Domestic Violence And Sexual Assault Crimes Criminology Essay

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Domestic violence and Sexual assault are age old crimes that the criminal justice systems seeks to find the answer of "why does this happen". Therefore the responsibility must lie within the criminal justice system to research and attempt to answer this critical question. Domestic and sexual assault are not unisex crimes, In a statistical study conducted 64% of women who reported being raped, physically assaulted, and/or stalked since age 18 were victimized by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, boyfriend, or date. (Tjaden, Thoennes 2000). For hundreds of years, the notion of Domestic and Sexual assault were male gendered based. In a study conducted called Domestic Violence: Women Abusers On The Rise, "In 100 domestic violence situations approximately 40 cases involve violence by women against men. An estimated 400,000 women per year are abused or treated violently in the United States by their spouse or intimate partner. This means that roughly 300,000 to 400,000 men are treated violently by their wife or girlfriend".

Rationale of Study

Domestic violence and Sexual assault: How does the level of punishment affect the recurrence of recidivism in adult offenders? In answering this research question, the Resource theory will be used. Particularly, a closer look on the supposed "force or the threat of force" the more resources a person actually has, the less that person will actually use force in an open manner (Goode 1971). Ventura, Ph.D., Davis, J.D., (2004) stated that only 28.4% of the batters in the sample reported being married at the time of their arrest. More than half (57.5%) of the batterers reported being employed. The average educational attainment level of the batterers was 11.86 years. Most of the batterers (69.5%) reported completing high school. Employment ranked ahead by 8.6% which in essence show a clear corresponding connection between domestic violence and employment. Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis: Hypothetical Statement #1: The level of punishment given to the adult offender is it directly proportional to the recurrence of the adult crime. In answering this research question, the Resource theory will be used. How can the economic status prevent domestic and sexual violence?

In this research question, the response will use the Social situation and Stress and Coping theories. The theory proposes that abuse and violence occur because of two main factors. The first is structural stress and the lack of coping resources in a family. For instance, the association between low income and family violence indicates that an important factor in violence is inadequate financial resources. The second factor is the cultural norm concerning the use of force and violence. In contemporary American society, as well as many other societies, violence is normative (Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 1980) Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis: Hypothetical Statement #2 Structural Stress; the lack of coping resources in a family and inadequate financial resources are prior indication of domestic and sexual violence.

How does the environment affect the occurrence of domestic and sexual violence?

This third research question will use the Social Learning Theory and Social Control Theory to respond and test the hypothesis. According to the work of Richard J. Gelles (1983), the exchange/social control model of family violence proposes that wife abuse is governed by the principle of costs and rewards. He proposes that the private nature of the family, the reluctance of social institutions and agencies to intervene, and the low risk of other interventions increase the opportunity of domestic violence and sexual assault

Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis:

Hypothetical Statement #3; The environment affects the occurrence of domestic and sexual violence due to the fact that people learn from observing and modelling after others' behaviour.

Examining our model and those proposed recently by others, we suggest that social support may be a central building block of health and well-being because together with personal resources is related to overall sense of identity (Hobfoll, Freedy, Lane, Geller, 1999). The expanding research on resource theory has been able to draw the interrelationship of surrounding forces that can predict the outcome one identity. Hobfoll (1988, 1989, 1999) stated that Conservation of Resource Theory, is a comprehensive theory of stress based on the central tenet that people strive to obtain, build, and protect that which they value (e.g., resources), and psychological stress occurs when these resources are lost, threatened with loss, or if individuals fail to replenish resources after significant venture. For example, one might feel that all the time and effort planted into a relationship might be erased. Therefore a physical, negative relationship might begin to coexist between married/dating couples. The benefits of employment for women affected by domestic violence, particularly after leaving abusive relationships, were confirmed by all workers interviewed, in terms that were remarkably consistent with the literature. Participants in this research believed that paid employment gave women in abusive relationships independence and resources that could alleviate the effects of violence, with one respondent observing that employment often offered the women some form of stability (Costello, Chung & Carson, 2005) These findings reiterates that there is a relationship between income and domestic violence. Costello, Chung & Carson (2005) stated that "a tangible outcome was that employment provided a source of escape if this was desired." Another aspect of Domestic Violence, involves a combination of relationships that affects domestic violence. Using self- and partner-reported data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Families and Households, this study examines the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, gender, and status in compatibility, and domestic assaults. Results indicate that incompatibilities in income and educational status are differentially associated with domestic violence perpetrated by women and men. This relations between two people, results in various contingencies, where the people modify their resources to each other's expectations. Power is the mechanics that can explain the relation of the actors (Emerson, 1962 and Blau, 1964). According to Emerson (1962), power is the property of a relation and not of an actor, because it "resides implicitly in the other's dependency." (P.32) "Black and Hispanic women, especially Black women in more affluent neighborhoods, are overrepresented in police-reported domestic violence information compiled…" ("Study Documents Domestic Violence," 2003) This information immediately targets a certain population which shows where the majority of statistics are extracted from.

In conclusion, Domestic violence and Sexual assault: How does the level of punishment affect the recurrence of recidivism in adult offenders? How can the economic status prevent domestic and sexual violence? How does the environment affect the occurrence of domestic and sexual violence? all have some correlation and interrelationship amongst one another. I have found that the level of punishment given to the adult offender is it directly proportional to the recurrence of the adult crime (Schmidt, Sherman, 1993). Also I have found that the environment affects the occurrence of domestic and sexual violence due to the fact that people learn from observing and modelling after others' behaviour. Finally, Structural stress, the lack of coping resources in a family and inadequate financial resources are prior indication of domestic and sexual violence also contributes to the domestic violence and abuse.

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