Anger rapists utilize rape as a means of expressing anger and hostility as opposed to committing rape simply to seek sexual gratification. Moreover, anger rapists commit acts of rape as a result of impulsivity and spontaneity rather than being carefully planned acts (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). Acts of rape by anger rapists are typically triggered by life stressors and confrontations (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). Intimate relationships of individuals classified as anger rapists are generally riddled with conflict. The anger and hostility from resulting conflicts within intimate relationships are then displaced and directed at selected victims by the anger rapist. Victimizations occur in the form of physical and verbal aggression in which significant physical injury can be incurred by a victim, and typically involves sexual acts that are humiliating and degrading (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007).
Description of Sadistic Rapists
Sadistic rapists are considered to be the most dangerous because they derive pleasure from inflicting harm on a victim. They also are sexually aroused from viewing their victims suffering and fear (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). Acts of rape by sadistic rapists are extremely abusive in which the victim may be restrained and tortured (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). Sadistic rapists typically plan their crime by first targeting their victim based on certain characteristics or attributes and then using stalking as a means of gathering information about their victimsââ‚¬â„¢ habits (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007).
Two Similarities and Two Differences between the Selected Sex Offender Types
The primary similarity between anger and sadistic rapists is that sexual factors are inherent to all rape crimes. This results in researchers focusing on other factors of rape such as power and anger as a means of differentiating the various types of rapists within typologies (Barbaree & Marshall, 1991; McCabe & Wauchope, 2005; Prentky & Knight, 1991). Anger and sadistic rapists are also similar in that both types of rapists use physical violence on their victims. In this regard, anger and sadistic rapists both use physical and verbal aggression towards their victim during rape, which can involve humiliating and degrading sexual acts (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). In addition, both forms of rapists can cause significant physical injury to their victim (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). Despite the similarities between anger and sadistic rapists, there are factors that differentiate the two types of sex offenders.
One difference between the selected rapist types discussed is that anger rapists rape impulsively, whereas rape is premeditated with sadistic rapists (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). The trigger for rape by anger rapists is confrontation or life stressor whereas sadistic rapists are motivated to rape a victim based on characteristics or attributes (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007). In addition, anger rapists use rape to express anger and hostility rather than to seek pleasure or excitement through rape like sadistic rapists (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007; Pardue & Arrigo, 2007).
Challenges Related to the Treatment of Anger and Sadistic Rapists
Oliver and Wong (2009) described a number of challenges related to treating psychopathic sexual offenders. Psychopathic rapists are described as being callous, nonbonding, sensation seeking, and having a sense of entitlement (Meloy, 2002; Saleh, Grudzinskas, & Bradford, 2009). In addition, psychopathic rapists can be impulsive, opportunistic, predatory, and predominately angry (Brown & Forth, 1997; Saleh, Grudzinskas, & Bradford, 2009; Prentky & Knight, 1991). Based on the descriptions provided by Meloy (2002), Brown and Forth (1997), and Prentky and Knight (1991), anger and sadistic rapists could potential fall under psychopathic rapists in terms of sadistic rapists being pleasure seeking and predatory, and anger rapists being impulsive and predominately angry (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007).
When treating psychopathic sex offenders practitioners can be confronted with a variety of challenges. Psychopathic offenders could respond poorly to treatment, show poor motivation towards treatment, display minimal improvement, and/or have high rates of attrition (Oliver & Wong, 2009). Research by Rice, Harris, and Cormier (1992) demonstrated the application of inappropriate treatments for psychopathic offender could make the offender worse rather than improve. Treatment programs for psychopathic offenders are tailored by perceiving the individuals as high-risk with responsivity issues and a myriad of treatment needs (Oliver & Wong, 2009). The interpersonal and emotional style of psychopathic sex offenders presents practitioners with the challenge of developing an effective relationship with the client in order to treat and retain the individual within a treatment program (Oliver & Wong, 2009).
According to Roberts (2008) sex offender treatment can take a psychological, pharmacological, biological, or sociological treatment approach. Treatment methods can be in the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, relapse prevention techniques, psychoeducational methods, group therapy or counseling, therapeutic communities, and faith-based interventions (Roberts, 2008). Treatments can also be pharmacological such as cyproterone acetate treatment or serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, as well as biological in terms of surgical castration, electrical aversion, or stereotoxic neurosurgery (Roberts, 2008). The combination of cognitive behavioral, psychoeducational, and sociological approaches has been found to be positively effective for reducing recidivism of sex offenders (Roberts, 2008). Consideration for the individual offender, risk assessment results, and challenges associated with treating sex offenders can assist a practitioner with selecting an appropriate treatment strategy. Furthermore, selection of appropriate treatment strategies is essential when treating anger or sadistic rapists in order to increase the likelihood of treatment success (Oliver & Wong, 2009).