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David Simple's father was a well known mercer on Ludgate hill and mother was absolute country women, earlier used to get her living by plain work. David is the elder son of his father and he has Daniel as his youngest brother. David's innocence is revealed by his decision of visiting the Royal Exchange. This story describes about the hunt of honesty, truth and companionship in a crooked world.
Perfect human relationship is portrayed by the David Simple. Friendly relation is a covered dissolution with friendship, gentleness, kindness and virtue. Through the reading of the novel I got familiarized with the ironies that were present in it. Array of appealing messages was present in the interactive relationship between these friends and the world outside. David's extraordinary kindness and emotions can be compared with the gender performance theory. He always wanted to win the heart of characters that surrounded him.
This thesis talks about the distress among the utopia world and the world of reality, which varies from the ideal to nasty reality. Family having good friends is blessed with the numerous qualities that include kindness, generosity and gentleness. In this story, the characters are found to be dealing with the real life situation such as the illness, money and worldliness.
In the 18th century, Sarah Fielding had a very unique view related to the possibility of utopia. The people in this century still were hoping for an ideal nation. Fielding demonstrated the splendid place with constructive qualities that could insist the people to live in good society. This has made the book a masterpiece with the wisdom of ancient instead of workable handbook in order to get the improved world. In her novel, she depicted the hunt of right friends and focused on developing the family bonding. The story also reveals that the mutual understandings between the two people can solve many problems as seen in the case of David Simple. He was able to solve his hardships due to his constructive qualities and his partner. In this novel, readers can feel the deep emotions of each character. The novel, on one hand, depicts the blend of messages about utopianism. On the other hand, it reveals that imperfect human beings can damage their families. It also describes that to live happy married life; the relations should follow the worthy principles.
This novel also describes bout the feminine qualities such as sentiments, tears and signs. Deficiency in the feminine characteristics may upset the family. These feminine qualities can bring happiness, while evilness in it can invite many misfortunes. Females are responsible for creating ideal household and can ruin it with slight efforts (Fielding, 1996).
The fourth chapter in this thesis explains the human relationship in David family. At the end the search of friend becomes ironic. This is due to the reason that all the friends have their own family members (Fielding, 2002).
The novel of fielding reflects the feminine establishment as a good place. The literal meaning of utopia is a good place. This concept of utopia forms the deep rooted desire in human being. Therefore, the utopianism is supposed to be realized. This utopia is related to the future circumstances not applicable in the present situation (kumar, 1991). It is not possible to complete the utopia during the course of life. In this story, two connotations were found, the utopia and no place. It's not necessary that the notion of ‘No Place' proves out to be a good one. Very few people regard utopia as a good place.
The first thing that strikes the mind in consideration with utopia includes the qualities such as equality, satisfaction and peace (Butler & Judith, 1990). The moral corruption arises due to the deficiency in the human behavior. A clear demarcation should be made between the concept of utopia and literary genre of utopia. Genre utopia refers to the ideal society or realization of society. The ethics does not form the area of concern for the utopia but focuses on the practical improvement (Gilbert, 1991).
In the 18th century, the people were of opposite groups as that to sixteen century. The industrial era was marked by the modifications in the technology; because of this, people have achieved a revised utopia. Sarah in her book “Adventure of David Sample” describes utopia as a mode of innovation with in the England.
David, during the travel, heard various stories and met with different people. At last, he met with Camilla, Cynthia, and Valentine. These four friends came into association through marriage. Here, David got married to the Camilla and Valentine to Cynthia. By the end of the story in book, 1 both the groups lived happily. It was also found that among the family members, Camilla and Cynthia survived and David died due to diseases. In her book, she tried lots of innovations in utopia; the first includes the placement of characters around the London instead of far-away places. In the next step, she differentiated utopians of the place from the other utopians. In feminine utopia, the priority is given to the families and friends. She has strategically depicted the most usually seen utopia in London that helps in making the novel logical and realistic.
The striking quality of the novel lies in the domestic tone depicting a general story, which can happen in every day life. The readers start resembling themselves with the characters that are innocent, with the hope that they can live the happy life after having such a worthy friendship. David used to walk street by street to find the people of his taste. This novel doesn't depict the open utopia where the people can come openly and meet. It only permits the insiders. David deleted those persons who were unfriendly and did not behave in accordance with his behavior. Fielding in her efforts makes the readers sympathize with the characters, but she ignores the process of unfair collection. In this novel, the disorder belonging to the outside world is supposed to be conquered by the family and friendship kinship. This belief reveals the coherency with the lifelong search of friends by David. Sarah Fielding has provided the novel with the uncertain ending, which lefts the readers with surprise. This surprise arises due to the unexpected death of David and the continued existence of the Camilla and the Cynthia. Apart from this, readers are left uniformed about the success of his search for the true friends and there is no sufficient reason provided for the decline of the house.
At the final description of the story, the positive thinking readers believe that the promising death reveals the glorified life that David lived and the members that survived are convinced in the future to begin the new start of utopia. The novel acted as a guide for the believers of utopia who desire to live in the atmosphere of respect and love. Since the novel describes about the human relation and ideal humanity, it is considered as an optimistic pamphlet.
The novel presents pessimistic thoughts by providing a conclusion, which is somber in its content. At the end of the novel, Fielding believes in the kindness and the reality is not justified at the end of the story. The person who is sick will require money, instead of the friendship. David Simple is regarded as the anti - utopian because of the dull ending. This novel allows the reader to think differently on the concept of utopia. Adventure starts as the reader opens the novels. Readers of different views are encouraged to trust on the probability of the utopia.
The first book reveals that the ideal shelter that protected David and his companions from the merciless crowd is the friendly community built by David and his companions. The main concept in the Adventure of David Simple is that femininity is responsible for bringing the long term happiness (Kelsall, 1969).
It is different from the other novels in the way that the male characters show the high degree of the kindness and tenderness. Though this novel has revealed the feminine interaction, yet it has not given clear cut demarcation whether it's a feminine or masculine novel. From the lethal ending of David Simple, it can be implied that it is not possible to look for the new gendered refuge from the patriarchal world, because the feminine utopia leads to the harmful consequence, which is difficult to overcome.
All the family members in the David's family including the newly born babies are benevolent and caring; hence, it can be said that he possesses more of feminine qualities. By clustering the group of compatible people, this character carries forward his exploratory journey.
In the early days of his happy family, he avoids taking the responsibility of finances and gives all the rights to Ratcliff and in the future his acts lead his family into the situation of bankruptcy. David's character does not reflect typical father; it rather portrays an image of a mother full of emotions and virtue. The character of David is capable of winning the heart of the people.
On the other hand, Cynthia proves to be the worldly person. Both the roles i.e. male and female were played by David, but in the novel he fails to depict his masculinity and spoils the chance to show himself as the best man. Due to the personal misconception on the responsibility of different genders, David fails to justify both the roles. All though he is having qualities but he never performs the house hold duties; these works are performed by the Camilla and Cynthia.
Till the end of the story, David and his family are not able to realize harsh facts of life. If the females are restricted to the household work and the worldly lessons are ignored, this will surely lead to damage the practical life and create hindrances in the survival (Kelsall, 1969).
Dual voice is raised at the end of the novel, when it is seen that among all the family members, Cynthia and small Camilla survive. It can not be judged whether it's a victory of the feminine or a defeat because Cynthia in her behavior reflected the masculinity, which was accountable for her family affairs. As a result, the reader is unable to predict the absolute message at the end. Therefore, mystery lies in concluding whether it shows the progression of women or depression of women.
In the Cynthia story, it was not the male who opposed her from studying but also she lacked the support from her sisters and at last, she has to give up her study. In one of her passage, she describes that restricting females from the education and enjoying is unfair. Woman, who receives fewer educations, lacks in behaving wisely, tactfully and is not able to fully express her anger and sits quietly against the crimes. With limited education, they are left with limited growth.
This book is indisputably a probing for honest love and care among individuals. To meet the goal of friendship was the main motive of David. In this volume, David, after making a time consuming search of true friends, at last gathers the group of loving friends and finally after completing the mission leaves his soul with glory. This passes on an optimistic signal of a stimulating spiritual pleasure, i.e. of moving from a position of no friends to many friends. The family resembles the residents of the ‘Garden of Eden' and they form the focus of envy for the people who see them in such a state of satisfaction and happiness. Throwing a miraculous spell, the wonderful family removes all the troubles of the members, which they have experienced in the past. Once the people join the family, they forget all the miseries and troubles of their past life. Thus, in precise, it can be said that the concept focuses on rescuing and developing a model family.
The idea of a perfect family is forever a wish to imagine the earlier goodness with the magic of wonderful past. It is all what the characters of the story are striving to achieve from their achievements. It is believed that with these golden virtues, they would reach to the idealized contentment in the human relationship. Though, the generous family is destroyed by the kindness it shows. This means that the family is so childlike that it does not feel the immorality of the people. It rather senses only the decency of the society. Thus, this internal weakness leads to the automatic collapse of the family.
I. The troubles in the ‘David Simple' and the temperament of friendship
It has been taken for granted that friendship functions as the most necessary prerequisite in the life of David. But, with regards to the nature of friends, David holds a variety of misunderstandings. One of such deed of David was that of visiting and helping friends with money. However, this deed is just reverse to the principle of friendship, which does not involve money in between. The friendship of David with the people is very controversial because it is not due to mutual understanding but just to take the financial and other advantages from David.
He applies certain principles for determining the true friends, but they are not so effective for solving his problem. This is so because his principles are not able to properly judge the persons. According to them, he chose persons like Daniel and Nanny, who deceived him.
The readers of the book are quite confused about the attempts of David, who has tried to turn the unfamiliar persons on the street into his close friends. Specially, the strangest thing out there is that he goes to people for help and makes them friend; this is rarely seen in the society. The people, whom he helps, just require the philanthropic help rather than the help of a friend. He comes to know this when his brother expires and he is acknowledged that they had just considered him as a rich person who was donating time and money to the poor. Also, the readers feel sorry for the behavior of David's brother. Therefore, the misunderstanding of friendship, as of merely the collection of similar people, was truly a mistake. He should understand that loss of brother cannot be mitigated by merely finding a friend. No specific description about his earlier interaction with people is given.
The way to family kinship from friendship
The new “home” of David includes all those good friends who are willing to live together and also marry each other. This is constructed with the view that there will be love among all of the persons living in it and it will function properly. However, the situation is not the same as was when they were friends. The happiness and love they had thought of before is now not in existence. Their wish for building the friendship into a closer relationship- marriage brings them miseries. They come to know the cruel realities of life and none can get rid of it.
The readers of the book, at the end of the sequel laugh with sympathy on the family life of David. The volume ends up with the irony that David begins his adventure with searching for good and close friends and ends up at aiming to convert the friendship into family relationship. In this, he has emphasized that what makes a complete family is not only a relationship between the husband and a wife but also the existence of children and siblinghood is also very important.
Actually, David's search is not for finding the true friends. It is rather for replacing original family. He has misinterpreted the true meaning of friendship. According to him, friendship is the meeting of similar people. In a well developed relationship, mutual understanding plays a vital role. The supreme concern for the friendship is to remain true for each other instead of choosing the people of similar characteristic and social class. In the first meet with the Cynthia, he got interested in her just because he found her nature good. He selects the people on the basis of appearance. Cynthia was an intelligent woman. The author and David do not mention the less commendable characteristic of Cynthia and other members. Praise worthy characteristic is described in the book. David immediately leaves the person whom he finds selfish and arrogant. Based on his considerations, he selects the individuals.
Through the countless death the reality of which came forward is that good relationship and the true friendship is not sufficient to lead happy life. David has made the mistake in the selection of his friend and portrays himself as a person who always wants to help others. He always focuses on the people belonging to his class and these lies in the category of middle class family. But the merciless reality has disturbed the utopian imagination in the relationship of family and friends. At the initial stage, family believed that the misfortunes can be tackled on the principle of utopia but gradually they realized the reality of the cruel world (Terry & Richard, 2004).
One of the mistakes made by David is his treatment of friends as an element of sale. Curiosity is generated among the readers through the ignorance regarding the family of David. For the survival of the humans, property and money play an important role.
Sarah Fielding in her book the “Adventures of David Simple” describes the search of man for the reality, honesty and companionship in a dishonest world. This book brings about the social issues that are faced by the males and women in day to day life. She familiarizes readers to a feminine utopia: the novel comprising of exciting activity and moral lesson. The novel differs from the other novel in eighteen century as it reveals convincible benevolence and tenderness of the characters. The novel has the blend of joy and sorrow. She has successfully allured the readers by adopting inspiring strategy. Hence, the David simple can be read from different perspective. The novel depicts the possibilities of different situation in human life; there is no contradiction that the novel brings out the moral educations apart from this contain amusing pleasure. David and his associates secretly switch affinity to friendship without notice. In this the author failed to provide a closer look to the inner utopia with in the family of David.
I find the ending of the novel very appealing especially the survival of Cynthia and Camilla. It was found that the utopia failed due to the internal weakness. Readers remain attached to the novel due to the interesting tragic plots.
Butler & Judith. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
Fielding, S. (1996). A Moral Romance: The Adventure of David Simple. New York: Twaynepublishers.
Fielding, S. (2002). The Adventure of David Simple. London: Penguin.
Gilbert, P. (1991). “Family matters”. Human Relationship: A Philosophical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kumar. (1991). “The elements of utopia” Utopianism. Buuckingham: Open Up.
Kelsall, M. (1969). The Adventure of David Simple. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Terry & Richard. (2004). “David Simple and the Fallacy of Friendship”. Studies in English Literature.