Discussing And Examining The Issue Of Industrialization Criminology Essay

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This essay topic requires a discussion where industrialization would be defined as it would show the development from Toffler's Technological evolution where industrialization made advancement to the information age. The essay would provide definitions for management, security and risk and it would show the growth of Public and Private Security and how it evolved through the ages. It will show how inevitable the need for management of security and risk has become to a society.

Industralisation as the transition of the economy of a local or national area from a dependence on agriculture and the labour of humans and animals to a dependence on manufacturing activity and machinery. This transition is usually accompanied by economic growth. (Department of Criminology : University of Leicester).

The industralisation revolution, which started in the late eighteenth century, transformed Britain, and later other societies, form economies based largely on agriculture to economies based largely on manufacturing. New technology led to massive increases in productivity, first in the cotton industry and then in other industries. An increasingly specialized division of labour developed; where people had more specialist jobs. Social life was no longer governed by the rhythms of the seasons and of night and day; instead their lives were based on the clock. Instead of working when the requirements of agriculture demanded, they were working long shifts of fixed periods (often twelve hours) in the new factories. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004).

Industralisation made a shift to advancement that took place in the industrial age and its main threats were to the security guard with chain and locks with dogs and manuel labour was replaced by modern equiptment. This transition is usually accompanied by economic growth which brought on an increase in the numbers of people living in towns and cities. Towns and cities began to expand and attracted increasing numbers of poor and disposed people.( Dept. of Criminology: University of Leicester. ) Urbanisation is describes as the increase in the numbers of people living in towns and cities. The process of urbanization is closely linked to that of industrialization since it occurs as people move from rural areas to urban areas, that is, towns and cities. This population growth of towns and cities brought with it numerous social problems such as crime, riots, poverty, and health issues caused by overcrowding and lack of sanitation. Security measures had to be put in place. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). This however brought on slum areas which grew rapidly to provide housing for factory workers. Unemployment and crime which caused security measures to be put in place whereby security to manage day crime and night crime.(Department of Criminology: University of Leicester).

. Moderniisation started with the later part of industrialization this describes the process by which the activities and decision making of an organization became concentrated within a particular location or body. It also describes the concentration of powers to govern into a centralized government at both a geographical and political level . As with agricultural age was ruled by a King or Queen in modern day socities it is ruled by President or Prime Ministers and they are ultimately answerable to the people for their actions. This may be through rules, legislations or courts of law. These changes to a modern society has bought on an increased in white coloured crimes and unlike the agricultural period one has to work for their money. ( Department of Criminology: University of Leicester).

Organization are collection of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals or desired future outcomes.( Edgar Meyer,Melanie Ashleigh,JenniferM.George and Gareth R. Jones,2007). With modern Organisation there are more flexibility and directors set tasks, and there are strategic planners on the top. Modern organization is shaped by sociological factors such as environment and industralisation which has a significant impact on security. Bureaucracy and rational organization describes the structure of many modern day institutions and organizations which indicates how authority is legitimized. Structure is hierarchical where power is develoved from the top as seen in the state security. Duties rights and behaviours of employees are guided by rules, regulations and policies. Each person is appointed particular skills they possess and they know what they have to do and why. They are also expected to co-operate and co-ordinate with others in the organization in order to achieve its purpose. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

Modern organization if not operated under classical organization would collapse if moved away from buearacy. The development of modern organization brought rise to two functionable systems of organization: Mechanistic and Organic organization. Mechanistic organization has clear policy and standard such as centralization which is clear hierarchical control, its knowledge is located at the top of the hierarchy.It s specialization and strict division of labour, with vertical communication. Preoccupation with internal efficiency where everybody wants to perform at their best. It also has a low trust culture. No on trust anyone, everyone have to give in writing what they say. Whereas an Organic organization has decentralization and delegation of responsibility. They have multi - level communication where there is flexibility and trust no responsibility, low formalization, written communication is discouraged, network matrix management and a high trust culture where a person word is a bond. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

The classical approach to management was primarily concerned with the structure and activities of formal, or official, organization. Issues such as the division of work, the establishment of a hierarchy of authority, and the span of control were seen to be of the utmost importance in the achievement of an effective organization. Henri Fayol (1841-1925).(G.A.Cole: 2004). Fayol went on to characterize management as having five different elements planning, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating, controlling. He also set the scene for the further development of management thought in Principles of Management. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

This was contrast with Max Weber (1864-1924), who develop a theory of authority structures in which he identified a form of organization to which he gave the name "bureaucracy'. The distinguishing features of a bureaucracy were a definition of roles within a hierarchy, where job-holders were appointed on merit, were subject to rules and were expected to behave impartially.(G.A. Cole. 2004) For Weber, rationality would become an increasingly dominant principle governing modern society, and this would be embodied in bureaucratic organizations. . Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

Security has always been part of the human existence since the preindustrial age where agriculture was the main focus societies protect their produce by means of having walls, ditches, dogs, fence and sleepless nights looking after their crops. There was always some form of security as the population growth and resources decreased, societies found ways of survival by protecting themselves and their communities. As societies developed, security became the responsibility of community leaders and governments, to defend themselves with military forces. This form of security later became a problem for some societies when used to control domestic disorder and this led to the establishment of civil forces, in the form of public police. (Department of Criminology: University of Leicester).

The preoccupation with managing security during the late 20th and early century there has been an increasing interest in the subject of risk from academics, business and governments. Reasons for this include : gobal threats, such as terrorism, for example 9/11 in the United states of America, an increase in more complex and potentially dangerous technologies such as cyber crimes, and a growing feeling of uncertainty about the future. There are so many unclassified crimes that are shocking the entire world. Risk is a concept that now appears in a wide range of academic disciplines such as engineering medicine, economics, criminology. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

The compact Oxford English Dictionary defines risk as: a situation involving exposure to danger or the possibility that something unpleasant will happen. Definitions provided by academics often emphasis the measurement of the relationship between the likelihood (or probability) of an adverse event happening and the severity (or magnitude) of that event . Department of Criminology: University of Leicester. In societies today where there are large insurance firms going into receivership and many people are losing millions of dollars there are great risk and uncertainty in some organization. Departmental of Criminology: University of Leicester. One of the major influences on the study of risk is Ulrich Beck, whose book' Risk Society' was publish in 1992. Beck argues that there has been a significant political shift in society, with modern science and technology creating what he calls a 'risk society', in which the quest for security has replaced the creation and distribution of wealth as society's main concern. This focus on risk then fundamentally changes the nature of a society which had been based on economics and social class. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

In government and business, there is a growing trend towards using standardized tools and guidelines under the assumption that formal approaches will make risk management effective and successful. However, studies of organizational practice show that risk and safety management is intuitive and experience based. The relationship between formal risk management and risk management as practice therefore needs critical assessment. This case study of railway planning found that, although risk identification and assessment was orchestrated according to a formal risk management protocol, the process was guided by practical reasoning based on expert, intuitive and socially situated knowledge drawing on experience. It is concluded that risk management needs to be contextualized from a practical organizational perspective in which responsibility, expertise, accountablility, trust, coordination and communication are essential. (Boholm , 2010).

The origins of policing can be traced back more than 1000 years ago in Britian. Saxon Kings appointed Sheriffs who mustered the hue and cry to assist them, also gathering of all able-bodied men drawn from the local community whose task it was to pursue criminals and bring them to justice. However at the end of the 18th century-policing in Britain was carried out by various individuals, forces and bodies. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

The kind of crime panic that sweeps through society today also affected society during the 1820s. Robert Peel, the Home Secretary at the time, embarked on a series of reforms of criminal justice which included proposals for a centralized police organization for London . The prevailing social climate were more receptive to the idea of more efficient methods of crime control and prevention which brought on the Metropolitan Police Act in 1829. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

The new system of policing enacted in 1829 did not signal the end of the old system of paid watch men. Private corporations appoint special constables to police their property and enforce their rules. The growth in manufacturing and industry created a workforce which required discipline. The public police could not deal with all the security for society so therefore the emergence of the Private Security.

Private security offer the physical presence of security officers and new security technology in the form of effective locks. The commercial private security industry emerged in its modern form following World War 11 which saw the rise of specialist provision of in-house or contract guarding of premises or burgular alarms. The police did not have sufficient resources to meet the demands that the state and the public place upon them and so private security has stepped in to fill this gap. However Private Security became regulated in the United Kingdom in 2001, in Trinidad and Tobago Private Security was legislated in 2006 under the state Commissioner of Police who precepted them and they can called them out at any time . Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

Security is something to which people attach increasing importance and the private security industry has responded at these needs by providing and ever expanding range of services, from alarms and armoured transport to cybercrime management and close protection. Many organizations operate at a global level and much of our domestic security is also now provided by private companies, rather than the public police. Department of Criminology: University of Leicester.

In concluding, the essay presented a definite explanation on industrialization which developed into modern societies which have made preoccupation with managing security and risk inevitable in modern organization. Security and risk has materialized into a system which is now inevitable to society. It has advanced in such a way, the development of organizations, emerging technologies, which shows the state will have to co-operate and form alliances with private organization through education, training and a vision to move forward.