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Criminal Investigation has evolved enormously over time. The evolution of criminal investigation began in eighteenth-century England, when massive changes were being unleashed. During the eighteenth century two events-an agricultural revolution and an industrial revolution-began a process of change that profoundly affected how police services were delivered and investigations conducted. In 1750, Henry Fielding established a small group of volunteer, non-uniformed homeowners to "take thieves." Known as the "Bow Street Runners," these Londoners hurried to the scenes of reporting crimes and began investigations, thus becoming the first modern detective forces. Then in 1829 due in large measure to the efforts of Sir Robert Peel, Parliament created a metropolitan police for London. Police headquarters became known as "Scotland Yard," because the building formerly had housed Scottish royalty. However the success of Peel's reform in England did not go unnoticed in the United States. A major private detective agency of the nineteenth-century was formed by Allan Pinkerton in 1819-1884. As early as 1845, New York City had 800 plainclothes officers, although not until 1857 were the police authorized to designate 20 patrol officers as detectives. In November 1857, the New York City Police Department set up a rogues' gallery-photographs of known offenders arranged by criminal specialty and height. As the highest court in this country, the Supreme Court is both obligated and well positioned to review cases and to make decisions which often have considerable impact. During 1961 to 1966, a period known as the "due process revolution," the Supreme Court became unusually active in hearing cases involving the rights of criminal suspects and defendants.
In criminal investigations there are three major scientific systems for personal identification of criminals: anthropometry, dactylography, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing. Anthropometry was developed by Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), who is regarded as the father of criminal identification. It is the study of human body measurement for use in anthropological classification and comparison.
Dactylography is the study of fingerprints as a method of identification. Dactylography refers to the impression on a surface of the curves formed by the ridges on a fingertip; especially, such an impression made in ink and used as a means of identification. Dactyloscopy 's technique of comparing fingerprints are typically those found at the setting of a crime and those of a suspect. Due to the uniqueness of the fingers' and hands' papillar lines, it is generally considered a reliable method of identifying a person. Juan Vucetich perfected dactyloscopy in late 19th and early 20th century. In 1903 a fingerprint comparison of two Levenworth Penitentiary prisoners revealed that Will West and William West were two different individuals. This was despite the fact the two inmates had identical appearances and nearly identical Bertillon measurements. This showed the superiority of fingerprints to anthropometry as a system of identification. Then in 1904, New York City Detective Sergeant Joseph Faurot solved several hotel thefts by correctly identifying a suspect who claimed to be James Jones. Fingerprints correctly identified Jones as a thug with many prior convictions by the name of Daniel Nolan. Crime scene fingerprints may be detected by simple powders, or some chemicals applied at the crime scene; or more complex, usually chemical techniques applied in specialist laboratories to appropriate articles removed from the crime scene. With advances in these more sophisticated techniques some of the more advanced crime scene investigation services from around the world are now reporting that 50% or more of the total crime scene fingerprints result from these laboratory based techniques.
DNA is a chemical "blueprint," which determines everything from our hair color to our susceptibility to diseases. Initially, the process of isolating and reading this genetic material was referred to as "DNA fingerprinting," but currently the term DNA typing is used to describe this practice. Forensic scientists can use DNA in blood, semen, skin, saliva or hair found at a crime scene to identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator. This process is called genetic fingerprinting, or more accurately, DNA profiling. In DNA profiling, the lengths of variable sections of repetitive DNA, such as short tandem repeats and minisatellites, are compared between people. This method is usually an extremely reliable technique for identifying a matching DNA.The first use of DNA typing in a criminal case was in 1987 in England. During 1986, a series of rapes and assaults occurred in Orlando, Florida, which set the stage for the first use of DNA typing in the United States. In 1988, the FBI became the first public sector crime laboratory in the United States to accept cases for DNA analysis. Since that time, there has been a substantial increase in the number of crime laboratories providing this type of service. People convicted of certain types of crimes may be also required to provide a sample of DNA for a database. This has helped investigators solve old cases where only a DNA sample was obtained from the scene. DNA profiling can also be used to identify victims of mass casualty incidents.
As a specialty within criminalsitics, firearms identification extends far beyond the comparison of two fired bullets. It includes identification of types of ammunition, knowledge of the design and functioning of firearms, the restoration of obliterated serial numbers on weapons, and estimation of the distance between a gun's muzzle and a victim when the weapon was fired this is known as Ballistics.
People depend on police officers and detectives to protect their lives and property. Law enforcement officers, some of whom are State or Federal special agents or inspectors, perform these duties in a variety of ways, depending on the size and type of their organization. In most jurisdictions, they are expected to exercise authority when necessary, whether on or off duty.
Uniformed police officers have general law enforcement duties, including maintaining regular patrols and responding to calls for service. They may direct traffic at the scene of an accident, investigate a burglary, or give first aid to an accident victim. In large police departments, officers usually are assigned to a specific type of duty. Many urban police agencies are involved in community policing; a practice in which an officer builds relationships with the citizens of local neighborhoods and mobilizes the public to help fight crime.
Police agencies are usually organized into geographic districts, with uniformed officers assigned to patrol a specific area, such as part of the district or outlying residential neighborhoods. Officers may work alone, but, in large agencies, they often patrol with a partner. While on patrol, officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with their patrol area and remain alert for anything unusual. Suspicious circumstances and hazards to public safety are investigated or noted, and officers are dispatched to individual calls for assistance within their district. During their shift, they may identify, pursue, and arrest suspected criminals; resolve problems within the community; and enforce traffic laws. Public college and university police forces, public school district police, and agencies serving transportation systems and facilities are examples of special police agencies. These agencies have special geographic jurisdictions and enforcement responsibilities in the United States. Most sworn personnel in special agencies are uniformed officers; a smaller number are investigators.
Some police officers specialize in such diverse fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint identification. Others work with special units, such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor patrol; canine corps; special weapons and tactics (SWAT); or emergency response teams. A few local and special law enforcement officers primarily perform jail-related duties or work in courts. Regardless of job duties or location, police officers and detectives at all levels must write reports and maintain meticulous records that will be needed if they testify in court.
Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs enforce the law on the county level. Sheriffs are usually elected to their posts and perform duties similar to those of a local or county police chief. Sheriffs' departments tend to be relatively small, most having fewer than 50 sworn officers. Deputy Sheriff's have law enforcement duties similar to those of officers in urban police departments. Police and sheriffs' deputies who provide security in city are sometimes called bailiffs.
State police officers (sometimes called State troopers or highway patrol officers) arrest criminals Statewide and patrol highways to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations. State police officers are best known for issuing traffic citations to motorists. At the scene of accidents, they may direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment. They also write reports used to determine the cause of the accident. State police officers are frequently called upon to render assistance to other law enforcement agencies, especially those in rural areas or small towns. State law enforcement agencies operate in every State except Hawaii. Most full-time sworn personnel are uniformed officers who regularly patrol and respond to calls for service. Others work as investigators, perform court-related duties, or carry out administrative or other assignments.
Detectives are plainclothes investigators who gather facts and collect evidence for criminal cases. Some are assigned to interagency task forces to combat specific types of crime. They conduct interviews, examine records, observe the activities of suspects, and participate in raids or arrests. Detectives and State and Federal agents and inspectors usually specialize in investigating one of a wide variety of violations, such as homicide or fraud. They are assigned cases on a rotating basis and work on them until an arrest and conviction occurs or until the case is dropped.
Fish and game wardens enforce fishing, hunting, and boating laws. They patrol hunting and fishing areas, conduct search and rescue operations, investigate complaints and accidents, and aid in prosecuting court cases. The Federal Government maintains a high profile in many areas of law enforcement. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents are the Government's principal investigators, responsible for investigating violations of more than 200 categories of conducting sensitive national security investigations. Agents may conduct surveillance, monitor court-authorized wiretaps, examine business records, investigate white-collar crime, or participate in sensitive undercover assignments. The FBI investigates organized crime, public corruption, financial crime, fraud against the Government, bribery, copyright infringement, civil rights violations, bank robbery, extortion, kidnapping, air piracy, terrorism, espionage, interstate criminal activity, drug trafficking, and other violations of Federal statutes.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents enforce laws and regulations relating to illegal drugs. Not only is the DEA the lead agency for domestic enforcement of Federal drug laws, it also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing U.S. drug investigations abroad. Agents may conduct complex criminal investigations, carry out surveillance of criminals, and infiltrate illicit drug organizations using undercover techniques.
U.S. marshals and deputy marshals protect the Federal courts and ensure the effective operation of the judicial system. They provide protection for the Federal judiciary, transport Federal prisoners, protect Federal witnesses, and seizures from criminal enterprises. They enjoy the widest jurisdiction of any Federal law enforcement agency and are involved to some degree in nearly all Federal law enforcement efforts. In addition, U.S. marshals pursue and arrest Federal fugitives. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives agents regulate and investigate violations of Federal firearms and explosives laws, as well as Federal alcohol and tobacco tax regulations.
The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security special agents are engaged in the battle against terrorism. Overseas, they advise ambassadors on all security matters and manage a complex range of security programs designed to protect personnel, facilities, and information. In the United States, they investigate passport and visa fraud, conduct personnel security investigations, issue security clearances, and protect the Secretary of State and a number of foreign dignitaries. They also train foreign civilian police and administer a counter-terrorism reward program.
The Department of Homeland Security employs numerous law enforcement officers under several different agencies, including Customs and Border Protection, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and the U.S. Secret Service. U.S. Border Patrol agents protect more than 8,000 miles of international land and water boundaries. Their missions are to detect and prevent the smuggling and unlawful entry of undocumented foreign nationals into the United States; to apprehend those persons violating threatened to interdict contraband, such as narcotics.
Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking entrance to the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter the United States. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States.
Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports by inspecting cargo, baggage, and articles worn or carried by people, vessels, vehicles, trains, and aircraft entering or leaving the United States. These inspectors examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States. Customs inspectors seize prohibited or smuggled articles; intercept contraband; and apprehend, search, detain, and arrest violators of U.S. laws. Customs agents investigate violations, such as narcotics smuggling, money laundering, child pornography, and customs fraud, and they enforce the Arms Export Control Act. During domestic and foreign investigations, they develop and use informants; conduct physical and electronic surveillance; and examine records from importers and exporters, banks, couriers, and manufacturers. They conduct interviews, serve on joint task forces with other agencies, and get and execute Federal Air Marshals provide air security by fighting attacks targeting U.S. airports, passengers, and crews. They disguise themselves as ordinary passengers and board flights of U.S. air carriers to locations worldwide.
U.S. Secret Service special agents protect the President, Vice President, and their immediate families; Presidential candidates; former Presidents; and foreign dignitaries visiting the United States. Secret Service agents also investigate counterfeiting, forgery of Government checks or bonds, and fraudulent use of credit cards. Other Federal agencies employ police and special agents with sworn arrest powers and the authority to carry firearms. These agencies include the Postal Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement, the Forest Service, and the National Park Service.
Police and detective work can be very dangerous and stressful. In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals, police officers and detectives need to be constantly alert and ready to deal appropriately with a number of other threatening situations. Many law enforcement officers witness death and suffering resulting from accidents and criminal behavior. A career in law enforcement may take a toll on their private lives. The jobs of some Federal agents such as U.S. Secret Service and DEA special agents require extensive travel, often on very short notice. They may relocate a number of times over the course of their careers. Some special agents in agencies such as the U.S. Border Patrol work outdoors in rugged terrain for long periods and in all kinds of weather.
Uniformed officers, detectives, agents, and inspectors are usually scheduled to work 40-hour weeks, but paid overtime is common. Shift work is necessary because protection must be provided around the clock. Junior officers frequently work weekends, holidays, and nights. Police officers and detectives are required to work whenever they are needed and may work long hours during investigations. Officers in most jurisdictions, whether on or off duty, are expected to be armed and to exercise their authority when necessary.