Domestic Violence In New York City Criminology Essay

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This paper limits itself to the discussion of Alcohol abuse and domestic violence with particular interest to New York City. The paper analyzes and discusses the effects alcohol and domestic violence in addition to determining ways in which alcohol leads to domestic violence cases. A review of past literature is presented in this paper to give an insight of what has occurred historically and examines the theoretical approaches that were used to understand the relationship between these variables. Additionally, the research paper proposes a methodology to be used in conducting the study. In the methodology section, research samples are chosen on the basis that they will represent unbiased characteristics of all variables in the sample. Other research instruments are explained in detail under this section. Findings from the research study are used to suggest a number of conclusions and recommendations. First, despite the existence of published to the contrary, the findings from this study presents significance evidence to suggest that alcohol abuse is directly related with domestic violence. Secondly, substantial evidence suggests that alcohol abuse is significantly linked to other kinds of violence. Third, the contemporary theoretical efforts that were reviewed in this study have, despite having notable shortcomings, enabled the understanding of ways in which alcohol abuse is related to domestic violence. Fourth, the use of theoretical models and the increasing number of empirical findings have demonstrated the importance of understanding domestic violence from a social context with respect to the relationships between domestic violence and alcohol abuse. Fifth, the shortcomings evidenced in these theoretical models coupled with lack of absolute empirical tests of the perspectives presented in the models helps in determining the directions that future research studies on the relationship between alcohol abuses and domestic violence should be undertaken.

Alcohol Abuse and Domestic Violence in New York City

Background

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According to statistical findings from the National Research Council, the United States leads in interpersonal violence rates among the industrialized nations. Examples of such interpersonal rates include domestic violence, high rates of violent crimes and lethal violence from the youths. Additionally, the World Health Organization (WHO) affirmed among the major challenges to global public health is harmful alcohol abuse and interpersonal violence cases. Alcohol abuse and domestic violence poses inordinate detrimental efforts on both the abusers and the victims in addition to bringing untold externalities to the society. Admittedly, victims of domestic violence usually end up being physically, psychologically, and economically affected. The children who grow up witnessing the effects of domestic violence often end up adopting and perpetrating this type of behavior. Even though there is lack of enough data to measure the cost of domestic violence in New York City, estimates of the victim’s failure to exercise their productive capacities account for a substantial percentage of the total productive capacity.

Other than the harmful effects of domestic violence, excessive alcohol abuse can be linked to an extensive variety of diseases ranging from increased risks of certain cancer types to gastrointestinal complications and hypertension. Intoxication from increased alcohol use inhibits motor coordination and has been identified to be the major cause of motor accidents in addition to bringing detrimental psychological and social consequences with respect to its addictive nature. According WHO estimates, alcohol abuse accounts for 5% of the world’s health lost through disability cases or premature health.

Lastly, there exists a strong link between alcohol abuse and increased abusive behavior. In 2007, it was estimated that in every four domestic violence cases report in New York City, one involved alcohol use. Interestingly, the elasticity of general violence with respect to the use of alcohol for majority of college students consuming alcohol in New York City varied according to the levels of alcohol consumption. For instance, students in the city are often engaged in offenses such as damaging property, getting in trouble with authorities, involving in fights, and sexual abuse offenses. On the contrary, an increase in the price of alcohol due to increased taxation led to a reduction in the above-mentioned violence cases in addition to cases of domestic violence against wives.

Problem statement

Rationale (main word that you are going to use to guide you in your own research)

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Significance of the study

The objectives of the study

Literature Review

Over the past four decades, researchers in many disciplines have based their research studies in finding the root causes of domestic violence with great influence being placed on intimate partner violence. However, no single study perspective has dominated the field because majority of the research journals have focused their attentions in finding the general violence and types of domestic abuse. This has led to the proliferation of dramatic accommodation of theoretical perspectives and numerous research studies that have been undertaken over the past generations.

Relevance, reliable, and recent

Organization is critical

Compare, contrast, and evaluate previous studies

Theoretical Framework

Outline the Existing Theories Related to the Topic

Understanding the relationships of alcohol abuse and increased domestic violence cases in New York City is not only an interesting factor in itself but also very effective in enabling authorities to design effective policies to curb the menace. Two competing explanations can be used to explain cases of domestic violence in New York City. From an intrinsic perspective, it can be seen that domestic violence of increases the value of utility per se. Alternatively, applying the instrumental value view shows that violence is often applied as a tool for controlling the resources of the victims. There is also a possibility that these two approaches or rationales may coexist in understanding the relations between alcohol abuse and violent behavior.

Models are used to suggest that domestic violence has both in influencing the resources of women and the amount of violence directed towards them. Many a times, violence is used as a mechanism for gaining resources from wives because husbands usually subject their wives to domestic violence cases in order to acquire their resources. In such situations, alcohol abuse often presents either instrumental values or intrinsic values in influencing the utility of their wives. This leads to the assumptions that domestic violence is caused by differences in the domestic incomes of husbands and their wives and therefore, in situations where the wife earns higher income as compared to her husband, the husband resorts domestic violence to settle their differences. The manner in which income influences the abuse of alcohol and domestic violence will determine the type preventive policies and measures that can be implemented to find solutions to the problem.

Make clear/How is your research related to the theory

Make my own theoretical assumptions (Hypothesis)

Methods or Research Design

Findings and Discussions

Recommendations and Conclusions