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The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 recognized violence against women as one of the crucial problems with the relationship between men and women. The Conference observed that women are subjected to acts of violence by men throughout the world  . Cruelty or violence against women which is a major problem all over the world is of growing concern especially in developing countries. Bangladesh being an underdeveloped nation has a large number of women facing violence and cruelty from the men, who are believed to be the 'superior sex' by most people in the male-dominated Bangladeshi society. In fact, crime against women is increasing at an alarming rate, and the everyday stories of torture and cruelty against women are being reported on a regular basis.
Cruelty against women means forcible acts of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse of women  . This kind of violence may occur on an individual level or in the family or within the general community. According to study, fourteen per cent of maternal deaths in the country are caused by violence against women  .
Various laws exist in the national legislation, which have been made with the purpose to improve the current situation of women in Bangladesh. One such law is Prevention of Cruelty against Women Act (2000), which later has been amended to Prevention of Cruelty against Women and Children Act (in 2003). Enacting laws is only the first step towards bringing about a change. In order to prohibit all forms of cruelty and violence against women appropriate implementation of the law needs to be ensured.
The objective of this essay is to shed light on the major sections in context of cruelty or violence towards women. Firstly, an overview is given of the social context of violence against women in Bangladesh. Then there is a discussion of the scale and social dimensions of particular forms of violence. Thirdly, a brief analysis is provided of the "Cruelty against Women act" designed to protect women. Last but not the least the fact whether the act has actually served for the betterment of the female population of Bangladesh.
2. Overview of the situation
'Gender inequality, leading to gender violence, is deeply embedded in the Bangladeshi social structure; all Bangladeshi social institutions permit, even encourage the demonstration of unequal power relations between the sexes.' (Jahan, 1988:200) In a male-dominated civilization, such as that of Bangladesh, a subordinate status of women is manifested. This is as a result of various practices, manners and customs which are directly or indirectly used for inducing cruel acts against women..
3. Scale and social dimensions of various forms of cruelty
Cruelties against women have many faces in Bangladesh, starting from physical or mental torture for dowry, indecent assault, rape, trafficking of women and children, to acid throwing, and so many more  .
a. Battering of women.
Acts of domestic abuse constitute the most universal form of violence against women.Â The battering of women within the household appears to be widespread throughout Bangladesh  .
According to recent studies, 49% of married women face cruelty in the form of physical violence at the hands of their partners  . One of the primary reasons for this act is the demand for dowry during a marriage. Often husbands beat their wives for dowry demands, and sometimes because it is perceived that the wife had been unable to fulfil her household duties or was unable to be .properly humble and obedient  . These problems are especially persistent in the lower classes of the society. The perceived legitimacy of men beating women is further compounded by the absolute poverty and powerlessness of most of the rural population of Bangladesh. "Many men vent their own frustration at their poverty and inability to fulfill their role as the male provider, according to gender based norms, by battering their wives  .
Murder is also common amongst spouses often for escalation of dowry demands. The murder of women by their husbands and in-laws is associated with both the escalation of dowry demands, if her she is lacking in her household skills or if she is disliked by her husband for any other reason. The problem arises with the lack of evidence in such crimes. It is difficult to prove such crimes in court as its occurrence is within the household, and there aren't any witnesses. They are often made to look like accidents or suicides. 
c. Acid-throwing and Mugging
Acid throwing or willful disfiguration of women has increased along with fatal mugging. Women's increased presence in the public sphere, transgressing the traditional boundaries of purdah, or veil, is a source of outrage among many men which has resulted to an increase of attacks of this kind on women  . 181 women suffered acid attacks during the year 2000.Â The most common motivation for acid-throwing attacks against women is revenge by a rejected suitor; land disputes are another leading cause of the acid attacks.Â Few perpetrators of the acid attacks are prosecuted.Â Often the perpetrator flings the acid in through an open window during the night, making cases difficult to prove  .Â
d. Kidnapping and Abduction
There has been an increase in kidnapping for ransom in Bangladesh. Sometimes this is done by rival political parties with a motive of revenge and often girls and women are abducted for immoral purposes  . Poverty in rural areas has often led women to fall into traps of false job promises by many corrupt agents. Some of these girls are sold at brothels within the country and some are exported to India, Pakistan and the Middle East.
e. Trafficking and sexual exploitation of prostitution
There is extensive trafficking in women for the purpose of forced prostitution within the country and to other countries in Asia. Often girls in Bangladesh like in many other countries are forced to choose this profession. And once in this profession, they are hardly ever able to go back leading a normal life. Poverty is also one of the main driving factors for women to choose this profession. Often they also believe that they had no alternative skills with which to secure a livelihood  .
Rape is the most repugnant type of violence and is increasing in countries like Bangladesh. Gang rape and custodial rape are two new alarming trends  . There have been numerous news paper articles about a group of four or five youth breaking into a home, and after binding the hands and feet of the parents, raping their daughter(s) in front of them. Members of the law enforcement have also been reputed to have sexually assaulted women who were supposed to be in safe custody. The burden of evidence is put on the female victims, which again is a problem as often due to delays in the medical examination and loopholes in law, offenders get the benefit of the doubt. The law prohibits rape and physical spousal abuse, but it makes no specific provision for spousal rape as a crime  .
g. Violence resulting from Fatwa
The recent surfacing of violence related to issuance of Fatwa (religious decree) by village moulavis (priests) and to implementation of punishments is in contradiction to the law of
the land. As such, it is punishable by the Penal Code. However, in recent years, such incidents have threatened the security and rights of women, especially the rural poor women  . Fatwas have been aimed at controlling female sexuality and reducing women's economic independence.
4. Legal Provisions on Violence Against Women
'Mahila Parishad'  created pressure on the government to enact laws to protect women from such cruelties as rape, trafficking and sexual exploitation, abduction, acid throwing, murder and domestic abuse. The government then enacted laws and denounced the dreadful crimes in public. The two main laws that were framed by the government were, The Cruelty to Women (Deterrent Punishment) Ordinance (1983) and The Dowry Prohibition Act (1980), The Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act 1982 and The Women and Children Repression (Special Provision) Act 1995  .
According to The Cruelty to Women Ordinance kidnapping and abduction, acid throwing attacks on women, will result in the death penalty or life imprisonment for causing the death of a rape victim. The same is to be applied to a husband and his family under the Dowry Prohibition Act, for the murder or attempted murder of a woman for dowry. Article 376 of the Penal Code mandates two years imprisonment, a fine, or both, for the rape of a woman by her husband. Article 342, however, requires that a woman undergo a medical examination immediately after rape, which in practice minimizes the possibility of a conviction being made. If in any legal case, including cases of violence against women, if the accuser is absent, the case can be dismissed. This highly discriminates against women who may be intimidated by their husbands or in-laws into staying away from court. As a result, convictions for rape and other violent crimes against women are rarely made, because women are unaware of their legal rights. Often convictions in such cases relating to violence against women are not made as legal institutions are male-dominated and often inaccessible or unsympathetic to women, because of the difficulties of proving the case, legal loopholes, and because of an underlying undervaluation of women  .
In order to safeguard women's position in the society, the government had further amended laws. The Nari-o-Shishu Nirjatan Daman Ain, 2000 (Law on the Supression off Violence against Women and Children, 2000) and The Women's Act, 2000 - expanded the definition of rape considerably, although it still did not include marital rape. It made sexual assault and sexual harassment punishable offences  .
There was also a The Cruelty to Women (Deterrent Punishment) (Amendment) Act (No. 37 of 1988). This act amends the Bangladesh Cruelty to Women (Deterrent Punishment) Ordinance 1983 to do the following:
1) Change the maximum penalty under Sections 4 and 6-8 from transportation for life to imprisonment for life
2) Change the penalty under Section 5 from "punishable with transportation for life or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 14 years" to "punishable with death or with imprisonment for life or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 14 years and shall not be less than seven years;"
3) Add a new offense of attempting to commit offenses under Sections 4 and 5 of the Ordinance.
Section 4 of the Ordinance deals with the kidnapping or abduction of women for unlawful or immoral purposes; Section 5 with trafficking in women; Section 6 with causing death or grievous hurt for dowry; Section 7 with causing death in committing rape; and Section 8 with attempting to cause death or causing grievous hurt in committing rape.
5. Has the laws for Cruelty against Women actually served for the betterment of the society?
Recent trends suggest that the legal measures have proved inadequate to curb or eliminate violence against women. There are various support systems and legal aid and shelter operated by the government to make the law enforcing agencies more accessible to victims of violence. However as per the magnitude of the problem, these support groups only cover an insignificant proportion of victims. In spite of the presence of the act, there has been a substantial rise in the number of rape, abduction, and murder of women throughout the country. The trafficking of Bangladeshi women to neighboring countries such as India and Pakistan still remains a major human rights concern. Over 5000 Bangladeshi women and children are smuggled out of the country every year. There have been several cases of brutal murder and rape of women and children throughout the country. In 1998 the government brought forward the Suppression of Violence against omen and children Bill 1998. The act was enacted to protect women and children from various forms of violence. It had been enacted after the sudden rise in violence in 1997  .
The major problem is that the judicial system is slow and social prejudices prevent taking steps to redress women's grievances. As a result, most women continue to suffer injustices silently in the hands of their husbands, in-laws or miscreants. Peoples attitudes towards accepting a society which treats both genders equally have not changed sufficiently Recognition of women's rights have been slow in Bangladesh especially due to - ignorance, poverty, lack of education, religious fundamentalism, political instability, inefficiency, corruption and disregard of the rule of law. Bangladesh has had women Prime Ministers, but neither the leader of the party in power nor the leader of the opposition have done much to bring about political empowerment for the masses of women  .
In some aspects the laws are still flawed as the accused are still able to find loopholes in them. Till a large extent these laws require a certain degree of participatory effort. With a few recent example of effective implementation of the gender-sensitive laws, women are beginning to develop some confidence in the legal system. According to Faustina Pereira in 2000, "The effective implementation of these laws is a collective process, which requires the right combination of national policies, activism of judiciary, and administrative organs of the state along with participation of stakeholders and development initiators."
6. What steps should the government take in order to improve the current situation?
The Constitution of Bangladesh proclaims that women shall have equal rights with men. In order to enforce that the Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs should take drastic steps such that they are able to eliminate abuse of women. They are:
(a) Provision of legal aid through various organizations
(b) Provision of accommodation, medical treatment and primary education for abused women and children
(c) Conducting training courses on computer operation, shorthand, typewriting etc for them and training them in various trades with a view of facilitating their employment and empowerment.
The first part of the paper discussed the essence on the issue, "Cruelty against Women". It shed light on the reality that this is something extremely common in our country. Most of us belonging to the middle class and upper class section of the society have a very limited idea of how big this problem is. Cruelty and violence against women is widespread and especially prevalent in the working classes of the society. The primary reason for this is poverty. Whether it is for dowry money, or earning money through forced prostitution, women have been exploited and are continuing to be so in our country. The Islamic Laws and even the constitutional laws of Bangladesh directly or indirectly discriminate against women. If the government could actually make laws that would not contradict Article 28(1): no discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth; and Article 28(2): equal opportunity for men and women in all spheres of state and public lives; then such issues would seize to exist.
For the women to remain confined within the home, to wearÂ burkhasÂ (veils), to have unequal right of inheritance, to play a subordinate role in the family and in the society, and countless other discriminatory practices are all a kind of silent violence against women. These are the practices from which various forms of cruelty against women originate from. Therefore, in order to stop violence against women such practices need to be eliminated. Just by enacting laws, the social structure of Bangladesh can not be changed. It is important to raise awareness amongst both men and women about the equality if their rights. Women along with men have the equal ability to contribute to society, if allowed to do so.