Examining The Effectiveness Of Shock Programs Criminology Essay

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   What are boot camps? I answer that question by saying camps that enforce the human qualities of dignity and self-respect that are forces by hard work and accomplishment. Boot camps are several types of low-security confinement facilities, usually in a rual location, that contains adults or juveniles committed after adjudication. 

Boot camps can be governmental as well as private institutions. The first are part of the correctional and penal system of some countries. It is a modeled after military recruit training camps; these programs are based on shock incarceration grounded on military techniques. (Conner 2003)

It wasn't until the late 1980's when our criminal justices system across the county began experiencing a problem with the overcrowding of facilities. This problem forced lawmakers to develop new options for sentencing criminal offenders.  The first Adult Boot camps program began in Georgia in 1983. The first juvenile Boot camps were developed in Orleans Parish, LA in the 1985. Since then 10 States have begun operating juvenile boot camps, which vary in size. 

In the military, boot camp represents an abrupt, often shocking transition to a new way of life. Discipline is strict and there is an emphasis on hard work, physical training, and unquestioning obedience to authority. The new enrollee is told when to sleep, when to get up and when to eat. He marches with his platoon everywhere he goes to                                            

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eat his meals and to training. Orders must be obeyed instantly and personal liberty is almost nonexistent. By the end of boot camp the new enrollee has become a different person. Such was the hope for boot camp, or shock incarceration, programs in America prisons, that young, nonviolent offenders could be diverted from a life out.

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                                                Statement of purpose 

    

      The purpose of this research is to see what exactly what I want to study. Also, if my research is worth studying and does the proposal that I'm studying contribute to our general understanding of crime or policy responses to crime. Do my research has practical significance? My purpose for doing this research is to see the effectiveness of the Boot Camp programs. I feel that the research that I'm studying is worth the study because our society has a lot to lose if the programs that our Federal Government comes up with does not have a meaning for some people. Trying to get the easy way out of real jail time.

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                                                       Questions 

   The questions that I came up with in this research paper will help me and my readers to understand the effectiveness of our Boot Camps system.  How are the enrollees are targeted to come to the program? What are the goals of the program? What is the percentage rate of how many people graduates from the program? What are the mission of the program? What are different Rehabilitate activities do they have on a daily bases. And the over all effectiveness of the program. 

 

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                                   Effectiveness of Shock Programs in Boot Camps

        

        We often miss guide different type of government programs that they feel will help our society at the end. In recent years a lot of prison system has been over crowing. That's why shock programs come into place to help reduce recidivism. Boot Camps comes for the military style of physical training. Everything they do is hard labor type of work. They start there day around 5:00am, and ends around 7:00pm or 8:00pm at night. That's about 16 hours a day they are being discipline trying to construct the young offender get on the right path. The different type of programs that they have doing the day are like education courses, family issues, different type of drug treatment. It has say that over the years the rehabilitative programs has been a big part of the routine that the program does everyday.    The goals of the program 

is Specific Deterrence. The theory behind boot camp is that the "shock" experience of an extremely regimented period of incarceration will produce a strong disincentive for an individual to commit behavior that could lead to a return to prison. Some programs consciously use the proximity of the boot camp to a traditional facility in order to expose the boot camp inmates to the realities of "hard time." Especially controversial has been the toleration or even encouragement of sexual taunting directed at the young boot camp 

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inmates by the men in the traditional facility. The NIJ report (Shock Incarceration) found this taunting to be widespread. Prison administrators, according to the NIJ authors, "had mixed reactions to taunting. Some thought taunting made the threat of sexual assault in the general population more credible to SI shock incarceration inmates than similar warnings issued by staff, and hence contributed to a deterrent effect.

General Deterrence. The punishment aspects boot camp (hard labor, summary punishment for minor infractions, constant exercise, 5 a.m. wake-up) are in some states 

fairly severe, and these are the elements featured by the media. Certainly, news items about boot camp focusing on the shaving of heads and carrying of shovels must have some sort of effect on those watching. At the very least, politicians voice deterrence as a major reason for supporting boot camps. 

        Rehabilitation. Nearly all shock incarceration programs have been promoted politically with the promise that the new form of punishment will rehabilitate the offender, leading to lower recidivism rates. Two sorts of rehabilitation may (or may not) take place in the boot camp: rehabilitation by transference and rehabilitation by treatment. The transference model is perhaps the one more prominently displayed in political rhetoric; simply put, it envisions that the personal discipline and regimented lifestyle imposed in the boot camp will create habits that can be transferred to life on the outside. 

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Self-esteem, self-control, and the ability to cope with stress are some of the habits that one would hope may be transferred.

Rehabilitation by treatment requires therapeutic programs outside of (and in some ways, in tension with) the military regimen. Programs designed to treat substance abuse, improve job skills, and deal with aggressive behavior are distinct from the rest of the boot camp curriculum and are included by all states at least to some small degree. 

Punishment. Promoters of boot camp advertise heavily the punishment value of shock 

incarceration. 

        This goal of sentencing, which is nearly universal, can be served in at least two ways by the boot camp. First, the boot camp provides concrete punishment. The program itself is rigorous, active, and painful, which satisfies to some degree the public's demand for retribution. In contrast, prison itself may seem to punish through boredom and hopelessness. Secondly, boot camp can be used to "widen the net" and inflict an incarcerative punishment on more offenders, as the boot camp term is relatively short. The latter method, however, is to be discouraged, as widening the net will eliminate any cost savings and aggravate what is already in most cases a severe overcrowding of the prison population as a whole Incapacitation. The short period of incarceration in the boot camp programs relegates incapacitation to a second-tier goal. Nonetheless, if post-

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incarcerative community control (such as intensively supervised probation) is combined with the boot camp sentence, then this factor may become significant.

Reduce Overcrowding and Cut Costs. It is not merely coincidence that the surge in boot camp programs has occurred at a time that most prison systems are at or near capacity, with several under Federal court orders to create more space. The political pressure to reduce overcrowding without reducing perceived punishment is high, and boot camp can accomplish this if those assigned to the boot camps are convicts who are diverted from 

longer prison terms. 

      It is sometimes difficult to tell which goals the states have directed their programs towards. The Alabama promotional materials put out by the Department of Corrections indicate a concern for all six of the goals listed above, including that of control. Most authorizing statutes similarly either list multiple goals, or none at all. 

The goal of rehabilitation through a rebuilding of the individual is especially evident in the opinions of state legislators who have been through military training 

          Teen boot camps are modeled after military training camps, and can be either public or private. If a teen commits a crime the judge may order him or her to go to boot instead of jail. Typically teens sent to boot camps follow a structured schedule for about 

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90days. Activities include military drills, exercises and some academic work. (Camps for teens)

Although such programs can be rigorous, many teens say that boot camps helped them turn their lives around. Teens sent to private camps usually do not have criminal records but, the may be using drugs and alcohol, or falling behind in school.

An extremely structured period of incarceration is the erotically. Suppose to engender a strong disincentive for an individual to commit behavior leading to a return to prison. The punishments aspects of boot camps, such as early wake up, constant exercise, quick punishment for minor rules infractions are supposed to have a deterrent effect on the general population. Two types of rehabilitation are supposed to take place in shock incarceration: rehabilitation by transference and rehabilitation by treatment. Hopefully, the structured lifestyle and personal disciplines inculcated in boot camp will create behaviors that are transferable to the outside world. The behaviors include self- control and self-esteem and the ability to cope with  stress. The treatment model encompasses programs designed to deal with aggressive behavior and substance abuse, and improve job skills. (Crime and Delinquency)

       Boot camp provides a structured physically demanding environment which quenches the public's desire for retribution. Even though shock incarceration inmates are incapacitated for relatively short amounts of time, they are still off the street and cannot commit others offenses incapacitation. Most prison system is filled to capacity, and shock incarceration programs can reduce overcrowding by diverting inmates from longer prison 

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terms. 

In 1994 thirty states and the federal government have experimented with boot camps to address an ongoing national problem: too few prison cells and tougher mandatory sentences that will only aggravate overcrowded prisons. In some ways boot camps are a practical solution. Bill Clinton administration officials say they free up spaces by allowing judges to sentence first-time nonviolent offenders to temporary incarceration rather than longer jail stays, and they curb crime by placing offenders in an environment free of career criminals where discipline respect for authority, and hard work are taught. Teammates are able to purchase only basic toiletries and cigarettes from commissary, thus eliminating a significant amount of the hustles that take place in a general population setting. 

         Boot camps enrollees perform landscaping, painting, and other housekeeping responsibilities. During the last two weeks of the program, supervised work crews do community service work in various neighborhoods under the auspices of the environmental Protection Agency and the city's Department of Parks and Recreation and Sanitation. (National Security)

         Shock incarceration is often viewed as a rehabilitation panacea which can provide retribution, deter crime, cut prison costs and overriding, and reduce recidivism through rehabilitation. A New Sate program first created in 1987 claims many successes on a " positive adjustment scale, "measuring recidivism with variables such as steady employment and participation in employment programs, shock incarceration graduates scored 33 percent higher than those incarcerated with the general population, ( according 

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to the New York State Division of Parole)

A positive adjustment scale also compared shock graduates with general population inmates in relation to work, family, and community, and reclamation, Boot camp graduates scored 56 percent higher than the control group in attaining vertical mobility in education, employment, or vocational training. In addition, a 107 percent increase was observed over the control group in participation in self-improvement and therapy programs. Meaningful advantages were also recorded in attaining financial stability (28 Percent) keeping a job for at least six months (24 percent) and supporting family members (10percent). New York State statistics on recidivism showed that one year after graduation from the program only 23 percent of the six platoons analyzed had been recinarcerated, while 28 percent of a 

Comparison group released from traditional incarceration had been incarcerated. 

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