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In the twelfth century Henry II established the basis of the system of criminal justice in England, including the trial and jury systems. For some centuries order was generally maintained through a system of local community based peacekeeping. The responsibility for keeping the peace rested on local householders (Newburn 2007). Historically policing was mainly based on local policing and also it aimed to fortify towns and had a scheme of watchmen to patrol between sunset and sunrise. In the United Kingdom there is a history of watchman type policing.
Traditionally the judicial decisions are primarily based on crime control rather than due process. Also the public had accepted the social role of the police from its inception; consequently societies were prepared to tolerate a high level of government involvement in personal lives (Villiers 2009).
In 1986 the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) came into force (Home Office 2008). New policing only had begun to emerge in the eighteenth century and modern police forces were not introduced until the beginning of the nineteenth century. In the contemporary United Kingdom policing is based on areas such as protecting the United Kingdom from counter terrorist attack, preventing crime and reducing crimes, especially violent and drug related crimes. (Rawlings 2002). Through carrying out these actions police tries to ensure that people are feeling safer in their homes.
Anti-social behaviours can be defined as actions that are likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to people (Fielding 2005). One reason why it is necessary to have laws which control anti social behaviour is to enable communities to live in a peaceful environment. The Crime and Disorders Act 1998 was introduced to achieve this by controlling anti-social behaviour. The act aimed to do this through introducing a new scheme called Anti-social Behaviour Orders (ASBO). ASBOs are civil remedies which aim to deter young people from committing anti-social behaviour offences such as vandalism which is likely to cause distress within a community.(Scraton 2007) This Act was necessary as statistics showed that anti-social behaviour rates were at rise. As result of this scheme it was noted that ASBOs are making a real difference to the life in communities which are blighted by anti-social behaviour.
The general population tends to associate ASB with problems such as graffiti, drugs or rowdiness caused by young people (Reiner 2000). The 1998 act also introduced a new form of community policing. Consequently community network and voluntary agencies are told to form a crime and disorder reduction partnership which is hoped to bring a more integrated approach to dealing with crime and anti-social behaviour. All these procedures were necessary to be placed to make the communities which are effected by anti social behaviour to feel saver within their district.
Using methods which involves forensic science has a large contribution in resolving criminal cases. It is very costly to use these methods as it needs to be properly managed and organised to make an efficient contribution into the case. (Pyre 2007) Therefore to be able to maximise the cost-effective use of forensic science methods, the scheme has been broken down into several categories such as: identification of offenders and suspects, corroboration of persons, elimination of person, intelligence and understanding trends in criminality. This means that when the police need to use a forensic science method in a case they can research under the relevant category.
Another way to maximise the cost-effective use of forensic science is in suicide cases. In these cases the cost-effective use of forensic science would be to quickly screen all the evidence and not to continue the case to further investigation. (Redmayne 2001) On the other hand if the cost of use of the forensic science scheme is aimed to be reduced it can be done by not using DNA on minor cases where DNA is not needed (Stuart & Nordby). A different way to maximise the cost-effective use of forensic science is through using a research agenda. In this research agenda the police should be able to see in what circumstances forensic science can be used most cost-effectively.
The development of forensic DNA techniques in the mid 1980 was followed by constant advancements in both science and technology. The techniques that are used in todayââ‚¬â„¢s forensic science labs are quite different than those used earlier (Goodwin, Linacre, Hadi). They are more sensitive, more rapid, more specific and more reliable. Science is not a static it is constantly changing bringing new improvements and advancements. Science is closely linked to technology and therefore scientific advancement leads to technological benefit. Forensic science is part of a process beginning at a crime scene and concluding in a court room. It does seem likely that fingerprinting and other forensic standbys will continue well into the future and many databases contain DNA profiles for hundreds of thousands of convicted people. In UK the police mainly focused on the need for more quality, better, faster and cheaper forensic science for their investigations. The future use and impact of forensic science in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) there are two areas that come first and must be considered. To focus on possibilities and priorities firstly what will be possible in terms of the future use and development of forensic science and how will forensic science be used. In the laboratory the trend will be toward automation and robotic system that are capable of reducing the labour involved in testing (Lee, Harris 2000). Laboratory automation workstations are already in use in some large forensic laboratories. They have been used primarily for DNA extraction from database samples but it is likely that the same instrumentation will be used to extract DNA from authentic casework specimens. It is likely that in the future crime scene investigators will be able to perform DNA analysis of evidence found at the scene using portable equipment. The analysis will be done rapidly and the determined genetic profiles will be submitted to the states main DNA laboratory via encrypted telecommunications lines to query offender database. (Houck .M (2007)