Alexander, Y., & Swetman, M. S. (2001). Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses. Transnational Publishers Inc.,U.S. This book gives more information on cyber terrorism in broad and goes further to suggest a few preventive measures which if considered by governments around the world, cyber terrorism would be reduced. The book talks about war through information systems and how this trend is dangerous especially with countries which are having shared interests.
Bishop, M. (2003). Computer security: art and science. Addison-Wesley / Pearson Education.
In his book Bishop discusses into details the importance of improving security in information systems. The objective of securing information systems is to prevent information from malicious damage and theft from outsiders. This source is very critical in this study since it gives the reader the sense of information security and how terrorists use these systems to conduct their heinous activities.
Blane, J. V. (2003). Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: Current Issues: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
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This source discusses the measures which have been taken by several countries to prevent cyber terrorism and cyber crime through a convention held in 2001. In the convention, member countries seek to harmonize national l\was in order to properly combat cyber crime. Furthermore, the book suggests that, countries should cooperate in order to improve investigative abilities, thereby reducing cyber crime.
Bosworth, Seymour, & Kabay, M. E. (2002). Computer security handbook, 4th Edition. Wiley.
This is a technological book, although it is very vital for this study since it gives one an understanding on computer securities and how these securities can be used to prevent cyber terrorism. The book gives details on how to come up with proper and appropriate computer securities.
Clem, A., Galwankar, S., & Buck, G. (2003). Health implications of cyber-terrorism. Prehosp Disast Med; 18 (3):272-275.
The internet has interconnected the world and it is becoming easy and convenient to do business and interact. This has created merits and demerits of the use of the internet. This article discusses the effects of cyber terrorism as one of the negatives of the use of the internet. The article also examines the possible impacts of cyber terrorism on the human health, perpetrators, possible solutions and control of this vice. This article looks into the health care systems in various countries and their dependence to the internet and computerized systems.
Collin, B. C., The Future of Cyber Terrorism, Proceedings of 11th Annual International Symposium on Criminal Justice Issues, The University of Illinois at Chicago. http://www.acsp.uic.edu/OICJ/CONFS/terror02.htm
Collin discusses various approaches on the reduction of cyber crime and the dangers it poses. The paper discusses the importance of computers in the U.S government and how the government depends on the same. This signifies that if cyber crime was allowed to flourish freely, the U.S government would be incapacitated to render services to its people. Collin asserts that, even though we trust computers and computerized systems, they are vulnerable to deliberate attacks, to incident and to effects of poor quality control. Finally, this source stresses the point on the importance of combating cyber crime.
Cordesman, A. H.,Cordesman, J. G., & Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.) (2002) .Cyber-threats, information warfare, and critical infrastructure protection: defending the U.S. homeland: Greenwood Publishing Group.
The source discusses various possible threats that the world is facing from cyber crime. In addition it discusses the U.S policy and the U.S national plan on cyber terrorism, how and when to stop cyber terrorists from attacking. The book further discusses varicose departments in the U.S government and their responsibilities in combating cyber terrorism. Role of the private sector in the prevention of cyber terrorism and crime is also discussed in the book.
Dalton, Dennis. (2003). Rethinking corporate security in the post 9-11 era. Morgan Kaufmann.
The world changed the way of thinking about security after the 9-11 attack. Every day people and cooperate leaders were taught how corporate security is linked to business continuity. This source talks about the changes that have occurred in terms of information security in many organizations. This source is significant to this study since it explains the various changes which might be incorporated to other companies and governments.
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Day, K. (2003). Inside the security mind: making the tough decisions. Prentice Hall.
In his book Day teaches information security personnel on how to act and think like high security experts. In his book he uses real examples to minimize any security threats to a set of basic principals thus making it simple and easy to come up with possible solutions.
Garrison, A. H. (2003). Terrorism: The nature of its history. Criminal Justice Studies. 16 (1), 39-52.]
Garrison uses terrorism writings to show the thought and its continuity among terrorists, in the context of using this act as a tool to attain certain goals and objectives. This source is of importance to cyber terrorism study since it gives an oversight of terrorists' activities and how they thrive in the dark world. The source indicates that there is connectivity in all the activities of terrorism.
Greenemeier, L. (2007). Estonian Attacks Raise Concern over Cyber 'Nuclear Winter':
Information Week, May 24, 2007, at
This article focuses on the attacks which have been launched to Estonia government. Attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are very difficult to prevent or destroy and they require high expertise and coordination. This article shows how dangerous cyber terrorism can be on national security and individuals' security too. This article seeks solutions to cyber terrorism in order to prevent nations from coming up with a cyber warfare which is more dangerous than the cold war since it would paralyze economies.
Grove, G. D. (2000). Cyber-attacks and International Law: Survival, vol. 42, no. 3, Autumn. p. 89-103.
Computing technologies have become the brains of most critical infrastructure in governments and also government itself. Therefore, responding to attacks involving cyber crimes either through diplomatic avenues or cyber-counterattack usually brings up legal questions. Some baseline regulations and rules have been put in place even though there are no fully formed laws guarding against cyber terrorism. This article focuses on the legal basis of cyber crime and terrorism which is very crucial in countering this type of crime.
Jamska, Kris. (2002). Hacker proof (2nd ed.). Thomson / Delmar Learning.
Jamska talks about the events that followed after the September 11 attack and how people rearranged their thinking information security threats. The book introduces threats which normally take different forms and the users have varied motivation. The author says that the threat is the hacker but not the results. This book shows the importance of dealing with hackers in order to counter cyber terrorism.
Janczewski, A., & Colarik, M. (2005).Managerial guide for handling cyber-terrorism and information warfare: Idea Group Inc (IGI).
This book offers an overview of cyber terrorism and criminal activities associated in information systems. The book explains the new dangers and challenges IT professionals are facing as a result of internet activities. The source tends to argue that there are no new challenges facing the world but these challenges have been there all along and terrorism is no a new affair.
Kovacich, Gerald. (2003). Information systems security: Butterworth Heinemann / Elsevier.
This book argues of the importance of having an information systems security officer in a government or a corporation. It is emphasizes the importance of this position so as governments and state officers can be able to easily protect information thus preventing cyber terrorists from attacking. This source is very critical to the research on cyber crime since it defines the importance of information security and whose responsibility it is.
Lorenzo, V., & Knights, M. (2000). Terrorism, Internet and Offensive Information Warfare: Terrorism and Political,Violence, vol. 12, no. 1, Spring 2000, p. 15-36.
The security consequences posed by terrorist organizations using the internet has attracted a number of researchers, academics, intelligence officials and governments. The main aim of this particular article is to come up with a new angle of explanation or argument about the probable marks offensive information warfare being held by terrorists and their operations. The article argues that, such organizations are valuable and efficient in undermining internet activities rather than targeting important information infrastructures of a nation.
Rodriguez, C.A. (2006). Cyber terrorism - a rising treath in the Western Hemisphere:
Fort Lesley J. McNAIR: Washington, DC.
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The world has become more vulnerable to cyber terrorism than before. It is a reality that the idea of an attack to the Digital World Trade Center and probably killing millions of people and causing massive damages. This paper provides background information on cyber terrorism and the implications of this crime to the international security. Unless the world takes proper cautions on cyber terrorism the world and more particularly America will suffer and the losses will be devastating. According to the article more brothers in the criminal organizations are awaiting orders to attack.
Rod, S. (2008). Cyber Terrorism: Rethinking New Technology. Department of Defense & Strategic Studies Graduate Assistant Southwest Missouri State University.
This article highlights various studies which have been done on the raising dangers of cyber terrorism. The parameters of cyber terrorism are discussed in the source- cyber attacks, cyber terrorists and also physical security of the internet. The paper raises concerns on the increasing accessibility of intranets via the internet, and it notes that the risks of such endeavors are much higher than the benefits incurred. There is also concern about the protection of the substantial infrastructure of the internet. This source is of great significance with what is being discussed about cyber terrorism.
Verton, D (2003). Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism, 27-28.
This source talks on the approaches that can be used to reduce this menace and distract cyber terrorists. For instance in the article Verton says that, the only way to fight cyber terrorism is for governments to come up with anti terrorism units since there are no clear way to prevent cyber terrorism. For cyber attacks one can only deal with securing information but this is not a sure way of stooping cyber terrorism.
Weimann, G. (2003). Cyberterrorism: How real is the Threat? United States Institute of Peace, Washington D.C.
The insecurity and danger posed by cyber terrorism has grabbed the attention of many media houses and avenues. Journalists and other personalities in the media have popularized the acts and threats of cyber crime. Just how is real is the danger posed by cyber terrorism? Since many western countries are governed and guided through comprised systems, then this threat is alarming. Even though hackers are not motivated by the same goals as the terrorist, they have clearly shown that information systems can be broken into and people can gain access to important information. This report discusses the reality of the cyber terrorism threat and the potential dangers it poses to the world.