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In the article Racial profiling? Breaking a Taboo the hypothesis is that discrimination results to some people being favored depending on their race (Belien, 2006). Terrorism is always associated with Muslims. This has lead to measures being taken to curb their acts though not all Muslims are terrorists. It is only a minute population who propagate terrorism. The Muslims who are terrorists have made all the others to be discriminated against on the notion that they are all terrorists or offer patronage to them.
In the article "The Secret Ambition of Racial Profiling", the hypothesis is that there is high rate of discrimination against the African American (Wu, 2005). The policemen mistreat black people claiming that they are always on the wrong side of the law. Innocent people end up suffering for mistakes they do not commit just because of their race. Policemen always look at black people with a lot of suspicion. They are associated with crimes like drug trafficking and driving while black.
In the article "Differential Suspicion, Theory Specification and Gender Effects in the Traffic Stop context", the hypothesis is that police in New York City discriminate against some people due to their race (Smith, Makarios and Alpert, 2006). Policemen are very harsh when inspecting a non white driver compared to a white driver. Non whites are perceived to be always on the wrong side of the law even when a person is very innocent.
Quantitative research was conducted on racial profiling and report given in the article, "Differential Suspicion, Theory Specification and Gender Effects in the Traffic Stop context" (Wu, 2005). This research was carried on pedestrians and police department in New York. Each policeman's stopping habit was compared to a bench mark which was constructed from other policemen stop patterns. The research was to find out whether police are hash when inspecting certain non whites. It also aimed at finding out how the police decide to stop pedestrians on the street and whether these policemen had racial bias. The results of the research indicated that racial bias among the policemen was very high. These police officers stop pedestrians depending on their race and thus 89 percent of the entire pedestrians stop for scrutiny by police was non whites. The research also indicated that the policemen mostly aimed at stopping the non whites who would be charged with false crimes like drug abuse, being disorderly and driving while black. The policemen were also harsh to the nonwhites as opposed to the whites.
In the article Racial profiling? Breaking a Taboo quantitative research was also conducted (Belien, 2006). This research was conducted on Muslims in order to determine whether all Muslims are terrorists. The research indicated that 99 percent of all the terrorists were from South Asia or Middle East. These terrorists according to the research conducted were 100 percent Muslim. It is evident therefore that at least 1 percent of the Muslims are not terrorists. The research also indicated that the terrorists were very young men. Based on the research therefore, it was deemed important to put in place measure to scrutinize passengers in airport. This was to separate the terrorists from the innocent Muslims in order to ensure security. Since the research indicated that 99 percent of the terrorists are Muslims, it was seen necessary to practice Muslim profiling. This was to encourage the innocent Muslims to speak out the terrorists among then in an effort to maintain a good image.
In the article, "Differential Suspicion, Theory Specification and Gender Effects in the Traffic Stop context" no research was conducted but rather the article looked at the way police officers discriminate against the American African people (Smith, Makarios an Alpert, 2006). The article states that American Africans are subjected to racial profiling. Motorists from particularly American African have been complaining about how police officers stop them with no reason but because they are black. During such stops, these American African people are subjected to detailed searching and question without giving any explanation on their act. Racial profiling has made police officers to judge the minority groups like the American Africans to be criminals like drug users and burglars. The article states that an attempt by a committee formed in New York to hold a meeting and look at the relationship between the police officers and community was futile. The meeting was to be a dialogue between the police officers and the residents. The meeting could not continue because most residents pointed fingers to the police officers on how they treated them.
Research for the lay person
Police officers practice discriminatory practices of stopping and searching most blacks and minorities particularly in traffic stops. In United States, blacks are only 12 percent of the total population. However, in prison one half of the population in prison is made up of blacks. These blacks are associated with crimes like drug using, burglary and driving while black. Crime rate of blacks is not proportionate to the general population. They are arrested for such offences like robbery and assaults.
The terrorist attack on 11th September was the major incident to happen in United States so far in the 21st century. Citizens living in United States experienced changes in lives spiritually, economically, mentally and physically. The incident also had an effect on media coverage and racial profiling knowledge. There was also the practice of stopping and inspecting people passing through public places. After September 11th, attention shifted from cars to airplanes and it also shifted from African American to Arabs.
Racial profiling resulted to police minority relationship. It involves the relation of crime with the minorities, mostly when made by law enforcement. For example it involves a stop by traffic police officer on the minority drivers suspecting them of drug possession. Racial profiling also involves bias based policing where police activity relies on a person's ethnic or race background and not on behavior. Police use this to identify those people involved in criminal activities.
In 1990s, racial profiling was a major issue in media coverage and new terms were invented like "driving while black" (DWB). Therefore, 53 percent of Americans then believed that police practiced racial profiling while 69 percent did not agree. 6 percent of the white and 46 six percent African American claimed that police stopped them for inspection due to staggering and their race. Recently, the issue of biased based policing has shifted to Muslims. This was after the incident of 11 September in United States. Police and the community as well began to create awareness of the people's activities that seemed to be from the Middle East. Members of the Muslim community got angry and claimed that to be racial profiling.
Most people perceive that police practice racial profiling while the chief police deny it. This perception by most people can result to problems in the community. Therefore, many states have come up with legislation requiring the collection of data and implementation of racial profiling policies. This has helped police officers to have a lot of discretion in their jobs on how to stop a motorist, remove the driver from the vehicle and ask for permission to search. Citizens believe that police officers base their decisions based on ethnicity or race.