Effect Of The 9 11terror On America Criminology Essay

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An act of terrorism on September 11, 2001 was a series of coordinated suicide terrorist attacks that occurred in the United States of America. Officially, the responsibility for these attacks lies with the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda. The apocalyptic picture of two planes that were crashing into skyscrapers in Manhattan, the world saw live on television. The official version was presented at once, and it looked quite convincing. However, people soon began to wonder, which have developed in alternative versions, articles, and books with investigations and experts views on what happened. There is still no consensus on what happened 9/11 2001.

That morning nineteen terrorists, allegedly related to Al-Qaida, were divided into four groups captured four scheduled passenger airliners. Each group had at least one member, past the initial flight training. The invaders sent two of the airliners into the towers of the World Trade Center, located in the southern part of Manhattan in New York. American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into a tower of WTC 1 (north), and Flight 175 United Airlines - in WTC Tower 2 (south). As a result, the two towers collapsed, causing severe destruction of surrounding structures. A third plane (Flight 77 American Airlines) was sent to the Pentagon, near Washington. Passengers and crew of the fourth airliner (Flight 93 United Airlines) have tried to take control plane from terrorists, the plane crashed in a field near the town of Schwenksville in Pennsylvania, as described in 9/11 Terror Attacks & Their Effect on America.

The official version of what happened has been criticized by some journalists, scholars and witnesses of the tragedy. Were conducted independent investigations, some of which were filmed documentaries. Victims of the attacks were 2,974 persons (not including terrorists): 246 passengers and crew members, 2603 people - in New York, the WTC buildings on earth, 125 - in the Pentagon. U.S. citizens were killed and people from another 91 states, including 96 citizens and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. 24 people still remain in the lists of missing persons. Also there were 341 firefighters killed from New York Fire Department, 60 officers and 8 members of the ambulance. 

Reaction to these terrorist attacks was different. The attacks were condemned by the media and governments around the world, the general idea expressed sympathy for the Americans the French newspaper Le Monde, which wrote, "We are all Americans". The most well-known exceptions are the Palestinians, openly showed their joy over the attacks on America. Also, journalists reported on the demonstrations in Beijing in support of the attacks, which involved Chinese students. The leaders of most Middle Eastern countries, including Afghanistan, condemned the attacks. Iraq has become a notable exception, officially stating that "the American cowboys are reaping the fruits of his crimes against humanity". Approximately one month after the September 11 terrorist attacks, the United States gathered and led to a coalition of international forces, whose aim was the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, on whose territory Al-Qaeda was based. The Pakistani authorities have decided to support the United States in their struggle against the Taliban, leaving their coalition military airfields. In addition, in Pakistan had been arrested about 600 suspected members of Al-Qaida, which were subsequently transferred to the United States. Many countries such as Britain, India, Australia, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Canada, Russia, Pakistan, Jordan, Mauritius, Uganda and Zimbabwe, introduced the "anti-terrorist" changes in laws and blocked bank accounts of the companies and individuals suspected of collaborating with Al-Qaida, as stated in Cause and Effect: An American Reflects on 9/11.

Law enforcement agencies and intelligence services of many countries such as Italy, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines have arrested many suspects in the terrorist activities of people in the fight against rebel movements around the world. In the U.S., these actions have been criticized, including "The Committee to Protect the Bill of Rights" which argued that many of the traditional restrictions on surveillance by the government were dismantled by the adoption of the "Patriot Act", also was argued that the civil liberties of Americans were affected.

The United States has established at Guantanamo Bay (Cuba), the center for detention of those who have been called "illegal hostile combatants". Legality of such detention has been challenged by different influential international organizations, including the European Parliament, Organization of American States and Amnesty International.

The September 11 attacks had a tremendous impact on American society. Americans are grateful to the employees of emergency services, especially to the firefighters, being impressed by the high-risk and big losses among them. Many police officers and emergency services left their places of work of their basic services, and traveled to New York to help in the search for survivors. Over the next few weeks after the attacks, the country has dramatically increased the number of blood donors.

After the attacks was marked a surge in crimes against people from the Middle East, and other people who looked similar. Even Sikhs who wear turbans, traditionally associated with Muslims, were suffered from this hysteria. Reported insults, attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the burning of a Hindu temple), as well as attacks on people, including one murder, on September 15 was fatally shot Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh who was mistaken for a Muslim, as described in Getting The Effects Of 9/11 Attacks Down Your Nerves.

Rating of the President Bush after the attacks rose to 86%. On September 20, 2001 President addressed to the nation and a joint session of Congress on the events of September 11, subsequent rescue and recovery activities, as well as the response of the U.S. government's intentions. In addition, the prominent role played by New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani has earned high marks to the public as in New York and nationally.

According to a survey conducted by Scripps Survey Research Center at Ohio University, three-quarters of Americans believe that government structure had certain data that would prevent a terrorist attack but did not use them. The official version of events of 11 September provoked a mixed reaction from the public and had been subjected to numerous criticisms regarding the version of the full collapse of high-rise concrete buildings of the World Trade Center on fire. Questions what the nature of the collapse of the WTC towers corresponds to that which could cause a falling aircraft and fires, and it is argued that the collapse of the towers looks more like a controlled demolition. Also, it can be pointed out that the official version ignores the numerous accounts of witnesses about the bombings in WTC towers. It has been suggested that U.S. government officials were aware of the upcoming attacks and failed to take measures to prevent them. Also, it is assumed that the attacks were planned and carried out not by Al-Qaeda, but by U.S. intelligence agencies. Situation with terroristic acts were questionable and have many other circumstances (of the defense, the identity of terrorists, connections to Al-Qaeda with the CIA, etc.) There is an opinion about the necessity of a new independent investigation of these attacks, as stated in 9/11 Terror Attacks & Their Effect on America.

Consequences of September 11, 2001 are hard to be overestimated. Immediately after the attacks, the Bush administration announced a "war against terrorism", as the objectives of declaring the capture of Bin Laden and other leaders of Al-Qaida, in order that they must be brought to American justice, as well as countering the activities of other terrorist organizations. It is assumed that these goals can be achieved through economic and military sanctions against states that were terrorists' refuge, as well as by a sharp increase in reconnaissance and global monitoring. Immediately after the attacks, U.S. government officials have repeatedly expressed their opinion about the possible involvement in the attacks of Saddam Hussein, despite the fact that this information had remained unconfirmed; it played a significant role in shaping public opinion about the invasion to Iraq in 2003. The second largest operation in the "war against terrorism" (and the largest of them directly related to terrorism) was to overthrow the Taliban Government in Afghanistan by the NATO international alliance led by the United States. The United States did not become the only country that increased the intensity of anti-terrorist operations since September 11, 2001; such countries were also the Philippines and Indonesia, with their own internal problems with radical Muslim organizations.

After the attacks of September 11, was for the first time in history involved Article 5 of the NATO treaty. In 2002, the United States have adopted the "Homeland Security Act", which has declared the establishment of USA National Security Agency, which became the largest reorganization of American government in modern history. Congress also approved the "USA Patriot Act" which was designed to help detect and prevent terrorism and other crimes. Group of civil libertarians launched a broad critique of "Patriot Act", stating that it allows law enforcement to invade freedoms and the privacy of citizens, and also eliminates judicial supervision over the police and intelligence services. The Bush administration has also used the events of 9/11 as justification for starting the operation of secret National Security Agency by wiretaps and opening e-mail correspondence between the U.S. and other countries without a court order, as described in Cause and Effect: An American Reflects on 9/11.

After the events of 11 September, about 80,000 Arabs and other Muslim immigrants have been subjected to fingerprinting and registration in accordance with the action of the "Act on Foreigners Registration" from 1940. As a fact, 8000 Arabs and Muslims were interviewed, and approximately 5000 foreigners were detained.

These attacks had a significant economic impact on U.S. and global markets. The Federal Reserve temporarily reduced contacts with the banks because of violations of communications equipment in the financial district of Lower Manhattan. Feedback and control of the money supply, including the immediate liquidity of banks, was restored within hours. New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), American Stock Exchange and NASDAQ did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. Objects of the NYSE and its data centers were not injured, but members of the exchange, customers and other exchanges have lost their touch from the destruction of telephone exchange near the WTC. When the exchange opened on September 17, after a very long period of inactivity since the Great Depression in 1929, Dow Jones Industrial Average Index lost 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8920, it was his greatest fall within one day. By the end of the week DJIA fell to 1,369.7 points (14.3%), it was the biggest weekly decline in history. U.S. stocks have lost 1.2 trillion dollars within a week. As of 2007, the streets of Wall Street and Broad Street, partially covered and protected in the area of the building NYSE, to prevent physical attacks on the building, as described in 9/11 Terror Attacks & Their Effect on America.

The economy of Lower Manhattan, the third largest business district of America (after Central Manhattan and Chicago downtown) was almost destroyed immediately after the attack. It should be noted, that 30% (2,700,000 m ²) office buildings of Lower Manhattan were damaged or destroyed. Also, 41-storey building Deutsche Bank, located adjacent to the WTC, was subsequently closed and is destined for demolition because it was deemed unfit for work or human habitation. Electricity, telephone, and gas supplies were cut off in most of the buildings of Lower Manhattan. In order to reach the territory of Lower Manhattan and Soho, it was necessary to pass inspection. Many of the destroyed office space facilities were first class (Class A). Began even before 2001, the process of transferring jobs out of Lower Manhattan to Midtown and New Jersey substantially accelerated. Job cuts became a serious blow to the county tax base. Studies of economic effect of the September 11 attacks showed that the damage to the Manhattan offices of the market was lower than expected, mainly due to high demand for staff in financial services, as stated in Getting The Effects Of 9/11 Attacks Down Your Nerves.

On the location of all demolished buildings rebuilt one, in 2006 completed construction of a new skyscraper, WTC 7. Later, on the place of the towers of the WTC site was constructed 541-meter high "Freedom Tower", which, after completion of its construction in 2010, became the tallest building in the U.S., and one of the highest in the world. It is expected the construction of three additional towers ends by 2012.

North American airspace was closed for several days after the attacks, and after it was opened, there was a serious decline in commercial air traffic. Terrorist attacks have led to approximately 20% reduction in passenger traffic, which caused serious problems in the U.S. airline industry.

Probably, everyone in the world knows what happened on September 11, 2001. It has been 10 years from the date of the tragedy, but the memory of this horrible day still stays with us. I think no one will argue that the world has changed after those events forever. Too many actions, reasonable and not very, were conducted as a result of September 11 events. It was a shock, not only to Americans, but to the whole world. Now we live in a permanent war with the global terrorism. I doubt that we will ever know who had been at the forefront of these terrorists' attacks, as many people had motivation considering this. Consequences of 9/11 are reflected in all areas of our lives and this is the fact. How the world would have been without 9/11 we will never know, but we know for sure that after this date it has changed forever.

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