and strength, terrorist organizations share a basic structure as depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Pyramid Structure of a Typical Terrorist Organization

2.6 Terrorist Goals and Targets

The immediate objective of any terrorist attack normally complies with one or more categories. The goals may be either for immediate or long term gain. Terrorists demonstrate group power, demand revenge, obtain logistics support and cause a government to overreact. They are recognised by coercion, intimidation and provocation. Amongst the short term goals that terrorists wish to attain are; 1) to obtain recognition for their cause, 2) to force government reaction, 3) to harass, weaken or embarrass government, military or other security forces, 4) to obtain money or equipment, 5) to disrupt or destroy primary means of mobility or communications, 6) to demonstrate power or threat credibility, 7) to prevent or delay decisions or legislation, 8) to discourage impending foreign investments or foreign government assistance programmes and 9) to free hostages, and lastly to seek vengeance.

The long term goals which terrorists wish to attain over a period of time are; 1) to cause dramatic changes in government such as revolution, civil war or war between nations. 2) to disrupt and discredit an established infrastructure in support of an insurgency. 3) to influence local, national or international policy decision making, and 4) to gain political recognition as the legal body representing an ethnic or national group.

Terrorism is viewed as a method of combat in which there is a distinct differentiation between the victim (the direct object of terrorist violence) and the actual target of the terrorist operation (those who will grant the terrorist wishes). There is no such thing as a random act of terrorism, all terrorist attacks are planned and conducted with a distinct tactical or strategic objective in mind. The terrorist operation should be considered simply a message, an unconventional communication, sent indirectly to the ultimate target of the attack, usually a government, an entire population or some other entity.

Terrorists target selection normally is based on specific desired results. The process starts with defining the desired results, the specific tactical or strategic goal to be attained. The terrorist then identify three sequential targets. First is target of violence, generally referred to as the victim, the persons who are murdered, kidnapped, held hostage or otherwise directly disturbed by the terrorist attack. Secondly, target of attention, usually the general population of the country/countries under attack by terrorists. They are the ones whom the message is sent through the target of violence. Thirdly is target of influence, the ultimate target of the terrorist attack. This is the government or other entity with power to grant the terrorist wishes. As the target of violence is used to influence the target of attention, the latter is used to influence the target of influence.

2.7 Terrorist Tactics

The common strategy of the terrorist is to commit acts of violence. These acts draw the attention of the people, the government and the world to his cause. The media plays a crucial part in this strategy by giving terrorists international recognition. The danger is that this kind of attention tends to incite acts of violence by other terrorist groups. The victim of the terrorist is seldom his target. The target or focal point, more often includes the general public, government or perhaps the business sector. Some common tactics terrorists use are Bombing, Arson, Hijacking, Ambush, Kidnapping, Hostage Taking and Assassination. Whatever tactics the terrorists use, they are simple to apply, dynamic in effect, hit-and-run by nature and designed to strike their objective rather than the victim. Terrorists will always do a thorough reconnaissance and a detailed plan where time is not a factor.

1.3 An Overview of Intelligence

1.3.1 Definition

Intelligence could be simply defined as the information that has been processed, evaluated and interpreted. Intelligence in military term is the product derived from the collation, evaluation and interpretation of all available information which concerns the enemy or potential enemy or area of operations which is significant to military planning and operations. [25] Based on this definition, any information than yet to be process is consider as raw material. There are 2 major step involved in the process that are evaluation and intepretation of the information. The sources of information may come from various collecting means such as Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Signal Intelligence (SIGINT), Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Aside from HUMINT and other means, OSINT appears to be one of the useful collecting discipline in combating terrorism.

1.3.2 Basic Principal of Intelligence

The good intelligence is utmost important for the commander or decission maker in the planning and decission making process. In order to produce sound intelligence, there are basic principal need to be abide by Intelligence jargon. To meet this requirement, intelligence must accuracy, timely, usability, completeness, precision, and reliable. [26] The characteristic of effective intelligence could be explain as follows:

a. Accuracy. Intelligence must provides commanders an accurate, balanced, complete, and objective picture of the enemy or threat and other aspects of the Area of Operation. Effective intelligence should be derived from multiple sources and disciplines.

b. Timeliness. Timely intelligence is crucial to support support operations, and prevent surprise from enemy action. It must dessiminated continuously to the commander before, during, and after an operation. Failure to do so will make intelligence meaningless.

c. Usability. Intelligence is useful when it is presented in a form that is easily understood or displayed in a format that immediately express the meaning to the consumer.

d. Completeness. The products of intelligence must convey all the necessary components to be as complete as possible.

e. Precision. Intelligence product and briefings must offer only the required level of detail and complexity to answer the requirements.

f. Reliability. Intelligence must be evaluated to verify the extent to which the gained information being used in intelligence briefings and products is uncorrupted, trustworthy, and undistorted.

1.3.4 Purpose of Intelligence

The purpose of intelligence in military is to provide commanders and staffs with timely, relevant, accurate, predictive, and tailored intelligence about the enemy or threat and other aspects of the area of operation. In this regard, Intelligence supports the planning, preparing, execution, and assessment of operations. The most important role of intelligence is to drive operations by supporting the commander's decisionmaking.

1.3.5 Intelligence Process

The intelligence process also known as intelligence cycle consists of 4 key steps namely direction/tasking, collection, analysis, dissemination and feedback or review. It is used by all the intelligence community all over the world in producing intelligence. Basically, the intelligence process provides a common model as guidance for intelligence community. The intelligence process generates information, products, and knowledge especially about the 3 main elements; threat, terrain and weather to support the commander and decision Maker in the conduct of operations. Intelligence Cycle is illustrate in Figure 2.

1.3.6 Multiple Intelligence Disciplines

Intelligence is a dynamic process and field of multi-disciplinary. According to US Department of defense, Intelligence Discipline is "a well defined area of intelligence collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting using a specific category of technical or human resources". On this regard, There are seven major disciplines: human intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, open-source intelligence, technical intelligence, and counterintelligence.