Emergency Management and the New Terrorism Threat

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Terrorist activities and terrorism threats are one of the foremost problems that the whole world in general and United States in particular are facing since the last decade. The 9/11 attacks on the twin tower that cost around 6,000 lives and huge material damage as well was the triggering point in a combustible situation. Since then American Government has adopted and strictly implemented policies that are intended towards controlling and eliminating any such future threats to its citizen.

While American strategies and policies are fundamentally, follow the correct intended line of action, considerable facets of implementation are critically underprovided. Therefore, this paper does not endeavor to explain the counterterrorism activities undertaken by the US authorities, but in its place focus on the hitches in these activities and suggested changes. The encouraging aspect of this research however remains that in the line of this assessment, improved assurance in the talents and commitment of the American forces and officials was gained, as they work tirelessly to ensure the safety of the public (Nicholson, 2006).

Analysis of the Terrorist Motives that Target United States

Terrorists show aggression against American more often as compared to any other comparatively developed country. This is due to United State's pre-eminent position in the developed world. Hence, this standing will warranty that this situation will continue in the future, along with the threat of attacks to weaken its standing. So to shield itself United States is to defend itself continuously, to maintain its position as a world leader, this country must build up and constantly improve effective counterterrorism policies to adjust with the swiftly shifting world.

During the considerations for the reasons that compel people to turn to terror activities, the following important points were found to be of major importance to counter the terror attacks.

Firstly, it is of the essence to unearth the terrorists and thwart their attacks, which involves active utilization of all the officially authorized establishments and instruments obtainable. Secondly, terrorist attacks targeted towards United States threaten other than the dreadful loss of human lives. It has been viewed that the terrorists expect to aggravate a reaction that demoralize the Constitutional structure of the government. Consequently, the U.S. officials have the responsibility to find the suitable poise by taking up counterterrorism course of actions, which are effectual at the same time; these actions also revere the democratic mores, which are the foundation of United State's potency.

Fighting terrorism must not be exploited as a ruse for intolerance in favor of any section of the society. It is viewed that the terror groups or even individuals with terrorist interests time and again assert to their exploits on behalf of specific ethnic factions, religious convictions or even whole countries. It should be confirmed if the declaration is bogus. For more often than not these terrorists characterize merely an infinitesimal faction of the declared or condemned group.

Finally, it is wise to understand that people gravitate towards terrorism activities for a variety of reasons. Many terrorists operate upon political, ideological, or holy fervors and beliefs, while, various are basically hired hands by bigger motivators. On the other hand, some people grow to be terrorists for the reason of the seemingly unending repression or otherwise economic dispossession.

Hence, a judicious and incisive foreign policy is an obligation to determine without doubt the reason of a person's tuning towards such dire meads as a terrorist attack towards fellow human regardless of race, cast, religion or economic groundings in the society. Only then apt and realistic steps can be taken to eradicate terrorism or at least mange it. However, it must be clarified that no cause can defend violence.

International terrorism

International terrorism presents a progressively more precarious and complex danger to America. The gravity of the situation can be determine by the 1999 apprehensions of foreigners in Jordan as well as the U.S. Canadian border, these foreign terrorists were purportedly setting up to assault the millennium celebrations in united states. This incident was averted before the 9/11 attacks, yet the occurrence of 9/11 incident remarks upon failure of US intelligence failure. Researches upon this matter illustrate that terrorists search for ways to cause mass casualties; furthermore, they are trying to lose this havoc equally abroad as well as on the American land (Drell et al, 1999).

The terrorist groups today are not as much reliant upon any particular country or nation's protection or funding rather they are forming slack, large-scale associations predestined upon religious or ideological empathy in addition to a familiar extreme dislike against United States. Consequently, this strategy puts together terrorist attacks that are trickier to identify and thwart (Chernick, 2005).

The Four Phases of Disaster Management

The disaster management for a specific catastrophe is a situation that calls for the effective employment of all available resources towards minimizing the adverse affects of the situation. However, its scope is not limited to being a reaction to an action, rather it is preplanning and pooling of all reserves so that the disaster is avoided at all costs (Cuny et al, 1983).

Hence, its first and most important step is "Mitigation". This step in terror-related activities relates to the divergent resources, that is, thinking and premeditation of threats by reviewing the intelligence reports and devising multiple solutions for all possible calamities. The second step is "Preparedness", in this step the pooled resources are modified or multiplied to meet the results of mitigation, so all the institutions are ever ready to handle the expected casualties with a view towards fast recovery. The next step is the "Response" to the threat or attack. The response steps take place throughout and subsequent to the disaster transpire. Its rationale is to make available emergency support to the public, to sustain its well being, security and morale in anticipation of permanent elucidation for the community. The last phase is the "Recovery" phase, which can be either short-term or long-term depending upon the range of the catastrophe, and it is embarked on after the disaster has struck. The main objective of the "Recovery phase" is to reinstate the community to its normal condition, and its strategies take account of construction of transitory housing, reconstruction of public facilities and utilities, augmented medical treatment facilities, and superior communal information means. The successful implementation of the above mentioned phases ensure the well being of a state facing any kind of natural or terror assault (Wisner et al, 2004).

Efforts to Counter the Terrorist Threats

Responding to the mounting peril of the terrorist risks calls for considerably stepping-up the U.S. counter terrorism labors. The administration is required to instantaneously take precautions and reactions to give a boost to the anthology of intelligence on the subject of the terrorists' campaigns. They should bring into play all the accessible legal ways to interrupt and take legal action terrorist actions and their personal fonts of support, dissuade other nations from assisting such activities and compel them to close down all prop ups in favor of terrorists. Along with this, make certain that central, state, as well as local authorities are geared up to tackle any attacks that may produce mass casualties. Hence, following are the counsels that can be employed to carry out the operations and can garner desired objectives (Drell et al, 1999). These steps are based on the four phases of disaster management on a large scale: Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery, the mitigation process employs divergent school of thought rather than convergent, as the purpose of this particular step is to be fore-thought and pre-planning rather than mere reaction to aggressive actions from the terrorist activities.

Boosting the Intelligence for Information Needs

This is the first step in the four phases of disaster management: i.e. Mitigation. The below mentioned strategies can be implemented to effectively pool all the available resources to cover all the bases that can be exploited by terrorists rather than waiting for suspicious activities. The emergency management plan that a government should consider is first and foremost being aware of the contingency. Hence boosting the intelligence is a primary objective. Precedence is to be given to put a stop to the terrorist attacks.

For this purpose the U.S. intelligence and law, enforcement authorities must exercise the complete range of their power to pull together intelligence on the subject of the terrorist tactics and system, for prevention is better.

Information sources should be used regardless of their origins, consequently the CIA guiding principles implemented in 1995, which confines the conscription of insalubrious sources should not be validated while signing up counterterrorism resources. In addition, the Attorney General must make certain that FBI is implementing effusive authority for looking into the alleged terrorist bodies or persons, together with the right to use electronic surveillance for supervision. An important aspect for this management strategy is appropriate financing. Financial support for counterterrorism labors by CIA, NSA, and FBI should be obliged to be provided superior precedence to guarantee maintenance of imperative operational action and to overcome the technology breach that can make threats against their aptitude to accumulate and take advantage of terrorist interactions and communications.

In addition, if FBI set up a cadre of information administrators to extract and distribute the terrorism info and connected data from the information that is collected, the intelligence infrastructure can be improved drastically.

Managing the Terror Supporting States via Lessons Learned in Past Relations with expressed or hidden Terrorist Sponsor States

This can be considered as the second step in the Management planning; that is Preparedness, on an international level. When viewed the way the modern world is tackling the threat of terrorism, it is safe to say that U.S. policies have to steadfastly mark all states with the intention of supporting the terrorists.

To elaborate upon above statement, it must be added that Iran and Syria ought to be held in reserve on the record of states that sponsor terror acts until they bring to an end their support of terrorists. In addition, Afghanistan should be chosen a backer of terrorism and issued each and every one of the sanctions appropriate to state sponsors.

Not to be left on their own devices are countries that do not actively stop terrorism. The President must oblige sanctions on states that, even as are not expressing sponsors in the terrorism activities, yet they are all the same not combining forces entirely on counterterrorism. When considering such countries inclusion of Greece, Pakistan and North Korea in eminent (Harrigan & Martin, 2002).

Cutting Of Private Financial Support for Terror Activities and Policy or Community Issues

Cutting of private financial support for terrorists is also a part of the second step of the emergency management. A vital weapon that small terrorist acts and individual terrorist employ to gain their means is concurring of private financial providers who coerce with their cause. Private supplies of monetary and logistical prop up for terrorists have got to be subjected to complete legal strength and removal of U.S. and global regulations.

Every one of the related agencies must use every accessible resource, together with the full arrangement of illicit, civil, and organizational sanctions to obstruct and otherwise interrupt private foundations of support intended for worldwide terror campaigns.To further this cause, Congress can without delay approve and put into practice an International Convention, this convention can contain the sponsorships placed for the terror acts at the same time augment the international mutual efforts in the effort against terrorism.

This may sound harsh and excessive but in order to ensure that terrorist activities are fully thwart, wherever criminal prosecution is potentially compromised, the Attorney General ought to strongly practice the right of expulsion of accused from America. This can be achieved in the course of proceedings, which will guard together the state safety interests in conservation confidential evidence, in addition to the right of the terrorist to defy that proof (Maniscalco & Christen, 2002).

Emergency Plan in Case of Terrorist Attacks: Biological Attacks

The following discussion involves the third and fourth steps of the emergency management plan that is response and recovery. The terrorist attacks concerning any kind of biological driving force, lethal chemicals, or else nuclear and radiological objects, regardless of the fact of its reach or success whether partial or devastatingly complete, possibly will deeply have an effect on the whole nation. Hence, it is the responsibility of government to prepare pain strikingly for such an occurrence.

It is highly advisable that the President must express for the groundwork of an instruction guidebook to direct the execution of presented officially permitted authority in the happening of a disastrous terrorist risk or assault. It is imperative that the President must settle on whether supplementary official influence is considered necessary to transact with such a potential disastrous terrorism attack.

As such a criteria is very combustible and unpredictable, the Department of Defense must have thorough devices intended for its position in the incident of a catastrophic terrorist assault, as well as a criterion for pronouncement on relocation of commanding power to department of defense in unexpected state of affairs.

Higher-ranking officials of every one of the government agencies concerned in taking action in the direction of a catastrophic terrorism risk or emergency must be obligated to contribute in state-run training to assess their abilities and adroitness. These steps are necessary at not only national government level, but the local and state governments should also be prepared for these measures via extensive exercises in their own environment. This will include preparedness of local hospitals, law enforcement agencies, civilians and all responsible institutes (Johnson et al, 2005).

In the mitigation and preparedness regions for this scenario includes an important step, which is illegalizing of possession of certified materials that can be utilized for terrorist activities. Congress can prohibit it for anyone who is not certified to own certain dangerous pathogens in addition to this regulation, laws should be to implemented to manage the transmit of paraphernalia vital to the improvement or drawing on of biological driving forces (Lyman, 2003).

Along with pressing for international cooperation to manage biological weapons and cyber attacks, the President can found an inclusive and corresponding durable explore and development plan for the catastrophic terrorism (Nicholson, 2006).

The example devastation of non-availability of the above mentioned measures are the 9/11 attacks in United States as well as 7/7 terror attacks in United Kingdom and the Mumbai Taj Hotel assaults, when all the available measures were not utilized to counter the threats despite many signs of interventions prior to the attacks (9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States: Executive Summary).


The President and Congress ought to reorganize the system for appraisal and financial support of departmental counterterrorism programs to make sure that the actions and plans of the different agencies are element of an inclusive and cohesive plan, to ensure that no event of the scale of 9/11 can take place in the future.