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Effects Alcohol has on College Students Behavior
State of the problem
The study of the effects alcohol has on college behavior will duplicate Bernstein, M., (2014) findings. Bernstein (2014) study was looking at social anxiety and alcohol use, this study will be look behavior effects. Drinking alcohol has been shown to impair performance and ability to do tasks. This study will be looking at participants behavior and how it changes when consuming placebo alcohol or a placebo. College students drinking placebo alcohol and the placebo will both have effects in their behavior, I hypotheses participants will be laughing at random moments, stumbling, not focusing, changing topics, like they were actual drinking
Justification for and Significance of the Study
Bernstein, M., (2014) found that participants believed they were consuming real alcohol. However there was little evidence found in connection with consuming more alcohol and social anxiety. In study they predicted that participant who were going to give speech and be recorded would drink more placebo alcohol.
Terlecki, M. A., Ecker, A. H., & Buckner, J. D. (2014) found that undergraduate drunk heavily when socially anxious. Having social anxiety can lead to have alcoholic raled prblems later in life. They also found that socially anxious people are more prone to drinking during a negative situation.
Steele, C. M., Critchlow, B., & Liu, T. J. (1985) examined alcohol and social behavior. In their study they wanted to find if alcohol consumption will affect if a participant will be more helpful. Under alcohol use they did found there participants to have change be behavior and become more helpful even if it was a task they didn’t want to do.
In a study done by Sayette, M. A., Creswell, K. G., Fairbairn, C. E., Dimoff, J. D., Bentley, K., & Lazerus, T. (2019), they studied the effects alcohol has on emotion especially on happy emotions like smiling. They study the amount of time their participants smiling when consuming alcohol in a comedy act. They found that people who drank alcohol had a better emotional state especially in a group setting.
Fillmore, M. T., Vogel-Sprott, M., & Gavrilescu, D. (1999) did a study with male undergraduates to measure alcohol effects on intentional behavior. They found that alcohol does have an effect on conscious control tasks. Pactipantic had a difficult time recalling information when using alcohol.
Cox and DiBello (2019) found that their participants over estimated university’s alcohol consumption. Although when participants estimated their close peers alcohol use it was more accurate. Misrepresentation of alcohol use from peers can have an effect on the way participants drink.
Hopthrow, T., Abrams, D., Frings, D., & Hulbert, L. G. (2007) did a study that looked at two groups that had alcohol intake or a placebo. The group who had more alcohol intake were less competitive than individuals who had the placebo. They also found that the group that had the alcohol were less cooperative.
In a study done by Zhou, J., Heim, D., Monk, R., Levy, A., & Pollard, P. (2018), found that participants that identified with their social group would favor them more when consuming alcohol but the participants in the placebo group didn’t feel the same way. In the placebo condition there was favoritism toward their social group.
Miller, M. B., Merrill, J. E., Singh, S., DiBello, A. M., & Carey, K. B. (2018) found that not many college students had an understanding of blackouts. Blackout is the state of unconsumption when consuming to much alcohol and experience memory lost.
The sample will be college students who are 21- 25 years old. Participants will be measured by
FACS-coded, Self- report, behavior-expressive approaches, and behavior measurement. This study will ensure similar representation from the population regarding age, gender, race, and ethnicity regarding this sample. The study will take place in a bar setting at The University of Rhode Island, so participant can get the ambience of a real bar. Students will receive a $5 gift card for Dunkin Donuts for Participating.
Age, gender, major, and year in school will be collected from the participants for the data.
FACS-coded, Self- report, behavior-expressive approaches, and behavior measurement will be used for scale. FACS- coded will be used during the experiment to analyze participant facial movements when drinking. Participants will be asked to give a self report on how the are felling fifteen min into the experiment. From the self report they will be asked how are they feeling at the point, are the feeling “loss”(drunk). Participants will be randomly assigned into two groups. Group one will consist of 30 participants with placebo alcohol and Group two will also consist of 30 participants with a placebo . This will take place in a bar libatory setting. Both Groups will be able to drink as much of the placebo alcohol and placebo beverages in 30 minutes. Alcoholic beverages will follow The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure of alcoholic. The standard for beer is 12 oz., 8-9 oz. for malt liquor, 5 oz. for wine, 1.5oz for hard liquor to ensure the partition of alcohol. This experiment will take about 1 hours and will be held on a Sunday to ensure no interference from school, work, or other events. Participants will be asked to withhold from drinking for 10 hours upon arriving the will be tested by a breathalyzer to ensure that alcohol is not in their system. Participants will be instructed to sign a consent form before starting, they will be briefed about the risks in participating in this study. They will be asked not to salty food because it will cause them to be dehydrated or not to eat much before the study to keep up the appearance that there will be alcohol. After the experiment, they will be debriefed that they were not consuming really alcohol but rather flattened soda water or juice and they were being observed on their behavior and there are safe to go home but transportation will be provided by URI shuttle if needed.
Analysis for Results
The statistical analysis used to investigate the relationship between these variables is t- test for independent means. To measure the behavior when consuming alcohol subjects will be asked to answer self report during the experiment and after the know that they weren’t consuming alcohol. This self report will let help understand how they felt their behavior change when they thought they were drinking alcohol and after.
The effects alcohol has on college students behavior from the studies has been predicted to be true whether it a positive or negative behavior change. While both groups had some type of placebo there were step taken to make sure the appearance of alcohol was believable and both group behavior changed . Alcohol seems to have an effect on both group one and group two, college students drinking placebo alcohol and the placebo group both had an effects in their behavior.
- Bernstein, M., (2014) ANTICIPATORY SOCIAL ANXIETY AND ALCOHOL USE: AN ECOLOGICALLY VALID LABORATORY EXPERIMENT. Open Access Master’s Theses. Paper 319.1-53.
- Cox, M. J., DiBello, A. M., Meisel, M. K., Ott, M. Q., Kenney, S. R., Clark, M. A., & Barnett, N. P. (2019). Do misperceptions of peer drinking influence personal drinking behavior? Results from a complete social network of first-year college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Paper 1-7
- Fillmore, M. T., Vogel-Sprott, M., & Gavrilescu, D. (1999). Alcohol effects on intentional behavior: Dissociating controlled and automatic influences. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7(4), 372–378.
- Hopthrow, T., Abrams, D., Frings, D., & Hulbert, L. G. (2007). Groupdrink: The effects of alcohol on intergroup competitiveness. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 272–276.
- Miller, M. B., Merrill, J. E., Singh, S., DiBello, A. M., & Carey, K. B. (2018). College student knowledge of blackouts and implications for alcohol intervention: A qualitative analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(8), 933–943.
- Sayette, M. A., Creswell, K. G., Fairbairn, C. E., Dimoff, J. D., Bentley, K., & Lazerus, T. (2019). The effects of alcohol on positive emotion during a comedy routine: A facial coding analysis. Emotion, 19(3), 480–488.
- Steele, C. M., Critchlow, B., & Liu, T. J. (1985). Alcohol and social behavior: II The helpful drunkard. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 35–46.
- Terlecki, M. A., Ecker, A. H., & Buckner, J. D. (2014). College drinking problems and social anxiety: The importance of drinking context. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(2), 545–552.
- Zhou, J., Heim, D., Monk, R., Levy, A., & Pollard, P. (2018). Allocating under the influence: Effects of alcohol intoxication and social identification on in-group favoritism. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(3), 268–277.
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