Criminal Offenses That Involve Drugs Criminology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

What should be done with criminal offenses that involve drugs? This is the crux of the problem: should drug offenses be in the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system?

The ex-felon, having completed his sentence, has not finished serving his time. Branded with the stigma of a ex-offender, the parolee faces many obstacles as he attempts to reintegrate into society. The tribulations faced by the ex-con usually fall on deaf ears, but it proves unwise for any prolonged duration of indifference to be sustained. Being ostracized by the free world, with limited opportunities available, a return to depravity presents itself as the only rationale choice.

Recidivism: "the rearrest, reconviction, and consequent return to prison, with or without a new sentence," is the squandering of enumerable resources. Imagine a young adult, having just graduated from a four year college (at your expense), returning home and revealing that he/she can't read or write. Would you pay for them to go back? Probably not! This, however, is exactly what we do with repeat offenders; we recycle them back through an institution that didn't work in the first place. Isn't Einstein that defined insanity as: "doing the same thing over an over expecting different results.

This paper examines implemented sate policies as an effort to combat recidivism and improve public safety.

oes society allow for the redemption of the ex-felon? Total state spending on corrections is now about $52 billion, the bulk of which is spent on prisons. State spending on corrections quadrupled during the past two decades, making it the second fastest growing area of state budgets, trailing only Medicaid. (PEW)

How widespread is it?

High recidivism rates are National concern, the Pew Center on the States, a non-partisan reporting and research organization reported, " …of the convicts released in 2004, 43.3 percent of those sent home in 2004 were reincarcerated within three years, either for committing a new crime or for violating conditions governing their release." (PEW) Statistical prioritized, recidivism, with nearly a %50 rate, could be considered a national disaster.

What are the causes of it?

Recidivism is a complex problem and the causes of it are manifold: Untreated mental illness, drug and alcohol addiction, severed familial and community ties, and the impediment of a criminal record.

Once released, ex-offenders have the added stigma of a prison record, a considerable barrier to employment. Moreover, the parole and probation agencies charged with supervising them often are burdened with high caseloads and outdated technologies (PEW 29) Upon conviction for a felony offense and continuing past release from

prison and parole, sometimes for life, ex-felons are subject to a wide array

of limitations on work, education, family, and civic activities. These bans

are sometimes used as explicit forms of additional punishment (i.e., voting

bans) and sometimes invoked to protect vulnerable populations. Serious

ethical concerns exist about these types of officially-sanctioned collateral

consequences because they go beyond punishment within the criminal

justice system. These ethical concerns are balanced against the fact that

ex-offenders are undeniably at a higher risk for crime than nonoffenders.

The exact calculus of this balance is outside the realm of social science.

But social science research can calibrate the risk associated with a criminal

history record, and we feel safe in concluding that explicit lifetime bans

cannot be justified on the basis of safety or concerns about crime risk. Age

and time since last offense can help predict current offending risk. Older

offenders and individuals who stay arrest-free for 7 years or more simply

have very little risk for future crime, and this risk is similar to that of

nonoffenders.

Who is affected by it & how?

Recidivism not only affects the convicted criminal, but society, in which, the convict is released. Therefore, the importance of conducting studies on recidivism is to provide the taxpayer with an explanation as to why they are paying for a broken institution. Total state spending on corrections is now about $52 billion, the bulk of which is spent on prisons. State spending on corrections quadrupled during the past two decades, making it the second fastest growing area of state budgets, trailing only Medicaid. (PEW)

The analysis will address the people affected by the issue under consideration in terms of age, diversity issues, gender, income, and residency.

History of the policy

What attempts were made in the past to address the problem? Were they successful? If not, why?

Policy Description

How does it work?

What does it provide? Vouchers? Monies? Benefits?

Who is covered by it? Eligibility Criteria?

How is it implemented?

What are the outcomes or goals?

Are they just & democratic?

Are they consistent with the values of the social work profession?

Do they contribute to the greater good?

Are there any ethical issues Involved in the process or the implementation?

How is it funded?

How is it administered?

Who oversees it?

 Is it effective?

 How long will it be in existence?

Feasibility

 Political feasibility:

Does the public believe it can happen?

ie: a national system of health care

Who will support or oppose the policy?

 Economic feasibility:

How is it funded?

ie: "pay-go" funding (reallocation)

 Administrative feasibility:

Effectiveness - will (or does) the policy do what it's supposed to?

Efficiency - cost-effectiveness

Why is it important to study recidivism? Perhaps, an analogy will explain. Imagine that your child, having just graduated from an expensive four year college, and at your expense, returns home and reveals that he/she can't read or write. What would your reaction be?

This is exactly what happens when we send our convicted criminals to prison. After serving their 10,15, 20 years, they get out of prison, and typically, within three years are rearrested, convicted, and sent to prison again. Therefore, the importance of conducting studies on recidivism is to provide the taxpayer with an explanation as to why they are paying for a broken institution. Total state spending on corrections is now about $52 billion, the bulk of which is spent on prisons. State spending on corrections quadrupled during the past two decades, making it the second fastest growing area of state budgets, trailing only Medicaid. (PEW)

Secondly, preventing recidivism means preventing crime; if recidivism rates are lowered crimes rates are lowered and society is safer. Can recidivism be prevented? Can criminals be rehabilitated?

In every society, there exists the issue of crime and punishment; for where there are laws, there will be law breakers. For those that break the law, a recompense is demanded. In American society, this recompense often takes the form of some duration of imprisonment. Imprisonment, it is thought, would provide a good deterrent for aspiring criminals, but does it? If imprisonment was a efficient deterrent, than surely, the percentage of repeat offenders would be low. However, as we shall see, recidivism rates in America are not low. This phenomenon, the recycling of convicts, raises a myriad of questions and concerns. Is prison an effective rehabilitation system? Is it a rehabilitation system at all?

According to the…(stats) The overall three-year recidivism rate based on all released inmates from 2001 to 2008 is 33.1%.

Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in the rearrest, reconviction, or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. (Bureau of justice statistics)

If, when armed with the facts, our correction systems can improve proficiency and diminish wastefulness. Perhaps, it is here, that the magnitude of the problem should be illustrated.

Why are convicted felons, after completing their initial sentences, so prone to returning back into the correctional system?

Different research points to different causes for this phenomenon. Most studies examine characteristics of the inmate, which might serve as a predictor for their return to penal system. These factors, such as, race, type of conviction, education, do prove to be somewhat prophetic, but where does that leave us?

In every society, there exists the issue of crime and punishment; for where there are laws, there are law breakers. For those that break the law, our society demands a recompense. In America, this recompense often takes the form of some duration of imprisonment. Imprisonment, it is thought, would provide a good deterrent for aspiring criminals, but does it? Perhaps this question can be answered by examining prison recidivism rates. If imprisonment was a efficient deterrent, than surely, the percentage of repeat offenders would be low. However, as we shall see, recidivism rates in America are not low This phenomenon, the recycling of convicts, raises a myriad of questions and concerns.

Much attention has been focused on crime prevention; keeping people out of jail, but what happens Expected outcomes might also include the provision of descriptive information not currently available. An example of this might be a comparison of arrest rates for participants in the years prior to and following participation in the program.

List your research question(s): Do not attempt to address more than 3 research questions in your study. Your research questions must be feasible to research, clear, precise, and if you are conducting a quantitative study, measurable and concrete. As an example Does society allow for the redemption of the ex-felon?

Recidivism is measured by criminal acts that resulted in the rearrest, reconviction, or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. (Bureau of justice statistics)

The literature of treatment retention studies utilize terms such as retention and attrition. For the purpose of this research, the term retention refers to the completion of a course of outpatient treatment at the XYZ Substance Abuse Center. The outpatient program at XYZ consists of 8 weeks of individual and group therapy sessions. Individual sessions are held once a week and group sessions also meet once a week. Thus retention is defined as the completion of 8 individual therapy session and 8 group therapy sessions.

 

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.