Examining Social Work In The Criminal Justice Criminology Essay

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This module will address the role of social work in the criminal justice context. This context includes a range of agencies working with adults and young persons who are involved in offending and agencies who work with the victims of crime.

Social Work within the criminal justice context can therefore involve direct work with people who have offended, for example working as a Probation Officer or working in a voluntary sector organisation that provide services to people involved in the criminal justice system. It also involves working with children and families who may be involved in the criminal justice system or affected by crime.

The module will cover the context and settings of social work in the criminal justice system, the principles, methods and interventions of working with offending behaviour; assessment in criminal justice contexts; the impact of crime and working with children and young people in the criminal justice system. A commitment to anti-oppressive practice underpins the module and students will be encouraged to critically think and evaluate their own practice and perspectives.

The module runs in Semester One and consists of lectures which take place on Tuesdays from 22/09/09 to 27/10/09. Lectures will be held from 10am to 1pm every Tuesday and on alternate weeks there will also be lectures from 2pm to 4pm in the afternoon. Tutorials will take place on alternate Fridays, beginning on 25/09/09. Students will be divided into tutorial groups and tutorials will run from 12-1pm and 1pm to 2pm on alternate Fridays. Students will be notified of their assigned tutor group in due course.

Students will be assessed for via a written assignment which is due for submission on:

Monday 2nd November at 4pm.

Module Aims

Students will understand the social work role within a criminal Justice context, and develop their understanding of the knowledge, skill and value base pertinent to the area of practice.

Learning Outcomes

Students will understand policy and legislation that informs the social work role in this context.

Students will learn the theoretical perspectives informing social work intervention in a criminal justice context.

Students will explore the research and methods that inform social work intervention in the criminal justice context.

Students will develop skills in the critical examination of theory and its application to practice.

Students will understand their own value base in relation to this area and have considered ethical issues in relation to practice.

Week 1 - Introduction to Social Work and Criminal Justice - history, context and settings

Date: 22/09/09

Lecture: 10 - 1pm - Nicola Carr

Tutorial - 25/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2) - Nicola Carr and Alan Harpur

Week 2 - Working with offending behaviour- Principles, Methods and Interventions

Date: 29/09/09

Lecture: 10am -1pm - Nicola Carr

Lecture: 2pm -4pm - Nicola Carr

Week 3 - Assessment in criminal justice contexts

Date: 06/10/09

Lecture: 10am - 1pm - Nicola Carr

Tutorial: 09/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2) - Nicola Carr and Alan Harpur

Week 4 - The impact of offending - working with victims of crime and Restorative Justice approaches

Date: 13/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm - Nicola Carr

Lecture: 2pm to 4pm (Victim Panel - Susan Reid, Victim Support, Northern Ireland and Christine Hunter, PBNI Victims Unit)

Week 5 - Public Protection, Prisons and Resettlement

Date: 20/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm (PPNAI, Willie McAuley; John Warren, Extern)

Tutorial: 23/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2)

Week 6: Working with young people in the criminal justice system - balancing welfare and justice?

Date: 27/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm - Nicola Carr

Lecture: 2pm to 4pm (Kelvin Doherty, Youth Justice Agency)

Course Reading

Essential Text

McIvor G. & Raynor P. (Eds) (2007) Developments in Social Work with Offenders, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London

Electronic Resource Number: M0085926QU

Main: HV9278/MACI

Recommended Texts

A further extensive list of recommended reading is provided for each week of the course based on subject area.

Assessment

Assessment of this module is through a written assignment which is due for submission:

Monday 2nd November by 4pm.

You are required to submit one printed copy to Reception in 6 College Park and one electronic copy via 'My Modules' on Queen's Online before 4.00pm on Tues 5th Jan. Please refer to the following link on the School's web site for submission procedures http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofSociologySocialPolicySocialWork/ImportantNotice/#d.en.93464

Students must answer one of the essay questions below and the word count for this assignment is: 2500 Words +/- 10%

Essay Questions

Restorative Justice aims to address the consequences of offending for victims and offenders and communities in a meaningful way. Critically evaluate this statement with reference to practice in the Northern Ireland criminal justice system.

Young people who are involved in offending should be treated as 'children first'. Discuss this statement with reference to policy and practice in working with young people in the criminal justice system.

The history of probation is one of an increased emphasis on public protection. Discuss this statement with reference to probation practice in Northern Ireland.

Assessment of the risk of re-offending and risk of harm should guide the nature of intervention with offenders. Critically evaluate this statement with reference to theory, policy and practice.

GUIDELINES

This assignment should be based on learning from your lectures, workshops and guided study / reading .You are encouraged to start researching and preparing at an early stage as the submission date is A discussion forum will also be established on queens on-line in order to assist you to share ideas with tutors and other students and to seek to share resources for the assignment.

REFERENCING

Your assignment must be supported with references from relevant readings and you must follow the referencing guidelines relating to books, journals and web based material provided in your course handbook. You are encouraged to read widely in preparing for your assignment, drawing on material from your reading list as well as other relevant material. You should also look at the general assessment guidelines in your assessment handbook for more general assignment writing skills.

Essay guidance

The best way to structure the answer to a question is to begin with a very brief analysis of what you interpret the question as being about, and then a road-map of how you propose to answer it. This focuses your mind on organising a clear, coherent structure for your answer. Be very careful to indicate as much as possible of what empirical or other evidence there is to support your points.

It is not necessary to come to a definite conclusion on the question: uncertainty having weighed the arguments and evidence is almost always an acceptable position. What is essential, however, is that you have given sufficient weight to arguments contrary to your own, with reasons to back up your rejection. Frequently questions require you to present and assess a number of viewpoints, indicated by such instructions as 'discuss', 'assess', 'how far is the case that…' etc. But it is always essential to consider what alternative interpretations to your own argument there might be.

Source: Oxford University Press (Online Resource Centre)

Requirements for the Award of 10 Credit Points

In order to be awarded 10 credit points towards the completion of the Bachelor's Degree in Social Work students must:

Complete and submit a written assignment and gain a mark of at least 40%.

Attend at least 80% of all lectures; and

Attend at least 80% of all workshops.

Students who fail to attend for the required number of lectures and tutorials, or who miss particularly crucial elements of the module, may be required to undertake additional work in order to be awarded credit points.

LATE SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK

The University's rule is that for work submitted after the deadline, 5 percentage points per working day are deducted from the received mark up to a maximum of five days. Thereafter, the work receives zero.

Extensions to essay deadlines are covered by a formal University procedure and may be granted on grounds of ill health or personal circumstances. You need to submit a completed Exemption from Late Coursework Marks Penalty Form (available from the Office, 6 College Park and on the School's Website www.qub.ac.uk/soc ) within three days of the essay deadline. The form should be accompanied by a medical certificate (NOT self-certification) and/or other written supporting evidence and should be taken to the module convenor, preferably during his/her office hours, who decides whether or not to agree to an extension.

Lecture Outlines

Week 1 - Introduction to Social Work and Criminal Justice - history, context and settings

Date: 22/09/09

Lecture: 10 - 1pm

This lecture will provide an introduction to the module by outlining the role of social work in the criminal justice context. The first lecture will cover the history of social work within the criminal justice context and will explore theoretical perspectives on the intersection of social work and the criminal justice system. Particular consideration will be given to the role of the social worker within the parameters of the 'care' or 'control' debate. Some of the key phases of social work intervention in the criminal justice system will be explored ranging from original social work role as a 'court missionary' through to the current drive towards interventions based on the assessment of risk and 'evidence based practice'.

Tutorial - 25/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2)

Following from the introductory lecture, this tutorial will focus on some of the key paradigm shifts that have influenced the role of social work within the criminal justice context. Students will be encouraged to critically explore the role of social work within this setting.

Key Reading - Social Work in the Criminal Justice System - History, Context and Settings

Audit Commission (1989) Promoting Value for Money in the Probation Service, London: HMSO

Brownlee, I. (1998) Community Punishment. A Critical Introduction. Essex: Longman Criminology Series

Burnett, R. & Roberts, C. (Ed.) (2004) What Works in Probation and Youth Justice Cullompton: Willan

Chapman, T. and Hough, M. (1998) Evidence Based Practice, London: HMIP

Farrant, F. (2006) 'Knowledge production and the punishment ethic: The demise of the probation service.' Probation Journal, 53,4: 317-333

Fulton, B. & Parkhill, T. (2009) Making the Difference: an oral history of probation in Northern Ireland. Belfast: PBNI. Available at: http://www.pbni.org.uk/archive/Publications/Other%20Publications/pbni%2025th%20book.pdf

Gorman, K. (2001) 'Cognitive behaviourism and the search for the Holy Grail: The quest for a universal means of managing offender risk.' Probation Journal, 48, 3: 3-9

Kemshall, H. (2002) 'Effective practice in probation: An example of 'Advanced Liberal' responsibilisation?' Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 41,1: 41-58

Lindsay, T. & Quinn, K. (2001) 'Fair Play' in Northern Ireland: Towards Anti-Sectarian Practice. Probation Journal, 42, 2: 102-109

McKnight, J. (2009) 'Speaking up for Probation' Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48,4: 327-343

Mair, G. (Ed.) (2004) What Matters in Probation Cullompton: Willan

Merrington, S. and Stanley, S. (2000) 'Reflections: doubts about the what works initiative', Probation Journal, 47, 4: 272-275

Robinson, G. & Raynor, P. (2006) 'The future of rehabilitation: What role for the probation service?' Probation Journal, 53,4: 334-346

Vanstone, M. (2004) 'Mission control: The origins of a humanitarian service.' Probation Journal, 51, 1: 34-47

Week 2 - Working with offending behaviour- Principles, Methods and Interventions

Date: 29/09/09

Lecture: 10am -1pm - Nicola Carr

Lecture: 2pm -4pm - Nicola Carr

These lectures will focus on the development and use of community penalties. Students will learn about the development of the 'what works' initiative and the drive towards effective, evidence-based practice. Key issues such as risk management and public protection will be explored and students will be encouraged to critically evaluate these developments.

Key developments in working with offenders will be outlined including some of the most recent methods of intervention based on research evidence.

Key Reading - Working with offending behaviour- Principles, Methods and Interventions

Andrews, D., Bonta, J. and Hoge, R. (1990a) 'Classification for effective rehabilitation', Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 17 ,1: 19-52.

Andrews, D. et al. (1990b) 'Does correctional treatment work?' Criminology, 28, 369-404

Ansbro, M. (2008) 'Using attachment theory with offenders.' Probation Journal, 55,3: 231-244

Bailie, R. (2006) 'Women Offenders: The Development of a Policy and Strategy for Implementation by the Probation Board for Northern Ireland' Irish Probation Journal, 3, 1:97-110

Batchelor, S. (2004) 'Prove me the bam!' Victimization and agency in the lives of young women who commit violent offences.' Probation Journal, 52, 4: 358-375

Bhui, H.S. & Buchanan, J. (2004) 'What Works?' and complex individuality.' Probation Journal, 51,3: 195-196

Bottoms, A. and Williams, W. (1979) 'A non-treatment paradigm for probation practice' British Journal of Social Work, 9,2: 160-201

Burnett R & Roberts C (2004) What Works in Probation and Youth Justice, Developing Evidence Based Practice. Cullompton: Willan

Burnett, R. & McNeill, F. (2005) 'The place of the officer-offender relationship in assisting offenders to desist from crime.' Probation Journal, 52,3: 221-242

Bushway, S.D.; Thornberry, T.P. & Krohn, M.D. (2003) 'Desistance as a developmental process: A comparison of static and dynamic approaches.' Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19, 2: 129-153

Cherry, S. (2005) Transforming Behaviour: Pro-social Modelling in Practice. Cullompton: Willan

Dixon, L. & Ray, L. (2007) 'Current issues and developments in race hate crime' Probation Journal, 54,2: 109-124

Farrall, S. & Bowling, B. (1999) 'Structuration, human development and desistance from crime.' British Journal of Criminology 17, 2: 255-267

Farrall, S. (2002) Rethinking What Works with Offenders: Probation, Social Context and Desistance from Crime. Cullompton: Willan

Healy, D. & O'Donnell, I. (2008) 'Calling time on crime: Motivation, generativity and agency in Irish Probationers.' Probation Journal, 55,1: 25-38

Jordan, R. & O'Hare, G. (2007) ' The Probation Board for Northern Ireland's Cognitive Self-Change Programme: An overview of the pilot programme in the community.' Irish Probation Journal, 4,1: 125-136

Loughran, H. (2006) 'A place for Motivational Interviewing in Probation?' Irish Probation Journal, 3,1: 17-29

Martinson, R. (1974) 'What works? Questions and answers about prison reform', The Public Interest, 10, 22-54

McCulloch, P. (2005) 'Probation, social context and desistance: retracing the relationship.' Probation Journal, 52,1: 8-22

McGuire, J. & Priestly, P. (1995) 'Reviewing "what works": Past, present and future.' In J. McGuire (Ed.) What Works in Reducing Re-offending. Sussex: Wiley

McNeill, F. (2001) 'Developing effectiveness: Frontline Perspectives', Social Work Education, 20,6: 671-678

McNeill, F. (2006) 'A desistance paradigm for offender management' Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6, 1: 39-62

McWilliams, W. (1987) 'Probation, pragmatism and policy', Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 26,2:97-121

Maruna, S. (2001) Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild their Lives. Washington D.C. : American Psychological Association

Maruna, S.; Immarigeon, R. & LeBel, T.P. (2004) 'Ex-offender Reintegration: Theory and Practice' In: S. Maruna and R. Immarigeon (eds.) After Crime and Punishment: Pathways to Offender Integration, Cullompton: Willan

Miller, W. & Rollnick, S. (2006) Motivational Interviewing, Gilford Press, New York

Raynor, P. & Vanstone, M. (1994) 'Probation practice, effectiveness and the non-treatment paradigm', British Journal of Social Work, 24,4: 387-404

Rex, S. (1999) 'Desistance from offending: Experiences of probation', Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 4: 366-383

Rex, S. & Bottoms, A. (2003) 'Evaluating the evaluators: Researching the accreditation of offender programmes.' Probation Journal, 50,4: 359-368

Smith, D. (2004) 'The uses and abuses of positivism', in G. Mair (Ed.) What Matters in Probation, Cullompton: Willan

Vanstone, M. (2000) 'Cognitive-behavioural work with offenders in the UK: a history of an influential endeavour', Howard Journal, 39,2: 171-183

Week 3 - Assessment in criminal justice contexts

Date: 06/10/09

Lecture: 10am - 1pm - Nicola Carr

Assessing the risk of re-offending and the risk of harm is one of the core tasks of the social worker within the criminal justice system .This lecture will cover the background of assessment and some of the factors that impact on assessment. Particular attention will be paid to research evidence concerning, dynamic and static risk factors in relation to offending. In addition, attention will be paid to protective factors and research relating to desistance from crime. An overview will be provided of a range of risk assessment tools currently in use within the criminal justice system.

Tutorial: 09/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2) - Nicola Carr and Alan Harpur

This tutorial will be in a workshop format and will focus on the use of risk assessment tools in relation to the assessment of the risk re-offending and risk of harm with the aim of planning interventions to address these areas.

Assessment in criminal justice contexts

Aye-Maung, N. & Hammond, N. (2000) 'Risk of re-offending and Needs Assessments: The User's Perspective. (Home Office Research Study 216). London: Home Office

Best, P. (2007) ' The Assessment, Case Management and Evaluation System (ACE) in Northern Ireland.' Irish Probation Journal, 4,1: 101-107

Kemshall, H. (1998) Risk in Probation Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate

Kemshall, H. (2003) Understanding Risk in Criminal Justice. Berkshire: Open University Press

Kemshall, H. (2008) Understanding the Management of High Risk Offenders. Berkshire: Open University Press

Merrington, S. & Skinns, J. (2002) 'Using ACE to Profile Criminogenic Needs', Probation Studies Unit ACE Practitioner Bulletin No. 1, University of Oxford. Available at: http://www.crim.ox.ac.uk/publications/psubull1.pdf

O'Dwyer, G. (2008) 'A Risk Assessment and Risk Management Approach to Sexual Offending for the Probation Service.' Irish Probation Journal, Vol. 5: 84-91

Robinson, G. (2002) 'Exploring risk management in probation practice: contemporary developments in England and Wales.' Punishment and Society, 4, 1: 5-25

Robinson, G. (2003) 'Implementing OASys: lessons from research into LSI-R and ACE' Probation Journal, 50, 1:30-40

Week 4 - The impact of offending - working with victims of crime and Restorative Justice approaches

Date: 13/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm - Nicola Carr

This lecture will address issues concerning the impact of crime, and will explore issues relating to victims of crime. The concept of the 'victim' of crime will be critically assessed with reference to a range of literature, and the victim's role within the criminal justice system will be explored. The role of the Social Worker in working with victims of crime will also be analysed.

The principles and practices of restorative justice approaches will be examined and explored specifically in relation to the Northern Ireland context.

Lecture: 2pm to 4pm (Victim Panel - Susan Reid, Victim Support, Northern Ireland and Christine Hunter, PBNI Victims Unit)

The afternoon lecture will involve a panel presentation from representatives from two agencies working with victims of crime. The presenters will focus on particular issues and themes relating to their work and students will have an opportunity to discuss the issues raised.

Victims and the Impact of Crime

Hoyle, C. & Zedner, L. (2007) 'Victims, victimization and the criminal justice system.' In M. Maguire; R. Morgan & R. Reiner (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Fourth Edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hunter, C. (2005) 'The View of Victims of Crime on How the Probation Board for Northern Ireland Victim Information Scheme Might Operate' Irish Probation Journal, 2,1: 43-47

Norton, S. (2007) 'The place of victims in the Criminal Justice System.' Irish Probation Journal, 4,1: 63-76

Williams, B. (2009) 'Victims' In: C. Hale; K, Hayward; A. Wahidin & E. Wincup (Eds.) Criminology (Second Edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press

Restorative Justice

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, Shame and Reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell C, Devlin R, O'Mahony D, Doak J (2005) Evaluation of the Northern Ireland Youth conferencing Service NIO Research and Statistical Series: Report No 12

Daly, K. (2002) 'Restorative Justice: The real story' Punishment and Society, 4,1: 55-79

Daly, K. & Stubbs, J. (2006) 'Feminist engagement with restorative justice.' Theoretical Criminology, 10, 1: 9-28

Gelsthorpe, L. & Morris, A. (2002) 'Restorative youth justice. The last vestiges of welfare?' In: J. Muncie; G. Hughes & E. McLaughlin (Eds.) Youth Justice Critical Readings. London: Sage

Gray, P. (2005) 'The politics of risk and young offenders' experiences of social exclusion and restorative justice.' British Journal of Criminology, 45,6: 938-957

Hamill, H. (2002) 'Victims of paramilitary Punishment Attacks in Belfast.' In C. Hoyle & R. Young (Eds.) New Visions of Crime Victims, 49-70., Oxford: Hart

Hoyle, C. (2002) 'Securing restorative justice for the "Non-Participating" Victim'. In: In C. Hoyle & R. Young (Eds.) New Visions of Crime Victims, 97-132., Oxford: Hart

McEvoy, K. & Mika, H. (2002) ' Restorative Justice and the critique of informalism in Northern Ireland.' British Journal of Criminology, 42, 3: 534-562

McLaughlin, E.; Fergusson, R.; Hughes, G. & Westmarland, L. Restorative Justice: Critical Issues  London, Sage

Marshall, T. (1999) Restorative Justice: An Overview. London: Home Office. Available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/occ-resjus.pdf

Morris, A. (2002) 'Critiquing the critics: A brief response to critics of restorative justice.' British Journal of Criminology, 42,3: 596-615

O'Mahony, D. & Doak, J. 'Restorative Justice- Is More Better? The Experience of Police-led Restorative Justice in Northern Ireland' The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 43, no. 5

Shapland, J.; Atkinson, A.; Atkinson, H.; Dignan, J.; Edwards, L; Hibbert, J. Howes, M.; Johnstone, J.; Robinson, G. & Sorsby, A. (2008) Does restorative justice affect reconviction? The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes. London: Ministry of Justice. Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf

Zehr H & Towes B (EDS) - Critical Issues in Restorative Justice, Willan Publishing

Week 5 - Public Protection, Prisons and Resettlement

Date: 20/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm (Nicola Carr and Willie McAuley, PPNAI)

Public protection has formed an important part of the work of criminal justice agencies in recent years. This lecture explores the 'public protection' discourse, and its practical implications in relation to new 'public protection' arrangements.

The second part of this lecture will focus on the role of social work in relation to prisoners and their families and the role of resettlement.

Tutorial: 23/09/09 (Group 1 (12-1) / Group 2 (1-2)

This tutorial will follow from this week's lecture and address issues in relation to prisoners, the effects of imprisonment and resettlement.

Public Protection, Prisons and Resettlement

Burnett, R. & Maruna, S. (2006) 'The kindness of prisoners: Strengths-based resettlement in theory and action.' Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6, 1: 83-106

Corcoran, M. (2007) 'Normalisation and its discontents: Constructing the 'irreconcilable' female political prisoner in Northern Ireland.' British Journal of Criminology, 47,3: 405-422

Her Majesty's Inspectorates of Prison and Probation (2001) Through the Prison Gate: A Joint Thematic Review. London: Home Office. Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/inspectorates/hmi-prisons/docs/prison-gate-rps.pdf

Kemshall, H. (1996) Reviewing Risk: A review of the research on the assessment and management of risk and dangerousness: Implications for policy and practice in the Probation Service. London: Home Office

Kemshall, H. & Maguire, M. (2001) 'Public Protection, partnership and risk penality: The Multi-Agency risk management of sexual and violent offenders.' Punishment and Society, 3,2: 237-264

Lewis, S.; Vennard, J.; Maguire, M.; Raynor, P.; Vanstone, M.; Raybould, S. & Rix, A. (2003) The Resettlement of short-term prisoners: an evaluation of seven pathfinders. London: Home Office. Available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/occ83pathfinders.pdf

McEvoy, K.; Shirlow, P. & McElrath, K. (2004) 'Resistance, transition and exclusion: Politically motivated ex-prisoners and conflict transformation in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16, 3: 646-670

Maguire, M. & Raynor, P. (2006) 'How the resettlement of prisoners promotes desistance from crime: Or does it?' Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6, 1:19-38

Maruna, S. & Liebling, A. (2004) The Effects of Imprisonment. Cullompton: Willan

Matthews, R. (2009) 'Prisons' in C. Hale; K, Hayward; A. Wahidin & E. Wincup (Eds.) Criminology (Second Edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press

Public Protection Arrangements Northern Ireland (PPANI) Guidance to Agencies. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office. Available at: http://www.publicprotectionni.com/

Scraton, P. & Moore, L. (2004) The Hurt Inside. The Imprisonment of women and girls in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission. Available at: http://www.statewatch.org/news/2004/oct/the-hurt-inside-nihrc.pdf

Scraton, P. & Moore, L. (2005) 'Degradation, harm and survival in a women's prison.' Social Policy and Society, 5, 1: 67-7

Wahidin, A. (2009) 'Ageing' in prison: crime and the criminal justice system.' In: C. Hale; K, Hayward; A. Wahidin & E. Wincup (Eds.) Criminology (Second Edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Week 6: Working with young people in the criminal justice system - balancing welfare and justice?

Date: 27/10/09

Lecture: 10am to 1pm - Nicola Carr

Working with young people who are involved in the criminal justice system involves addressing the context of offending and the welfare needs of the young person. This lecture will cover the theories and practices that inform this work, with reference to research literature and the current system and policy context in Northern Ireland.

Lecture: 2pm to 4pm (Kelvin Doherty, Youth Justice Agency)

The afternoon lecture will be delivered by Kelvin Doherty, from the Youth Justice Agency, who will provide an overview of the youth conferencing service in Northern Ireland. The lecture will focus on the aims, rationale and operation of youth conferences through an interactive session.

Working with Young People in the Criminal Justice System

Campbell, C.; Devlin, R.; O'Mahony, D.; Doak, J.; Jackson, J.; Corrigan, T. & McEvoy, K. (2006) Evaluation of the Northern Ireland Youth Conference Service. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office. Available: http://www.nio.gov.uk/evaluation_of_the_northern_ireland_youth_conference_service.pdf

Ellison, G. (2001) Young People, Crime, Policing and Victimisation in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Queen's University. Available at: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/police/ellison00.htm

Graham, J. & Bowling, B. (1995) Young People and Crime (Home Office Research Study No. 145), London: Home Office

Hamilton, J.; Radford, K. & Jarman, N. (2003) Policing, Accountability and Young People. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research. Available at: http://www.conflictresearch.org.uk/documents/policeyp.pdf

Include Youth (2008) A Manifesto for Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Include Youth. Available at: http://www.includeyouth.org/fs/doc/Include-Youth-Manifesto-2008.pdf

Leonard, M. (2004) Children in Interface Areas: Reflections from North Belfast. Belfast: Save the Children

Muncie, J. (2004) Youth and Crime (Second Edition) London: Sage

NICCY (2008) Children in Conflict with the Law and the Administration of Juvenile Justice. Belfast: NICCY. Available at: http://www.niccy.org/uploaded_docs/1_71784_NIC71784%20Childrens%20Rights%20Text%208.pdf

O'Mahony, D. & Deazley, R. (2000) Juvenile Crime and Youth Justice, Review of the Criminal Justice System for Northern Ireland. Research Report No. 17. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office

O'Mahony, D. & Campbell, C. (2006) 'Mainstreaming restorative justice for young offenders through youth conferencing: The experience of Northern Ireland.' In: J. Junger-Tas & S.H. Decker (Eds.) 93-116, International Handbook of Juvenile Justice.

Quinn, K. & Jackson, J. (2003) The Detention and Questioning of Young People by the Police in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office. Available at: http://www.nio.gov.uk/detention_and_questioning_of_young_persons_by_the_police_in_northern_ireland_part1.pdf

Scraton, P. (2007) 'Children young people and conflict in Northern Ireland.' In: P. Scraton Power, Conflict and Criminalisation. London: Routledge

Smyth, M. with Fay, M.T.; Brough, E. & Hamilton, J. (2004) The Impact of Political Conflict on Children in Northern Ireland. Belfast: ICR. Available at: http://www.conflictresearch.org.uk/documents/CCICReport.pdf

Whyte, B. (2009) Youth Justice in Practice. Making a Difference. Bristol: Policy Press

Useful Websites

Extern - Is a voluntary sector organisation that provides services to offenders. The website provides detail on the background and work of the organisation. http://www.extern.org

Howard League - The Howard League is a penal reform organisation. Its website contains information in relation to the penal system in England and Wales, news of developments within the penal system and policy and research documents. http://www.howardleague.org/

Include Youth - an independent organisation that actively promotes the rights, best interests of and best practice with young people in need or at risk. This website includes reports on young people's experiences of the criminal justice system: http://www.includeyouth.org/about-us/

Institute for Conflict Research - The Institute for Conflict Research is an independent research organisation, which specialises in working on issues related to conflict, human rights, social transformation and social justice. The organisation's website contains a range of publications of relevance to the criminal justice context. http://www.conflictresearch.org.uk/cms/

NIACRO - is a voluntary organisation that works with people who offend. It offers employment and training services and also works with prisoners and their families. The organisation's website contains a range of information on the services they provide and it also includes a number of publications. http://www.niacro.co.uk/

NICCY- Northern Ireland Commissioner for Children and Young People. This website includes research reports on issues concerning children and young people. It has a range of research reports and policy documents relating to young people and the juvenile justice system. http://www.niccy.org/

Northern Ireland Office - The Northern Ireland Office (NIO) was established in 1972 following the dissolution of the Northern Ireland government. Its current role is to support the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland 'in securing a lasting peace'. 'The NIO currently has responsibility for Northern Ireland's constitutional and security issues, in particular, law and order, political affairs, policing and criminal justice. The website of the NIO contains all the recent criminal justice legislation, policy documents and guidance. http://www.nio.gov.uk/

Northern Ireland Prison Service - The Northern Ireland Prison Service's website provides overview information on the prison estate in Northern Ireland. It contains a range of statistical information on the prison population. It also contains policy documents relating to the operation of the prison service. http://www.niprisonservice.gov.uk/index.cfm

PBNI - The Probation Board of Northern Ireland's website provides detail on the structure of the probation service in Northern Ireland and the range of interventions and work undertaken by the Probation Service. The website also contains all of the back issues of the Irish Probation Journal in a downloadable format. http://www.pbni.org.uk/site/Home.aspx?x=eTyoYPm5488=

Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland - The ombudsman investigates and deals with complaints relating to the police and policing in Northern Ireland. The website provides information on the role of the Ombudsman and statistics and information in relation to complaints. http://www.policeombudsman.org/index.cfm

PSNI - The website of the Police Service of Northern Ireland provides an overview of the service and provides a range of information including policy documents relating to policing in Northern Ireland. http://www.psni.police.uk/

Prison Reform Trust - The prison reform trust contains a wide range of up to date information on the prison system in the United Kingdom, including detail on daily prison numbers and areas of concern regarding imprisonment.

http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/

Public Protection Northern Ireland - This website provides detail on the public protection arrangements in place in Northern Ireland following the introduction of the Criminal Justice (NI) Order 2008. http://www.publicprotectionni.com/

Youth Justice Agency - The stated aims of the Youth Justice Agency of NI is to prevent offending by children. In doing so, it delivers a range of services, often in partnership with others, to help children address their offending behaviour, divert them from crime, assist their integration into the community, and to meet the needs of victims of crime. The agency's website provides a useful guide of the range of sanctions available for young people involved in offending and provides detail on the restorative justice model. http://www.youthjusticeagencyni.gov.uk/

Youth Justice Board - The Youth Justice Board oversees the youth justice system in England and Wales. Its website contains a range of research reports and policy documents that provide useful information on working with young people in the criminal justice system.

http://www.yjb.gov.uk/en-gb/

Key Legislation and Reports

Criminal Justice (NI) Order 1996

Criminal Justice (Children) (NI) Order 1998

Justice (Northern Ireland) Act, 2002

Justice (Northern Ireland) Act, 2004

Anti-Social Behaviour (Northern Ireland) Act 2004

Criminal Justice (NI) Order 2008

'The Patten Report' - Patten, C. (1999) A New Beginning: Policing and Northern Ireland. The Report of the Independent Commission on Northern Ireland. London: HMSO

Available at: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/police/patten/patten99.pdf

Review of the Criminal Justice System in Northern Ireland (2000) Belfast: The Stationery Office. Available at: http://www.nio.gov.uk/review_of_the_criminal_justice_system_in_northern_ireland.pdf

Public Protection Arrangements Northern Ireland (PPANI) Guidance to Agencies. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office. Available at: http://www.publicprotectionni.com/

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