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This paper focuses on the information about the crimes. Different theories about the criminology are described. Main focus will be on the criminology and its two theories. Criminology is the study of factors about the crimes that lead to its phenomena. This crime may be of individual or social nature. It includes making laws, breaking laws and attempts to break the laws. Criminology focuses on the social, cultural and individual causes of the illegal behavior. Criminology is directly related to sociology and psychology in all disciplines that deal with a group or individual behavior. However an act that is immoral or indecent can be criminal act unless it is not outlawed by the state.
Criminology consists of our organized ways of thinking and talking about crime, criminals and crime control (Garland and Sparks, 2000, 192).
The National Academy of Sciences says that
Personal and neighborhood income are the strongest predictors of violent crime" (cited in "Wasting America's Future (Arloc Sherman, 1994, p88).
A review of the literature says that
Demonstrates that glaring social and economic inequalities in our society impose correspondingly high costs in the form of street crime. (John Hagan & Ruth D. Peterson, Crime and Inequality, 1995, Stanford U, p4)
Â Causes of Crimes: Causes of crime may be environmental, hereditary or psychological. Environmental causes are ruled out as independent causes of crimes. But psychological conditions are said to be determinant of an individual's reaction to persuasive environmental influence. Criminologist says that certain offenders are born to create crimes in the environment. Other cause may be the poverty. Due to low condition of their living, they are enforced to commit crimes. Discrimination against minorities may become the cause of crimes. Emotional disorders are also cause of crimes.
Crime Prevention: Ultimate aim of crime prevention is to reduce the risk of victims. Here we find the ways to prevent crimes. Do not provide the opportunity to the thief to take advantages of your property. Fewer opportunities may become the cause of reduction in the crime rates. States should enhance the way of living of poor of that country. Poverty alleviation programs on sound basis can reduce the crime rates. Law and enforcement agencies are key role player in prevention of crimes. Delay in justice must be avoided.
Issues in Criminology: Several issues arise which are serious causes to put the crimes rate not reducing. These issues vary from the level of crime. Due to difference in the legal and criminal justice system the crime rate is not reducing. Contrast in the police reporting and actual crime report is another issue. Proper prosecution is not observed when a crime is committed. Due to differences in data quality a crime rate can not be feasible work to reduce the rate of crime.
Difference between micro- and macro theories: Differences between micro and macro level theories exist. To identify a theory whether it is macro or micro level is to check what the theory predicts. Focus of the micro-level theory is on the individual interaction. Individual characteristics can be explained by the interactions of people within an environment. These are described as epidemiology. Epidemiology here is concerned with the overall crime rates. Example of this kind of theory is the relationship between adult children and their parents. Macro-level theory is most extended and focuses on the social problems, social conditions and social processes. For example; how the old people's status is affected by industrialization. Micro level theories are called role theories while macro level theories include age stratification theory. Macro theory shows the criminal behavior of the crimes across the world.
Micro-level, or individual-level theories "link individual characteristics to the
Probability that an individual will engage in criminal behaviors. (Bernard & Snipes 1996, p.335).
All rational choice sociologists subscribe to some form of methodological individualism, holding that a theory must begin by stating how a social system affects the options available to individuals, and then the theory must build back up to the macro level by describing how individual choices "aggregate" to impact a system-level variable like economic development.Â Â (Simpson 2006)
Crime States: Crimes consists of following states. Crime can be measured from the intensity and nature of the individual as well as group violence involved in that crime. Crimes are identified as harm someone for self benefits.
Murder: It is a big loss of life.
Rape: It is an immoral act that becomes the cause of this kind of crime.
Robbery: It involves carrying of any valuable things by the force.
Assault: Physical attack
Burglary: Elite classes are the offenders in some cases.
Motor Vehicle Theft: It includes stealing the cars in public places.
Robbery: It is mostly found in streets. Hence mobile snatching is an example of the robbery.
All the states related to crime and its nature has priority over the other states.
Criminology should have concern itself with the big things global, geo-political and transitional. Central point of this work is that how crimes are related with the society and what effects they have on it. What implications are found in macro and micro level theories? Correlation is found but most differences exist between these types of theories.