Examining Political Authority And Its Factors Criminology Essay

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The first factor was political. With the previous political authority and institutions gone and, in the better situation/conditions, new effective ones usually take time to develop, there is a possibility that there can be periods of time during which people can feel basic physical insecurity. An example is, the 1987 coup in Fiji by "Sitiveni Rabuka along with 10 soldiers in gas masked hijacked and incarcerated the elected government of Timoci Bavadra" (Vinay 1988, p.86). People in small towns, villages and in the city were informed that some gangs of people were to come in their area and execute deadly act i.e. Annihilating or demolishing their property and create violence atmosphere. This devastation has made people and the government department feels very insecure. Now, although Fiji is no exception to terrorist attack, even though there has been no major convert terrorists threat that has evident itself into action however, the destruction of twin towers in New York on September 11,2001(The New York Times,2001,September 13,p.1) showed the length of terrorist groups willing to do anything just to achieve their goal. It is no longer true that the further you are geographically located away from USA the more one feels secured from terrorist attack. Therefore due to this entire deadly incident happening around the globe there is increased in security border policies just to tighten and strengthen our security border and alert our nation from this brutal act.

In addition the central economic activity of organized crime is the requirement of protection or its more respectable difference, security. The simplicity in which the dollar moves about across the border, progress in telecommunication is some of the mechanisms link to dishonest practice in the country. Take for instance, the issue of illegal immigrants was prevalent in all countries with Fiji being no exception. In the year 2002 there were over 300 illegal immigrants in Fiji, of which a "large number were 'prohibited immigrants' (37%), immigrants with invalid travel documents (17%) and persons without visas (8%)" (Fiji Immigration Department, 2002:6). The failure of illegal immigrants contributes to smuggling, bribery, theft, computer frauds etc.. Another type of economic activity that could be technically included in this subsection is globalization. People are now traveling all around the globe for vacation or doing business trips etc however criminal networks can no longer be ignored. Fiji police "are investigating an alleged drug trafficking racket at Nadi International Airport (The Fiji Times, 2011 29th January, p.9). It is important to have a tight security in the air ports since illegal things are bound to happen. Fiji is also having a bio security. Fiji is becoming increasingly aware of risks to its own bio security from incoming plants and animal products. Travelers coming from abroad are mostly encourage not bringing foodstuffs into Fiji, if required than an inspection is needed to determine the state of manufacturer. Fiji's greatest threat is foot and mouth disease. This often cause people illness therefore people are frequently absent from work hence there is a decrease in productivity which further leads to economic decline. Due to health problems in Samoa, statistics show that 78.6% of the workers take sick leave and were absent from work daily and the resulting fact decline in productivity (Gluckman 1977,p. 107) .Banks do also have a security just to prevent theft. "The economic consequences of failing to protect Fiji are dire: it could affect our employment opportunities, our human health and also our traditional lifestyles" ( ). Hence economic activity is one of the causes in the increased in security border policies.

Furthermore socialization is another factor that contributes to increase in security border policy. While issues of security from terrorist attack is certainly major concern that drives many border security considerations, there are other critical, daily issues involving criminal activities, including drug trafficking, human trafficking, the smuggling of weapons and other illegal contraband. Gangs however can well expand the bulk of their activity in production and distribution of a wide range of goods and services both legally and illegally (Dwakins, 1997). The Fiji Police Department has released details of methamphetamine smuggling ring using kava to bring the drug from Nadi to NewZeland ( ). Terrorist often take advantage of the international trade network to market goods and services in an effort to conduct their criminal activity or hide their criminal activity. Social changes have also had a significant effect on criminal market opportunities. It is clear, for instance, that the increased mobility of people and ongoing urbanization have led to a greater level of mystery in society which certainly facilitates crime. University of South Pacific and other big institutions also have security just to ensure safe & secure environment for the staff, students and visitors. Human trafficking is very common in almost all the countries. Fiji is a resource country for children trafficked for the reason of commercial sexual abuse and a target country for women from China and India trafficked for the same purpose; as well as forced labor. ( Sex Trafficking in Fiji [6/5/2008] http://www.hopefiji.org/news_detail.asp?news_id=227). A very famous tragedy that happened in 2007 where 3 girls were found missing in Rakiraki, they were allegedly raped and killed. (fijitime 2007 p1 ) Road policing is also very common in Fiji. People of young age group tend to break road laws more often and increasing the danger to pedestrians. () . Consequently there was an increase in border security.

Firstly, due to the economic cause of rise in security border there is some positive and negative effect on people. There is a greater number of possibility that the country may loose its ability to produce marketable goods and become totally dependant on illegal exports if it occurs then the country's economy will decline hence people will be directly affected in terms of financial. Also, it employees people in that field so people are able to cater for their living The bigger picture shows contributions of illegal immigrants towards the tax pool. This situation encourages the argument that the employment of i.e. those who employ illegal immigrants do not pay into insurance, social security or Medicare. "Illegal immigrants are more of a drain on the economy" (Eleanor, Illegal immigration hurt the economy, feb4, 2011) Hence economic cause brings in about positive and negative effect on people.

Another point is political issue. Many individuals are directly hurt due to some political instability in Fiji and which further contributed increase poverty in the nation. An example is, political turbulence since 1987 insecurity has resulted in continuous outwards migration from Fiji mostly to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and USA(beine et all 2008) . Now the immigration of many individuals have attributed to the increasing the concern of poverty in Fiji. It is widely believed that the migration of skilled workers has caused significant downturn in national economy. This in turn is seen as having contributed to increased poverty which further is shown not beneficial to families since people are not able to cater for their expense, often find difficulty to satisfy their needs and wants. (Docquier and Schiff, 2009). Thus political instability in the nation has a negative effect on its people and the nation.

A further point, effects of human trafficking, no doubt, can be quite devastating to the socio-economic developing of any country. People nowadays tend to be engaging into criminal acts such a drug trafficking which is a mean of making money and they are less conscious about the outcome of this act. For example, drug traffickers make more money at great risks. Illegal drug trading gives a few people a living that is quite luxurious .What keeps the drug industry going on is its huge profit margin. (Why the illegal business drug is thriving by oriana zill and Lowell bergman http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/special/math.html) drug users are also relatively more likely to commit crime i.e. theft & robbery which in turn hurts the economy of the nation and its people. Human trafficking is another major factor. Many of the unfortunate victims of the human trafficking are not aware that they will be forced into commercial sex trade or they would have to pay a very huge debt if they eventually go back on have to pay and subject to brutal beatings and serious bodily harm if the income they bring to the their captives is too little. So, human trafficking, illegal drug dealing all have a very bad impact on people.