Examining Re Offenders And The Importance Offences Criminology Essay

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From our first assignment we know that Bob was a worker at a school where he was responsible for the cleaning and maintenance. He had managed to win the confidence of his employer such that he was able to sneak out to the nearby neighbors when he was very sure that everybody had noticed his presence at work and could then sneak out into the neighborhood when he was sure that nobody could see him -whereupon he would steal whatever electronic devices he could find. He would also have some explanations ready if anyone happened to notice his absence from the school. By doing this he ensured that there was no evidence to implicate him in the event of any report from house owners. He was very smart in that he made sure that none of the properties bore his finger prints and furthermore he sold the stolen items to his brother-in-law. Therefore in order to able to prevent him from committing further crimes, it is important to do a thorough analysis so as to fully understand his criminal tactics (Sherman 2002).

To successfully prevent any associated criminal offences, I would involve actors or people like police officers based at the nearby police station or the local police (community policing), the villagers or the neighbors and also the owners of the stolen property in the village as they would be of help in the crime analysis as noted by Brandon (2007). The following stages will be useful in the crime prevention process: understanding the problem, analyzing the opportunities leading to the occurrence of the offences and the people involved, and then take action (Sherman 2002). In the process of designing a strategy to prevent this crime, it is important to make proper decisions regarding how to carry out the investigation and at the proper time to do it. The best time to investigate the occurrence of this crime is during day time as we are told that the crime took place during the day.

How to develop the investigation strategy depends on the actual criminal investigator. The proper resources to use during this investigation will be the stolen property (Skogan 1997) as these resources will act as evidence that the crimes actually took place. This process also involves the analysis of the opportunities which might have triggered the occurrence of this crime. These opportunities not only determined where and when the crimes took place and also increased the chances of crimes happening (Brandon 2007). In our case, Bob knew very well that the owners of the houses neighboring the school had garage doors and were never in the house or in the near grounds during the day. It is also opportunistic in that Bob had keys for the doors and took advantage of the trust bestowed on him by his employer to commit the crime (Skogan 1997).

Introduction

Crime is a breach of the rules or laws of a governing authority. According to Skogan (1997), crime prevention is the process of reducing crimes or the number of criminals and it is mostly enforced by the government through the law enforcement and criminal justice systems. According to Clarke (1998) crime prevention mainly focuses on the reduction of the opportunities leading to crime, rather other than upon reducing criminal characteristics. As a crime investigator, I should focus on the reduction of the opportunistic activities which led to the robbery, together with the identification of the issues surrounding the crime and the factors leading to the commission of the crime - while not forgetting to identify any useful resources or property stolen during the crimes. There are three necessary elements for a crime to occur: opportunity, skills and the required tools and a motivation of the criminal. Opportunity here can be seen the case of Bob who used the opportunity of being a cleaner and the opportunity of having gained the trust of his employer to sneak outside the school. He also used his locksmith skills and tools to break into the houses and was highly motivated to do the crimes since he lacked loyalty to his job and therefore he felt the need for much money.

Many crimes therefore are committed when the offender sees an opportunity and thinks that they will be able to commit the crime unnoticed. According to Clarke (1998) the offender's greed, motive and rationalization to choose to break the law comes from a conceptual form of the criminal.

How to prevent the crime

To effectively prevent any further occurrence of such a crime, I as the criminal investigator will have to conduct a thorough investigation in which I will use the people, stages, decisions and resources to collect enough evidence (Brandon 2007). This prevention strategy involves the acquisition of evidence so as to determine the existence of the crime - bearing in mind that we can only prevent something from occurring or from a continued occurrence but only and only if we have enough evidence of its existence (Bonnie 2010). To obtain assessment strategy for crime prevention will involve the use of various stages and especially the decision making process since this strategy is highly dependent on making decisions.

The following types of crime analysis can be used to help understand a crime fully: 

Strategic analysis of crime

This type of analysis is used to examine long-term or repeated and increasing crimes. In our case, from the information provided, the person reading the report understands that Bob could go to the neighborhood bungalow which had garages and backdoors in the day time to get expensive items (Brandon 2007). With this information the individual understands that the crime actually took place even though the owners took a long time to notice the disappearance of their items (Bonnie 2010). Understanding the re-occurrence of Bob's theft gives the analyst a clear understanding of the commission of the crime.

Tactical analysis of crime

The investigator thoroughly analyzes the information given to him by identifying when, where and what Bob did to break into the houses of the neighborhood. In this analysis type a crime is said to exist in a given pattern if some variables repeat themselves (like time and location for example) (Bonnie 2010). In our case, the individual will understand that Bob's action was really a crime since the robbery took place at same time which is during the day and in the same locality which is the neighborhood of the school (Sherman 2002). This method is mostly used by investigators and it is aimed at identifying the offender together with their counterparts in the crime.

Intelligence analysis

I as the investigator should also use this test to understand Bob's crime, this analysis is done after the collection of evidence. This requires the questioning of the culprit to obtain evidence from him (Skogan 1997). In this case, Bob should be questioned in line with his deeds together with the evidence which should include the confiscated goods from his brother. The interrogation by police could tell of the guiltiness of Bob even though he will lie and therefore the questioning should be subject and this will lead to understanding of the crime (Bonnie 2010). With the above information, the investigator should then question Bob's brother since from the test he is known to be in possession of the stolen goods; this would also enable the investigator to understand the validity of the crime committed by Bob (Brandon 2007).

Investigative crime analysis

According to the assessment test, I as the investigator had investigated this crime and known that it was a case of burglary and even knew the person doing it (as argued by Hreha (2003). Based on this analysis therefore it will be easy for me to determine the best approach to the crime problem.

Administrative analysis

According to Hreha (2003), this type of crime analysis involves statistics, reports and data collection. As the investigator therefore I should be in a position to collect data and the statistics as per the crime and later write a report to give the findings and the recommendations. In this case data about Bob's thefts were collected and every detail of his robberies recorded.

Strategic analysis

This type of crime analysis involves the identification of the trends of the crime, factors leading to the crime and the problem(s) the crime poses to society at large (David 2001). In this case, the theft by Bob was identified as being an ongoing spree which had a negative effect upon others in society as it led to their fear of being robbed.

To disrupt, intervene in and prevent such a crime, I will perform the following stages of crime analysis:

Understanding the crime will be first stage which will involve me as the criminal investigator seeking to fully understand fully how, when and where the crime took place (Hreha 2003). In this case I therefore understand that the crime took place in the school neighborhood and in the day time and that it was a burglary case. After this I will analyze any opportunities which might have led to the crime occurrence (David 2001). In this case therefore after the analysis I understand that opportunities like the absence of people in the neighborhood, the locksmithing skills of Bob and the trust bestowed upon by him by his employer are some of the opportunities that the offender took advantage of to commit the crime.

The third step of this analysis is to obtain any information of all the associates of the crime. By associates I mean anybody who willingly or unwillingly is found in possession of the stolen property (Hreha 2003). As a crime investigator, I should have received a list of the stolen goods and so if anybody is found in possession of the goods this is real evidence that the crime took place. It is at this stage that I should involve the people and the resources to ensure that the information obtained is valid. The brother-in-law of Bob who was found to have the stolen goods in his possession should be able to give the real information about the acquisition of the property.

In this case I will start by involving the Neighborhood Watch. Neighbors will always be ready to work to ensure that their neighborhood is safe and secure (David 2001). The fact that this crime was done when there were no people or neighbors in the vicinity means that the involvement of the neighbors watch would disrupt this activity as once the offenders notice the presence of anybody or felt that they were being watched they would have been be unable to go on with the crime exercise (Bonnie 2010). Therefore the use of neighbors will help me to determine the exact time when the offending took place.

Community policing can also be used to monitor any occurrence of crime in this area (Hreha (2003). By use of the community policing, I will ensure that the police I send to the locality are not in their police vehicle so as to avoid raising suspicion among the residents. The police will be instructed to patrol the crime location (Skogan 1997). Community policing is an interventionary measure towards crime since the offenders will be caught and implicated; hence it acts as a disruptive method of crime occurrence. To prevent the continued theft by Bob, I would then also involve the staff of the school in which he worked. The school is supposed to monitor his movements from the time he gets to job till he leaves and this should be done with caution to ensure that he does not notice that he is being traced as noted by David (2001). Monitoring by the staff will also give me the exact time the crimes occurred.

Involving the owners of the stolen goods can also help me to fully analyze the crime. The owners will be able to give full details of how the robbery took place: that is if they found any broken door or window. With these details I will be able to determine and analyze the kind of robbery. The owners will also give the serial numbers of each item of their stolen property and this will enable the investigator to be able to get the stolen goods from the person(s) Bob sold them to.

Resources will also be helpful in the understanding and analysis of the crime. This crime involved the loss of valuables like electronic devices which in most cases each have their own production serial number and when they are first bought they always sold with a receipt bearing a full description (Sherman 2002). The fact that the stolen property was found in the possession of Bob's brother-in-law gives me as the investigator the clue to ask the brother to produce the receipts: his failure to do so tells us that there is a possibility that the property was not legally his. After the collection of all this information, I as the investigator should then make a decision on the way forward towards the crime prevention (Skogan 1997). This involves the use of a decision making process which includes the following:

Understanding the problem- in this case the problem - the crime - has been understood from the information collected from the above sources.

After understanding the problem at hand so many alternative solutions will be crossing my mind as to require thinking through the best approach towards the prevention of this crime (Hreha 2003). The solutions at the investigator's disposal depend on the information from the analysis. According to David (2001) at this stage the investigator will have to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of each solution and its impacts upon implementation and then choose the best one depending on the information he has at hand.

When I as the investigator decide on the best alternative, then I should implement it in the crime prevention process. In this case the best method to prevent this crime for example will be to implicate the offender and also to ensure that the location is fully covered by police patrols; this will deter others from committing crimes in this area. This solution to the crime prevention should therefore be implemented in the area around the place of the crime.

Report writing

After I have all the required information about the crime, I should then write a report to my Boss detailing the findings, methods of preventing the crime and even the recommendations (Sherman 2002). The following is a sample of the report which I will hand over to my boss so crime prevention actions may take place.

Objectives of the report

To determine the best methods to prevent the crime occurring. Depending on the problem at hand - which is the issue of crime prevention - then the main objective will be on the how and the best methods to prevent it.

According to David (2001) the other objective of this report will be to determine how to reduce the opportunities which led to the commission of the crime. In this case the report should be able to show how opportunities which activated the crime are prevented or eliminated as this will see that the crime is well reduced (Skogan 1997). The report will have the findings I got from my research, together with the causes of the crimes that have been found. For example in my investigation, I realized that the crime was caused by opportunities available to the offender which included his skills and the structure of the houses in the neighborhood (Hreha 2003). Other factors which led to the commission of the crime included greed for more money.

Other findings which I obtained from the investigation were that the robberies took place in broad day light and that the stolen property was sold to businessmen as noted by (Hreha \2003). I also found out that the offenders in this type of crime were very smart and that it needed a critical and a thorough investigation to obtain the truth of the matter (Skogan 1997). All this findings were evidenced by the people who I involved while trying to understand much about the crime.

Finally, I will give the conclusion together with the recommendations. In this section the methods of crime prevention will be stated. For example, I have concluded that the crime in the school neighborhood was opportunistically motivated and this therefore calls for the elimination or the reduction of these opportunities to enhance the reduction in crime (Sherman 2002). The following strategies should be implemented in the actions aimed at the prevention of crime in the area:

According to Hreha (2003), all offenders should be implicated and charged with theft and given a severe punishment as doing so will therefore frighten any other persons intending to commit the same crime, so as a result crime in the area will be prevented. A mufti police patrol should also be put in place so as to monitor and counteract any crime report by implicating the offender (David (2001). The opportunities leading to the crime should be tackled first. For example, in the case of Bob, house owners near the school should be encouraged to install security in their houses. Furthermore the fact that they are dual families it means that they have a handsome of properties and should then ensure that they leave their houses at a check or observation.

Conclusion

The commission of a crime commission is an offence which one can do under pressure or willingly. For a criminal investigator to understand the crime, he or she needs to involve people who can help to collect relevant information as a supportive material - especially during the charging of the offender as argued by (David (2001).

To fully prevent any further incidences or to prevent the further continuation of a crime in a society, the investigator should first understand the circumstances around the crime like the factors leading to the crime: these include the time and the reasons for the offenders committing the offence. By doing so, the investigator will be in a better position to be able to devise a strategy for the crime prevention.

It is also very important to report any crime to the relevant authority so they can take action. If the people in the surrounding area or the people near the place of crime and who happen to witness the act or the people whose properties are stolen should report to the police so actions to prevent further robbery can be taken.

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