Discussing Whether Parole Is Classed As A Sentence Criminology Essay

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Parole is not a sentence; rather, it is the extension of a prison into the community and under the supervision of the parole authority, which is a branch of the prison system. Prisoners are eligible for parole after they have served a minimum number of years of their sentence as dictated by state statutes and the discretion of the judge. A parole board reviews their crimes, their criminal histories, and their behaviors in prison to decide whether the prisoners can be supervised safely in the community. After serving only a portion of their sentence, prisoners can also be released automatically by the prison administration for respectful behavior, which involves observing prison rules. In a standard formula, prisoners are given 1 day off of the sentence for every day of ethical behavior. The conditions of parole supervision are set by the releasing body and are similar to the mandatory and special conditions of probation supervision.

History of the Creation of Social Agency

The provision of services to victims by social agency (Parole) officers began in the 1970s on the heels of the Victims' Rights Movement, which propelled victims' needs into the public and juridical consciousness and underscored the importance of treating crime victims with compassion and sensitivity at every step in the criminal justice process. In many states, social agency (parole) officers are responsible for providing victims with a copy of the Victims' Bill of Rights, which have been passed throughout the country, and with information about the progress of their case through the court system, as well as the court's expectation regarding their obligation to participate in the proceedings.

In addition, social agency (parole) officers facilitate victimâ€"offender reconciliation, mediation, and dialog programs, which are critical in the achievement of victim healing and offender rehabilitation. Such programs can be therapeutic to both offenders and victims. Social agency (Parole) officers can educate victims about sentencing practices and the nature of parole, which helps them feel more involved in their cases and more informed about outcomes at each stage in the parole process. Finally, parole officers can refer victims for services to treat their emotional injuries and, adjust more effectively in the aftermath of serious criminal victimization.

Mission statement of the social agency

Social Agency Services is dedicated to enhancing public safety, "remediating" the behavior of criminal offenders to acceptable community standards, protecting the interests of the victims of crime and sustaining a secure environment for all people in the State of West Virginia through active supervision techniques and the effective use of evidence-based, re-entry programming and treatment practices.

Summary of their Work

In the preparation, of "presentence" investigation reports, which help judges determine whether social agencies officers are an appropriate sentence, pay role officers include a section that describes the impact of the crime on the victim and the victim's family. Similarly, at parole-board hearings, victims and their family members can testify regarding the impact of the crime on their lives. In the former, the victim impact statement can influence the judge to choose prison over parole as a more just sentence given the nature and extent of victim harm that was perpetrated in the case. In the latter, the parole board can factor victim harm into its decision and conclude that the prisoner's initial release would be unjust in light of the suffering of the victim and the victim's family because of the crime.

The "presentence" investigation and the parole intake assessment also provide the judge with a basis for setting the special conditions of the sentence. Specifically, the judge can decide that the offender must make amends to the crime victim through the payment of restitution. Restitution is the act of being ordered to pay for lost, stolen, or damaged property, or for medical bills that were incurred in the treatment of the victim for physical or psychological injuries. Failure to pay restitution to the victim is a violation of parole that can result in a prison sentence or other punishments. Many times, parole officers find it to be difficult to collect victim restitution because offenders are indigent and struggle to obtain the gainful employment necessarily to meet their financial obligations.

During fiscal year 2005, section 14.537 prosecuted under mandatory supervision release and conditional release 16.231 units Correctional Institutions Division (CID), along with mandatory supervision release 1.283 and 436 parolees from other establishments. In total, this section processed releases 15.820 16.667 mandatory supervision and conditional release. As part of the review process, and release was keeping more than 235,000 offender files were processed more than, 177,000 letters to probation, and answered over 350,000 telephone inquiries concerning the status of revisions, or conditional release of offenders.

A critical analysis of the effectiveness of the social agency

The provision of services to victims by social agency (Parole) officers began in the 1970s on the heels of the Victims' Rights Movement, which propelled victims' needs into the public and juridical consciousness and underscored the importance of treating crime victims with compassion and sensitivity at every step in the criminal justice process. The field operations involve the direct supervision of offenders and are in charge of the regional directors in the offices of Tyler, Dallas, Houston, San Antonio and Midland. The field staff consists mainly of probation officers are responsible for overseeing the activities of offenders and their compliance with release conditions and the laws of society. The probation officers are also investigating release plans before the meeting, evaluate and classify released after his release and develop a monitoring plan based on the needs of each offender.

Monitoring programs include after-care treatment at a substance abuse testing, drug and alcohol, electronic monitoring and supervision of offender’s treatment and probation officers "sexuales". Los promote compliance by the offender of the conditions release. To this end, support the use of interventions, and implementation of options motivation, and make every effort improve the successful reintegration of offenders through services that affect the factors contributing to recidivism. In addition, when necessary, field staff works closely with the Board of Pardons and Paroles and its hearing officers to process the transgressions of the conditions of release. The probation officers also supervise those released have been transferred from other states under the Interstate Compact.

The main objective of the Central Coordination Unit (CCU) is to provide support to field operations. In this capacity, incumbent have various responsibilities. The unit monitors the number of cases assigned detention / deportation until a case is officially closed and then notifies field staff on changes in the status of the case. In addition, the CCU checks the death notices received by the processing unit and case files for transfer to "estatales". Asimismo files, the CCU receives transfers from the Interstate Compact Office with regard to offenders who move to other states seeking or move to Texas from other states then the unit monitors the case until its release, death or his return to Texas. Finally, the Central Coordination Unit is responsible for the location of offenders that the Board has separately incorporated or intermediate sanction facilities (ISF) and Felony Punishment Facility Substance Abuse (SAFPF) state wide.

Parole officers are responsible for enforcing the conditions of community supervision. Failure to obey these conditions can result in a violation of probation or parole. The former can result in a longer sentence to probation or stricter conditions of supervision; the latter usually results in a return to prison. In the enforcement of the conditions of probation and parole, officers' duties focus on the rights, needs, and recovery of crime victims.

In cases of victim abuse and interpersonal violence, social agency officers participate in ensuring the safety of the victim through the enforcement of orders of protection. Such orders prohibit offenders from having any contact with the victim or being within a certain geographic proximity to the victim. The failure to abide by the orders is corroborated by the officers who use victim reports of offender harassment as evidence to file a petition to have the probation or parole revoked. To help victims cope with injuries or other adverse effects of victimization, probation and parole officers broker services from public or private agencies that respond to the needs of crime victims. They also notify victims about changes in an offender's case status. For example, parole officers can notify victims about a parolee's release date from prison and probation officers can notify them about a violation of probation hearing or when a probation sentence is near termination or completion.

Commentary on ways in which the social agency could improve its effectiveness towards its social goals

The federal parole service establishes minimum and optimum targets for the employment of Aboriginal people. The minimum target must be no less than the percentage of Aboriginal people in Manitoba; the optimum target is the percentage of Aboriginal people served by the parole service.

The National Parole Board, in conjunction with Aboriginal groups, establishes release guidelines, which take into account the cultural and social circumstances unique to Aboriginal people.

There are Aboriginal parole officers in each Aboriginal community.

The National Parole Board be given authority to transfer jurisdiction over a case to the Aboriginal Parole Board.

The Solicitor General name an additional number of Aboriginal persons as National Parole Board members, in consultation with Aboriginal organizations.

The National Parole Board ensures that all applications involving Aboriginal inmates, including applications for the revocation of parole, be heard by panels which have at least one Aboriginal member.

The membership profile for National Parole Board members be changed to permit greater representation of Aboriginal people.

A program of cross-cultural awareness be developed and implemented for all correctional and parole staff who are involved in making parole decisions about Aboriginal offenders; and that any such cross-cultural awareness program specifically take into account Aboriginal living conditions, Aboriginal values and customs, and the resources available in Aboriginal communities to support the reintegration of offenders.

The separate roles of parole officer and probation officer be combined in Aboriginal communities.

Conclusion

Social agencies officers are responsible for the supervision of more than 5 million adult offenders in the United States. As the most common disposition in the United States for felony convictions, probation is a sentence in lieu of incarceration that monitors people under conditions of release. The two types of parole conditions are mandatory and special. Mandatory conditions are defined by state or federal statutes and applied to every sentenced to probation.

These conditions include not owning or carrying a weapon, reporting to a probation officer on a schedule that is determined by the officer at intake, leaving jurisdiction only with the judge's knowledge and approval, allowing unannounced home visits by the officer, and remaining free of arrests during the probation period. Special conditions are imposing by the judge during sentencing and applying to the circumstances of the case. They can include participation in treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, the payment of fines, the obtaining of mental health services, and earning a General Equivalency Diploma.

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